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BANGLADESH NATIONAL BUILDING CODE 1993 PDF

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BANGLADESH NATIONAL. BUILDING CODE. Volume 2 of 3. (Part 6). Housing and Building Research Institute. FINAL DRAFT. BNBC FINAL DRAFT . Download PDF . Bangladesh National Building Code , BRTC, BUET To reduce energy topics of BNBC have been retained. bangladesh national building code, bnbc , bnbc 93, bnbc, bnbc, civil engineering, structural design, building materials, construction.


Bangladesh National Building Code 1993 Pdf

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Bangladesh national building code, by, , Housing and Building Research Institute and Bangladesh Standards and Testing. B a n g l a d e s h Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) Ministry of Works Editorial note: According to the information provided by the national. the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first published in It was a page detailed document specifying safe and acceptable practices in .

As a related to building construction such as planning, design result building construction activities were taken up by and construction needs to be regulated properly. Some times have led to remarkable increase in demand for more real-estate developers engaged professional people such and more sophistication in buildings resulting in ever as Architects, Engineers, Planners to make their buildings increasing complexity. Buildings are products of a multi- more attractive to the buyers and the code started finding disciplinary profession involving specialized professional its use among the professionals. However, some owners inputs from disciplines like Architecture, Fire prevention, and developers retained the habit of the old method of Materials science, Structural engineering, Geotechnical construction giving rise to unplanned growth of structures engineering Construction technology, Electrical in the urban areas. During this time some high rise engineering, Mechanical engineering, Acoustics, Sanitation structures failed to perform satisfactorily due to structural and plumbing technology, Chemical engineering, Law, etc. The policy makers, practice covering all aspects of planning, design and therefore felt the urgency of updating the BNBC to construction of buildings, including the service facilities make its contents time worthy and also to bring it under provided in them such as electrical, mechanical, sanitary strict legal coverage to make its provisions binding to all and other services, be followed to ensure safety, involved in the planning, design, construction and use.

Muhammad Zakaria Prof. Munaz Ahmed Noor Prof. Raquib Ahsan Engr. Sabbir Siddiquee, P. Saiful Islam Arch. Najmul Imam Engr. Syed Azizul Haq, P.

Syed Fakhrul Ameen Prof. Tahmeed M. Al-Hussaini Prof. Tahsin Reza Hossain Prof. Zebun Nasreen Ahmed Arch. Bushra Islam Engr. Galib Muktadir Engr. Ashiquzzaman Engr. Abu Mosa Mr.

Fakhrul Islam Mr. Shamiul Alam xiv. The installation and use of certain equipment, services and appurtenances related, connected or attached to such buildings are also regulated herein to achieve the same purpose. The provisions of this Code are applicable to all persons of Bangladesh irrespective of class, creed, culture, religion or sex.

The Code does not in any way create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be specially protected or benefited by the provisions of this Code. The expressed intent of this Code is to ensure public safety, health and general welfare insofar as they are affected by the construction, alteration, repair, removal, demolition, use or occupancy of buildings, structures or premises, through structural strength, stability, means of egress, safety from fire and other hazards, sanitation, light and ventilation.

If for any case different sections of this Code provide different specifications for materials, methods of design or construction, or other requirements, the most restrictive specification shall govern. In case of any conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable.

Unless otherwise explicitly stated in this Code, all references to part, chapter or section numbers or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such part, chapter, section or provision of this Code. References made to a section without mentioning a part shall be construed to refer to that section of the part in which the reference is made.

The provisions of any appendix in this Code shall not be mandatory unless they are referred to as such in any section of the Code or they are specifically adopted by any regulation. Part 1 Scope and Definition. Neither the Authority administering the Code, nor any employee thereof shall be liable for damages or any defect or hazardous or illegal condition or inadequacy in such building or plan, nor for any failure of any component of such building which may occur subsequent to such inspection or granting of permission under the provisions of the Code.

Buildings approved before adoption of the present updated Code and compliant with the previous version of the Code may continue to be used or occupied unless any deviation is made thereafter or any deterioration has rendered the building unsafe in the opinion of the Authority. Such additions or alterations shall not be permitted when the existing building is not in full compliance with the provisions of this Code except when the addition or alteration will result in the existing building or structure being no more hazardous based on life safety, fire safety and sanitation than it was before the addition or alteration was undertaken.

Non-structural alterations or repairs to an existing building or structure which do not adversely affect any structural member, nor reduce the strength of any part of the building or structure to result in an unsafe condition shall be made with materials and components having the required fire resistance.

Words not explicitly defined shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings as the context implies as provided in The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Simpson, J. The terms defined in this Part shall have a general applicability to the entire Code.

Other than these, there are other terminology and definitions provided in different parts, chapters and sections which shall be applicable only to that particular part, chapter or section in which they are defined. In case of any conflict or contradiction between a definition given in this Part and that in any other part, chapter or section, the meaning provided in that part, chapter or section shall govern for the interpretation of the provisions of that particular part, chapter or section.

