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BASIC PERSPECTIVE DRAWING PDF

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ILLUSTRATING NATURE: How To PAINT AND DRAW PLANTS AND ANIMALS, Dorothea. Barlowe and Sy Barlowe. (X). PAINTING GARDENS, Norman. Perspective Drawing. For Artists & Perspective, in the vision and visual perception, is: the way . Our basics in that Type of Perspective are: • Horizon Line. Read Download Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach |PDF books PDF Free Download Here: cittadelmonte.info?book.


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In Perspective Drawing You Draw What You See, Not Your Idea or Mental Image of the Subject, 15 Applications of the Basic Cube and Brick Shapes, This books (Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach, 6th Edition [PDF]) Made by John Montague About Books Paperback. Pub Date. THE THEORY AND PRACTICE. OF PERSPECTIVE. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page

Looks like you are currently in Ukraine but have requested a page in the Armenia site. Would you like to change to the Armenia site? John Montague. The best-selling guide…now completely updated to include online tutorials! Basic Perspective Drawing introduces students, both those in formal design courses and self-learners, to the basic principles and techniques of perspective drawing.

Some artists avoid Conte Crayon or Pencil Conte crayon is made from very using fixative on pencil drawings because it tends to deepen the light shadings and elimi- fine Kaolin clay. Once it came only in black, white, red, and nate some delicate values. However, fixative works well for charcoal drawings.

Fixative is sanguine sticks, but now it's also available in a wide range of available in spray cans or in bottles, but you need a mouth atomizer to use bottled fixative. Because it's water soluble, it can be blended Spray cans are more convenient, and they give a finer spray and more even coverage.

A Utility Knife can be used to form different points A Sandpaper Block will quickly hone the lead into Rough Paper is wonderful for smoothing the pencil chiseled, blunt, or flat than are possible with an ordi- any shape you wish. It will also sand down some of the point after tapering it with sandpaper. This is also a nary pencil sharpener.

Hold the knife at a slight angle to wood. The finer the grit of the paper, the more control- great way to create a very fine point for small details. Roll the pencil in your fingers Again, it is important to gently roll the pencil while hon- taking off only a little wood and graphite at a time. Sketch loosely and freely—if you discover something wrong with the shapes, you can refer to the rules of polish your hand-eye relationships.

It's a good idea to sketch everything you see and keep all your drawings in a sketchbook perspective below to make corrections. Your drawings don't need so you can track the improvement. See page 12 for more on to be tight and precise as far as geometric perspective goes, but sketching and keeping a sketchbook.

Following are a few exer- they should be within the boundaries of these rules for a realistic cises to introduce the basic elements of drawing in perspective. Begin with the one-point exercise. In one-point perspective, the face of a box is the closest part to In two-point perspective, the corner of the box is closest to the viewer, and it is parallel to the horizon line eye level.

Nothing is parallel to The bottom, top, and sides of the face are parallel to the pic- the horizon line in this view. The vertical lines are parallel ture plane. Draw a horizontal line and label it "eye level" or "horizon line.

Establish the horizon line see "One-Point Perspective" at left , and then place a dot at each end and label them VP. Draw a ver- tical line that represents the corner of the box closest to the viewer. Now draw a light guideline from the top VP VP right corner to a spot on the horizon line. All side lines will go to the same VP.

Draw two more vertical 3. Next, draw a line from the other corner as lines for the back of the sides. Draw a box in two-point perspective. Find the center of the face by drawing diagonal lines 3. Using the vanishing point, draw a line for the angle from corner to corner; then draw a vertical line upward of the roof ridge; then draw the back of the roof. The through the center.

Make a dot for the roof height. Each of these forms can be an ex- Looking across the face of a circle, it is cellent guide for beginning a complex drawing or painting. Be- foreshortened, and we see an ellipse. The low are some examples of these forms in simple use.

The height is constant to the height of the circle. Here is the sequence we might see in a spinning coin. To create the illusion of depth when the shapes are viewed ToVP straight on, shading must be added. Shading creates different values and gives the illusion of depth and form. The exam- ples below show a cone, a cylinder, and a sphere in both the line stage and with shading for depth.

A Notice the use of eye-level VPs to establish planes for the ellipses. As defined in Webster's dictionary, to foreshorten is "to repre- When there is only one light source such as the sun , all shad- sent the lines of an object as shorter than they actually are ows in the picture are cast by that single source.

All shadows in order to give the illusion of proper relative size, in accor- read from the same vanishing point. This point is placed directly dance with the principles of perspective. The shadows follow the plane on which the Foreshortened lines object is sitting.

Shadows also follow the contour of the plane on which they are cast. Light source. When they strike an object, the object blocks the rays from continuing and creates a shadow relating to the shape of the block- ing object. Here is a simple example of the way to plot the correct shape and length of a shadow for the shape and the height of the light.

Front view foreshortened If the light is raised, lowered, or moves to the side, the shape of the shadow will change accordingly. If you can look at your subject and really see what is in front of you, you're halfway there already—the rest is technique and practice. Warm up by sketch- ing a few basic three-dimensional forms—spheres, cylinders, cones, and cubes. See page 18 for more on