In general, definitions given in a lower level shall override the meanings of all upper levels for the interpretation of the provisions within the scope of that lower level. Irrelevance of gender, tense and number is implicit in these definitions and throughout the Code.

Words in the masculine gender include the feminine and the masculine. Verbs used in the present include the future. Words used in the singular include the plural and the words used in the plural include the singular. The Authority which has been created by a statute and which, for the purpose of administering the Code or Part thereof, may authorize a committee or an official to act on its behalf.

This definition of Authority shall apply to all appearances of the term in this Code written with a capital A. Same as Building Official. A floor of a building more than 50 percent of which is situated at a depth of 1m or more below crown of the main entry road.

Any permanent or semi-permanent structure which is constructed or erected for human habitation or for any other purpose and includes but not limited to the Part 1 Scope and Definition.

The covered area of a building shall exclude gardens, wells, cornice, sunshade, pergola, DRAINAGE septic tank, soak well, unpaved uncovered water body, fountains, drainage structures, ENGINEER boundary wall, gates, porch, uncovered staircase, watchman's cabin, detached pump house, garbage chutes and other uncovered utility structures.

A conduit or channel for conveying water, sewage, or other waste liquid for subsequent disposal. The disposal of any liquid with a system meant for this purpose. To erect a new building or re-erect an existing building or to convert a building from one occupancy to another. Finished ground level of a plot.

For hilly areas formation levels shall be the gradient of the plot surface. A person having a postgraduate degree in engineering geology and having 2 years experience in geotechnical exploration and interpretation. The government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, pavement or footpath within the area between the building and the property line or a line 1.

Does not include a lodger and the words 'occupancy' and 'occupation' do not refer to the lodger. ROAD The elements from the building bases which are exposed above the formation level to form a covered floor area by joining the peripheral points of the elements which are ROAD LINE intersected at finished floor plane at the height of plinth level. See ROAD. Reference materials such as published article, codes, standards or other material judged to be reliable by the professional users and specialists in the subject concerned.

A thoroughfare or public way which has been dedicated or deeded to the public for public use. A line defining the side limits of a road. The clear head room between the finished floor surface and the finished ceiling surface or the underside of the joists or beams, whichever is lower. The set of plans, design and specifications of a building submitted to the Authority as per provision of this Code and duly approved and sanctioned by the Authority.

A road or lane provided at the rear or side of a plot for service purposes. Bangladesh National Building Code Also known as PLOT. The elevation of the centre line of any road or street which a plot fronts. An Architect or Engineer or Diploma Architect or Diploma Engineer having experience in supervision of construction works. A building which, in the opinion of the Building Official, is structurally unsafe, or insanitary, or lacks proper means of ingress or egress, or which constitutes a hazard to life or property.

LeJeune Rd. Abbreviations not explicitly defined herein below shall be construed to have their usual meaning as the context implies. Part 2 Administration and Enforcement 2. All legal issues shall be referred to the Building Construction Act. BUILDER A person, a firm, a company, a corporation or a government, semi-government or non- government agency who undertakes construction of any work regulated by the Code.

Owner of a building or structure in connection to which the work is undertaken shall not be considered as a Builder. OWNER OF A The person, organization or agency at whose expenses the building is constructed and who BUILDING has the legal right over the land on which it is constructed or one who has the right to transfer the same and includes his or her heirs, assignees and legal representatives, and a mortgagee in possession.

Part 2 Administration and Enforcement. If the portion of the building to which the alteration is made is completely self contained with respect to the facilities and safety measures required by this Code, the provisions of this Code shall apply only to that portion and not to the whole building. All devices, equipment and safeguards installed as per the requirements of this Code shall be maintained in conformity with the edition of the Code under which installed.

The owner of the building or his designated agent shall at all times be responsible for the safe and sanitary maintenance of the building or structure, its means of egress facilities and the safety devices, equipment and services installed therein.

The Authorized Officer or his delegated persons as described in relevant documents mentioned in Chapter 2 may cause re-inspection of a building to determine its continued compliance with this Section.

All works involving addition to, alteration or change of use of any building or structure shall conform to the requirements set forth in Part 9 of this Code. For land development purposes the following laws shall also be applicable: Among the members there will be one civil engineer as specified in Sec 2. The Authority shall appoint such numbers of officers, technical assistants, inspectors and other employees as shall be required for proper administration of the Code and smooth functioning of the Authority.

BNBC FINAL DRAFTPart 2 Administration and Enforcement f require the owner of an existing or under construction high risk building, having major impacts on public safety for inhabitants within and near the building, to carry out review of design and construction by licensed professionals acceptable to the Authority. All the officers and staff of these field offices shall be under administrative control of BBRA.

They will be in the pay-roll of the office they will be serving and will be treated as on deputation to BBRA. The Building Official may designate an employee or employees who shall carry out the specified duty and exercise the specified power of the Building Official.

Such committee shall be formed in combination of one architect, one Vol. Organization and Enforcement Chapter 2 civil engineer, one town planner and representative from concerned body. Building Official shall work as ex- officio member-secretary of the Committee. Table 2. To be declared by the government as and when necessary 2. But every Building Official will be in charge of an independent and well demarcated area. The employees of the Building Official shall be adequately qualified to carry out the responsibilities assigned to them by the Building Official.

The Building Official or any of his employees shall not be interested in business, either directly or indirectly, as planner, engineer, architect, builder or supplier or in any other private business transaction or activity within the jurisdiction of the Authority which conflicts with his official duties or with the interest of the Code enforcing agency. If any Building Official or any of his employees violates the restrictions, he shall be liable to punishment as per service rule of the government.

Bangladesh National Building Code-2015

Any suit filed against the Building Official or any of his employees because of an act performed by him in the official discharge of his duties and under the provisions of the Code shall be defended by the legal representative of the Authority until the final decision of the proceedings.

In no case shall the Building Official or any of his employees be liable for costs in any legal action, suit, or defense proceedings that may be filed in pursuance of the provisions of the Code. The Building Official shall be authorized to interpret this Code and to adopt and enforce rules and supplemental regulations in order to clarify the application of its provisions in conformity with the intent and purpose of this Code.

The Building Official may designate such officers or inspectors as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Code enforcement agency. The Building Official shall receive such applications, examine the premises, enforce compliance with this Code and issue permits for the intended work.

If the building or premises is occupied, the Building Official shall present credentials to the occupant and request entry. If the building or premises is unoccupied, the Building Official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or any other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request entry.

If entry into the building or premises is refused or the owner of the unoccupied building or premises cannot be located, the Building Official shall secure entry as provided by the law. The work or construction to be inspected shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until the approval is obtained. All reports of inspection shall be in writing and certified by the Building Official or the licensed engineer or the architect making the inspection.

Approval of work or construction as a result of such inspection shall not be interpreted to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this Code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. The Building Official may require survey of the site and adjoining areas to verify that the structure is located in accordance with the approved plans.

The Building Official or his designated deputies shall carry proper identification when inspecting structure or premises in the performance of duties under the provision of this Code. In such cases the Building Official shall notify the owner in writing of such an order by showing the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume. When there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this Code, a Building Official shall have the authority to require test as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the office of the Building Officials.

Test shall be performed by an agency approved by BO. Such person Bangladesh National Building Code Copies of all relevant papers and documents for enforcement of the Code shall be preserved by the Building Official.

All such records shall be kept open to public inspection at all suitable times. The Board shall provide reasonable interpretation of the provisions of this Code and determine the suitability of alternative materials or methods of design or construction. Such Board shall consist of members appointed by the Authority who are noted for their education and experience in the relevant field of building construction and whose term of office shall be as decided by the BBRA.

This Board shall, with the approval of the government, adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall communicate all decisions and findings in writing to the Appellant with a copy to the Building Official. This Board shall have no discretion for interpretation of the administrative provisions contained in Part 2 of this Code, nor shall be empowered to waive any requirement of this Code. He shall be allowed to plan, design and supervise construction, repair, maintenance, alteration and modification of buildings or structures regulated by this Code provided the licensed professional certify compliance of the work with the provisions of the Code.

In case of any violation of the Code the licensed professionals who shall certify will be liable for action through professional bodies. Such a person may provide any such certificate as long as his or her services are recognized by the Building Official and such recognition is not withdrawn under the provisions of Sec 2.

The Vol. Organization and Enforcement Chapter 2 term owner shall, for the purpose of these provisions include any developer who by appointment, contract or lease is or has been responsible for the actions listed above.

Such rules shall not contradict nor nullify any of the provisions of this Code. The Authority may fix and re-fix from time to time application fees for issuance of permits for all works under the provisions of this Code. The following works are exempted from the requirement of a permit unless they do not otherwise violate the provisions of this Code, for the said work or any other adjacent property, regarding general building requirements, structural stability and fire safety requirements of this Code: Validity of Permits from the Date of Issuance The validity of permits for different purposes from the date of issuance shall be as follows: Part 2 Administration and Enforcement Permits Obtained Prior to Adoption of Code If permit for a building or structure or a work regulated by this Code is obtained before adoption of this Code and the building or structure or work for which the permit is obtained is not completed within three years from the date of issuance of such permit, the said permit shall be deemed to have lapsed and fresh permit shall be necessary to proceed further with the work in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Each committee will have specific Terms of Reference and Work Procedure. The drawings shall have any of the sizes specified in the Table 2. The space under the scaffold or formwork shall not be used as a working or living space. The space shall not be used as a shelter or refuge during inclement weather or at any other time.

The bamboos shall be free from any defects, firmly tied to eacn other and joints made smooth. Joining members only with nails shall be prohibited. Bamboos for vertical support shall not be less than 75 mm in dia, and shall be straight as far as possible. Bamboos may be used as vertical support for up to a height of 4 metres if horizontal bracings are provided at the centre.

Bangladesh National Building Code Pages 1 - 50 - Text Version | AnyFlip

Splicing shall be avoided. After stripping the formwork, the bamboo posts shall be cleaned and stacked vertically in shade protected from rain and sun. Defective or damaged bamboo posts shall be removed from the site. The posts shall not be less than 80 mm in diameter at any place and shall spread to at least mm in diameter at the top.

The timber posts shall be supported on timber planks at the bottom. Either the bottom or the top of the posts shall be wedged with a piece of triangular wood peg for easy removal. Adequate horizontal and inclined braces shall be used for all timber centering. All timber posts shall be carefully inspected before use and members with cracks and excessive knots and crookedness shall be discarded. The joints shall normally be made with bolts and nuts.

No rusted or spoilt threaded bolts and nuts shall be used. In case of patented material, the instructions of the manufacturer regarding the load carrying capacities shall be followed.

Post to post supports shall be provided with wooden planks. When tubular steel and timber centering is to be used in combination, necessary precautions shall be taken to avoid any unequal settlement. Tubular steel centering shall be thoroughly inspected before erection. Defective members shall be discarded and coupling pins aligned to frames. Adjustment screws shall be set to their approximate final adjustment after assembling the basic unit, and the unit shall be level and plumb.

The centering frames shall be braced to make a rigid and solid unit. Struts and diagonal braces shall be in proper position and secured. As erection progresses, all connecting devices shall be in place, and fastened for full stability of joints and units. Built-up, swinging and suspended scaffolds shall also be erected by competent workers.

Care shall be taken to keep fire alarms, hydrants, cable tunnels etc. Anchors for guys or ties shall be checked for proper placement.

The weight of concrete in which the anchors are embedded shall be checked for uplift and sliding.

Bangladesh national building code, 1993.

In a tall and heavy guy derrick, tension in guys shall be controlled by hand winches. Enough number of bolts shall be used in connecting each piece using a minimum of two bolts in a pattern to ensure that the joint will not fail. All splice connections in columns, crane girders etc. The top flange of a truss, girder or long beam shall be temporarily reinforced with a flat bar on top of the member.

On deep girders and large trusses, a safety bar running their full length shall be provided. The bar can be a single 16 mm diameter wire rope through vertical stiffeners of each members about one meter above the bottom flange and clamped at tne ends with wire rope clamps. If holes cannot be provided, short eye bolts can be welded to the webs of the girder at intervals. The bolts shall be removed, and the surface chipped to leave it smooth after the erection is completed.

The first load lifted by a guy derrick shall be hanged at a low height for 10 minutes and the anchor inspected for any signs or indications of failure. No load shall be allowed to rest on wire ropes. Ropes in operation shall not be touched. Each truss or deep girder loaded in a vehicle shall be tied back or braced together with other trusses or girders already loaded.

The ropes shall be chemically treated to resist dew and rotting. They shall not be tied on sharp edges of steel structures. They shall not be tied beyond the reach of safety belts complying to BDS The proper size, number and spacing of wire rope clamps, depending on the diameter of the wire rope, shall be used. They shall be properly fixed and checked as soon as the rope has been stretched, particularly if new. The clamps shall be promptly tightened when expansion in rope is detected.

Clamps and ropes shall be inspected frequently to be sure that they are secured at place. Foot boxes on a guy derrick or climbing crane, shall be moved to the new working floor each time the rig is changed. On a mobile crane, the boxes shall be moved as soon as the crane is moved. Bolt baskets or similar containers with handles shall be provided on floats or scaffolds where small material, such as bolts and drift pins are used.

Small tools shall be gathered up and put away in tool boxes when not in use. Rivet heaters shall have safe containers or buckets for unused hot rivets. Proper protection by way of railing, footboard etc. Railing shall have a minimum height of l m while the toeboard shall be at least mm high. Where erected on the outside of a building over 20 m or six storeys in height, the hoist structure shall be built of noncombustible or fire retardant materials.

Interlocking or any other safety device shall be installed at all stopping points of the hoists. The hoists shaftway shall be fenced in accordance with Sec 3.

No part of scaffolding or walls and openings shall be hit by crane, truck or heavy moving equipment. Lifting gears must be tested and examined by a competent person. Chains, ropes and lifting tackle shan be thoroughly examined by a competent person every 6 months. Special devices like cleats and hooks shall be used in erecting girders and other heavy structural members.

These shall be shop-assembled, bolted, riveted or welded to the piece and left permanently in place after the work. A balance beam shall be used to lift laterally imbalanced pieces. Alternatively, a pair of bridle slings may be used at safe lifting points. Table of safe working loads shall be posted in the tackle store and in prominent positions. No chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be used for loads exceeding the safe working load.

Wrought iron gear shall be effectively heat treated. All lifting gear shall be obtained from reliable manufacturers. No home-made or improvised gear shall be used. Before the crane is used for the first time, it must be thoroughly examined and tested by a competent person. Crane rails, shall be installed and secured on firm ground. In tower cranes, the level difference between the two rails shall remain within the limits prescribed by the manufacturer.

The safe working load shall be clearly shown on the crane; no crane shall be loaded beyond this limit.

Nobody shall be allowed to work on the wheeltracks within 6 m of a crane, or under crane where he might be struck, unless effective steps are taken to warn him. Electrical wires within the site which can possibly touch the crane or any member being lifted, shall be removed or made dead. Cranes shall not be operated in proximity to a live overhead power line.

If it becomes necessary to operate the crane crossing the safe clearance from power line, the overhead power lines shall be shut off. Cranes shall be thoroughly examined, at least once in 9 months and the results entered in a register. The crane operator shall not violate the safe reach limit of the crane as specified by the manufacturer. Cranes shall not be operated at a speed which causes the boom to swing.

No person shall be lifted or transported by the crane on its hook or boom. Toeboards and limit stops shall be provided for wheel barrows on the loading and unloading platforms. Material shall be loaded securely on the platform with no projection. Every crane driver or hoisting machine operator shall be competent to the satisfaction of the engineer and no person under the age of 21 years shall be allowed to operate any hoisting machine and scaffolding winch, or give signals to the operator.

The crane driver shall have the full knowledge of controls, signals, loading, misuse, ground and emergency regulations. When the bucket or other members being lifted are out of sight of the crane operator, a signalman shall be posted in clear view of the loading and unloading areas, and the crane operator.

Standard hand signals shall be used in controlling the movements of the crane; both the operator and the signalman shall be familiar with the signals. The crane operator shall respond to signals only from the assigned signalman but shall obey stop signal at any time from any body both inside and outside the site. If a gantry crane is used, a warning bell which sounds automatically during the movement of the crane shall be given to avoid accidents to workmen crossing or standing in the path of the moving loads.

Shortening the chains bv tying knots shall be prohibited. The chain shall be made free of twists and kinks. Proper eye splices shall be used to attach the chain hooks. Chains with locked or stretched links and which do not move freely shall not be used. Ropes shall move freely in the sheave grooves.

Sharp bends in wire ropes shall be avoided; pulley shall be used for these. Idle and loaded slings shall not be carried together on the crane hook. In multi-legged slings, each leg shall be evenly loaded. The slings shall be of sufficient length to avoid wide angle between the legs. Inspections shall be made for spillage of material or liquids, loose material lying on the gangways, and proper access to the platform.

The scaffold shall be secured to the building at enough places; no ties shall be removed. Warning sign prohibiting the use of any defective or incomplete scaffold and working in bad weather and high wind shall be posted in a prominent place. Inspections shall be made for the observance of these requirements. All temporary wiring shall be done by an electrician holding relevant licence.

No scaffolding, ladder, working platform, gangway, runway, etc. Protection shall be provided for all electrical wiring laid on floor which may have to be crossed over. All flexible wiring connecting the electrical appliances shall preferably be enclosed in a flexible metal sheath.

Frayed and bare wires shall not be used for any temporary or permanent electrical connection. All electrical circuits, other than those required for illuminating the site at night, shall be switched off daily at the end of the work.

The main switchboard shall be located in an easily accessible and prominent place. No clothing or stores shall be kept near it. One 3 kg Location of underground cables, if any, as well as overhead cables, shall be identified and the scaffolds, hoists etc. Respective agencies shall be consulted for the proper method of providing protection to such cables, distance to be maintained to avoid all hazards etc.

Cables, specially underground, and their routes shall be marked for future reference and use. If necessary, guards shall be stationed at the installation site. Building materials shall preferably not be carried in a lift. Entry to the empty lift well shall be blocked; the blockade shall be capable of withstanding bumping of an individual against it.

They shall be in running condition without any defect. The machinery shall be operated by competent operators only. The machinery will be checked thoroughly for any defect periodically, as well as each day before use. Every moving part of or crime mover, and every part of electric generators, motors and rotary converters shall be securely fenced.

Fencing shall be of substantial construction, maintained in efficient working order, and kept in position when the machine is in motion. If machines need to be examined, oiled or adjusted while in motion, it shall be approached by certified mechanics only. Approach to unfenced machinery is allowed only when examination, lubrication etc. Exhaust of petrol or diesel powered air compressors, hoists, derricks, pumps and all such machinery shall be well away from combustible materials.

Exhausts opening outside the building shall have a minimum clearance of mm from combustible materials.

All sources of ignition like naked flame shall be banned near petroleum- fired equipment. Tanks, vats, kettles, pots, drums and other vessels for heating tar, bitumen and other bituminous materials shall be made resistant to damage due to transportation, excessive heating etc. All such vessels shall be capable of holding a full load without danger of collapse, bursting or distortion.

They shall be provided with a close-fitting cover suitable for smothering a fire in the vessel preventing spillage or protecting the bituminous material from rain. Buckets for hot bitumen, bituminous material or tar shall have the bail or handle firmly secured, and a second handle near the bottom for tipping. Bitumen or tar boilers shall be mounted on wheels for easy transportation or towing, and provided with hand pumps for spraying purposes.

Heated vessels shall not be left unattended. Only vessels using electricity for heating may be used inside buildings. Tar boilers shall never be used on a roof constructed of combustible materials.

Bituminous material shall not be thrown into the hot vessels. Vessels shall be kept closed when not in use. Containers shall not be filled to the brim with hot bitumen or tar. Enough space shall be left in vessels for expansion of heated binder. The vessel shall be leak-proof, and provided with controllable outlets. The buckets and cans in which the hot material is carried shall be checked for any defect before use.

Gas and oil-fired bitumen and tar kettles or pots shall be equipped with burners, regulators and safety devices. Heating appliances for vessels shall distribute the heat uniformly over the heating surface.

If bituminous mixtures have mineral aggregate filler, some means for stirring shall be provided. Vessels filled with bituminous materials shall be kept at a distance from combustible materials. When vessels are used in confined spaces, the gases, fumes and smoke generated shall be removed by exhaust or forced ventilation.

No naked light shall be used near heated boilers. If a burner stops burning, the fuel supply shall be cut-off immediately and the heating tube shall be thoroughly blown out by the fan. Cutbacks shall not be heated over an open flame unless a water jacket is used. While they are being heated, the vessel shall be kept open. Blow-lamps or similar devices shall be used for warming pipes instead of burning rags.

Bitumen and tar shall not be heated beyond the temperature recommended by the manufacturer of the product. Indicator gauges shall be used to ascertain level and temperature of the material in the boiler; nobody shall be allowed to peep into the boiler to ascertain the level. In small plants, dipstick may be used to gauge the levels in the boiling pot.

Bitumen and tar shall be kept dry. Boiler shall either have a device that prevents foam from reaching the burners, or anti-foaming agents shall be used to control foaming. The heating shall be at low temperature till the water entrapped, if any, is completely evaporated. Any water present in the boiler shalfalso be drained out before using it. Bitumen or tar spilled around boilers shall be promptly cleaned up. When tanks are cleaned by steam, building-up of pressure shall be prevented.

No inspection shall be made while the boiler is under use, or is pressurized. While discharging heated binder from the boiler, workers shall not stand opposite to the jet. The container shall be handled only after closing the valve. Bitumen and tar shall be handled in a way as not to spill.

Mops and other applicators covered with bituminous materials shall not be stored inside buildings. Flame Cutting and Weldin: For all arc welding work, either a helmet or a hand-held face shield conforming to BDS shall be used. See also Sec 3. All welding and flame-cutting operations shall be performed in protected areas; closed spaces shall be properly ventilated. Suitable protection against the rays of the electric arc shall be provided where arc welding operations might be viewed within normal range by persons other than the welding operators and inspectors.

When working on aluminum structures, or close to other welders, protection for the back of the head shall be arranged. When slag is being removed from weld by clipping, the eyes shall be protected by goggles conforming to BDS Leather gauntlet gloves with canvas or leather cuffs, shall be worn by welders. Any visible foam near the arc shall be rapidly dispersed. Where argon or carbon dioxide is being used as the shielding gas, particularly in confined spaces, breathing apparatus of the airline type shall be worn.

Gas cylinders shall be kept in the upright position, and conveyed in trolleys. While being carried by cranes, the gas cylinders shall be put in cages. The cylinder shall be marked 'full' or 'empty' as the case may be. Gas cylinders shall be stored away from open flames and other sources of fire. Oxygen cylinders shall not be stored near oil, grease, sources of gas and similar combustible materials.

When the cylinders are in use, cylinder valve key or wrench shall be placed in position. Cylinder valve shall be closed before a cylinder is moved, when the torches are being replaced or welding is stopped for some reason.

The cylinder valve and connection shall not be lubricated. Acetylene cylinder which has been subject to heat, must be kept completely submerged in water at least for 12 hours before further use.

Gas cutting and welding torches shall be lighted by special lighters, not with matches. The cables from welding equipment shall not be run over by traffic. Double earthing shall be provided to the welding machines.

If welding is to be done near combustible materials, suitable blanket shall be provided and fire extinguishers kept nearby. Welding shall not be done in areas where flammable liquids and gases are stored.

Gas lines and compressed air lines shall be marked differently by suitable colour codes. Facilities shall be provided in approved closed containers for housing the necessary vision, respiratory and protective equipment required in welding operations. Chains shall not be used in riveting dollies; leather, canvas or rope sling may be used.

Snap and plunger shall be prevented from dropping out of place by securing the pneumatic riveting hammer. Nozzle of the hammer shall be inspected from time to time. Torn or worn wire attachment shall be renewed. Water shall be kept ready for putting out fire during riveting operations. Overhead protection against falling materials shall be provided under scaffoldings and ladders.

Care shall be taken in carrying long and heavy bars, rods, angles and other such materials.

Precautions shall be taken to correctly handle, use and position precast RC columns, piles, steel beams, joists, angles and other heavy elements. Temporary supports with guys and props shall be provided in Handling heavy elements till the member is properly and permanently secured in position. Manila or Sisal rope shall not be used in rainy season for hoisting heavy materials. People suffering from asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or pneumoconiosis shall be screened out from being employed in works involving the use of paints, varnishes, plastic foam, rubber, adhesives, etc.

Those having impaired lung function, hay fever, eczema, dermatitis etc. All construction site shall have sufficient general and local ventilation unless otherwise required.

Adequate number of Absorptive respirators shall be provided to sites with inhalation hazard. Full breath apparatus shall be used for works of limited period in dangerous situations. The workers shall be made aware of personal hygiene.

Regular health check up shall be arranged for works requiring high physical fitness for prolonged period. Scaffoldings, gangways, etc.

A portable dry powder extinguisher of 3 kg capacity shall be kept near all flame producing equipment. Sec 2. Fire extinguishers, preferably of water type, shall be placed at strategic points. Extinguishers shall always be placed in cranes, hoists, compressors and similar places. In addition to fire extinguishers, other fire extinguishing equipment, e.

All extinguishers shall be maintained in an usable condition at all times in accordance to the instructions of the manufacturer. All workmen and supervisory staff shall be clearly briefed on the use of fire extinguishers provided at the construction site.

Free access shall be provided and maintained at all times to all fire fighting equipment including fire hose, extinguishers, sprinkler valves and hydrants. Where the project itself requires the installation of fixed fire fighting equipment, such as hydrants, stand pipes, sprinklers and underground water mains or other suitable arrangements for the provision of water, it shall be installed and made available for permanent use as soon as possible, in no case later than the scheduled time.

A permanent hydrant system shall be made available before the building has reached the height of 20 m. This shall be extended with every increase in the number of floors, and securely capped at the top. Top hose outlets shall be at all times not more than one floor below the floor under construction. All construction sites with a fire risk shall have at least two exits.

Temporary stand pipes with required pumps may be provided in place of permanent systems if they are designed to furnish litres of water per minute at kPa pressure with a standpipe size of not less than mm. A metal box of substantial size preferably to be kept open, shall be provided and maintained near each hose.

It shall contain adequate length or hose fitted with 12 or 20 mm nozzle to reach all parts of the floor. Free access from the street to such stand pipe shall be maintained at all times. Materials shall not be stored within 1. Contact shall be established and maintained with the local fire authority during construction of all buildings above 20 m in height and buildings of special occupancies like educational, assembly, institutional, industrial, storage, hazardous and mixed occupancies having areas in excess of m2 on each floor.

Telephone or other means of inter-communication system within the site shall be provided during the construction of all buildings over 20 m in height or buildings with a plinth area in excess of m2. All waste, such as scrap timber, wood shavings, sawdust, paper, packing materials and oily substance, particularly in or near vertical shaft openings like stairways, lift shaft etc.

An independent water storage facility shall be provided before the commencement of construction operations for fire-fighting purposes. The tank shall be kept filled up at all times.

Highly flammable materials, such as gasoline, oil, paints etc. Storage of large quantities shall not be allowed unless stored in separate compartments or enclosures of noncombustible construction.

Where cellulose or other highly flammable paint is sprayed, flame-proof exhaust ventilation equipment shall be provided. Smoking shall be strictly controlled where highly flammable liquids are used. Explosives like detonators, gunpowder etc. Combustible materials shall not be stored on any floor under construction until all combustible form works are removed from the tier immediately above.

Also see Sec. When temporary heating is used, all regulations as to the maximum temperature, distance from combustible materials, spark arresters, removal of noxious gases and other similar requirements shall be fully observed.

Temporary enclosure shall be provided where the source of temporary heat includes open-flame devices. All temporary or permanent high pressure steam boilers shall be operated only by licensed operators. Where located within a building or within 3 metres of combustible materials or electric power lines, all such boilers shall be enclosed with approved noncombustible covers.

Safety valves shall be adjusted to exactly 70 kPa in excess of working pressure. Two dry chemical power DCP type fire extinguishers of 5 kg capacity each shall be kept at easily accessible locations. Rubbish, trash, nuts, bolts and small tools shall not be allowed to accumulate on the site and shall be removed as soon as conditions warrant.

Combustible rubbish shall be removed daily. Rubbish shall not be burnt on the premises or in the immediate vicinity. The entire premises and area adjoining and around the construction site shall be kept in a safe and sanitary condition see also Sec 2.

All construction site with a fire-risk shall have at least two clearly marked fire exits. Other means of escape as required by various sections of this Code shall be provided in a construction site. Fire exits shall be easily openable; stores, packing materials or rubbish shall not obstruct the exit.

Fire walls and exit stairways required for a building shall be given priorities in construction schedule. Where fire doors, with or without automatic closing devices, are to be set in the building, they should be hung as soon as practicable, and before fire risk is increased by way of greater use of combustible material. Precautionary measures shall be taken against the emission of dust, small particles, toxic gases and other harmful substances in quantities hazardous to health. Such measures may include local ventilation, use of protective devices, medical check-up etc.

Exhaust ventilation shall be employed in enclosed spaces. Clothes worn by the workmen shall not be of such nature and materials as to increase the chances of inflicting injuries to themselves or others. Wearing of loose garments shall be strictly avoided. Workmen using naked flames such as in welding shall not wear clothing of synthetic fibre or similar materials which increases the risk of fire hazards.

Spread of dust, sand blasts and other harmful materials and chemical agents shall be controlled at or near the source to prevent overspill to adjoining premises or streets. Proper gear and protection as required by regulations shall be provided to the workmen. Proper methods of handling and transportation shall be followed. Places prone to generate dust shall be frequently cleaned. Machinery and plants shall be designed for easy cleaning.

A copy of all pertinent regulations and notices concerning accidents, injury and first aid shall be prominently displayed at the work site. A first aid box or cupboard shall be provided for every workmen and be accessible. The provision shall also include a stretcher and cot with accessories for every workmen. In case of a site where more than workmen are employed at any one time, or in which more than workmen are employed at any one time and is 15 km from the nearest health service facility, provision of an ambulance shall be made.

See also Sec 1. Whenever epoxy resins are mixed indoor, the place shall be adequately ventilated. Damaged protective gears shall not be used, and shall be replaced. Containers of hazardous chemicals shall be kept in a clearly marked-off area of the work space. Spillage on and contamination of tools, equipment, or the outside of the containers shall be avoided. If spillage or contamination occurs, the affected area shall be cleaned up immediately.

Proper barrier creams shall be used. All contamination on part of the body shall be regularly and efficiently removed during breaks and after finishing time. Other general methods of control shall include silencing of machine exhaust, choice of quite machines etc. Protective measures shall be taken if the continuous noise level at the construction site exceeds 90 dB. For levels up to dB, properly fitted ear plugs of plastic, rubber or glass wool shall be provided. For levels upto dB, ear muffs snail be used; for levels exceeding dB, noise protection helmets shall be provided.

All noise control equipment shall be regularly inspected and maintained by adequately trained personnel. Care shall be taken to prevent noise becoming a nuisance to neighbouring property. Other precautions as specified in Part 8 Chapter 4 shall also be consulted, and followed accordingly. This shall be extended upward with each completed floor. Till the permanent handrails are provided, temporary provisions like ropes, bamboo poles etc.

Suitable precautions by way of support, formworks, etc. No person shall be allowed to use such stair until they are tested by the engineer and found fit for usage.

Where a building has been constructed to a height greater than 14 m or four storeys, or where an existing building higher than 14 m is altered, at least one temporary lighted stairway shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent stairways are erected as the construction progresses. Ramps and gangways shall be of adequate strength and evenly supported.

They shall be kept free from slipping hazards and obstructions. Ramps for transporting materials, shall have even surfaces, be of sufficient width and provided with mm nigh toeboards on open sides.

Requirements as set in Sec 3. Fragile fixtures shall be stored in a safe place away from the normal circulation path of people, equipment and vehicle. See Sec 2. All tools, particularly at heights, shall be stowed. Wooden handles shall be made of good quality straight-grained materials. Hand tools shall be issued through a tool room where they are stored safely and inspected periodically by competent people. Hammer head shall be securely attached to the shaft. The head shall be in good condition, and the face free from chipped edges and not rounded from wear.

The hammer shall not be used if the shaft is split, broken or loose. Set spanners with splayed jaws, or box spanners showing signs of splitting shall not be used. A fixed spanner of correct size shall dc preferred over an adjustable spanner. A tube shall not be used to obtain extra leverage; end of a spanner shall never be hammered.

A spanner shall not be used as a hammer, nor as a wedge. A chisel with a mushroom head shall never be used. A chisel shall be used to cut in a direction nway from the body. Screwdriver handle shall be properly secured. A screwdriver shall never be used as a chisel. Use of files with an exposed tang shall be avoided. Files shall not be used as levers or toggle-bar. When a knife is used to cut greasy materials, the handle shall be such that it offers a firm grip and a shield shall be fitted between the handle and the blade.

OWEN from Texas
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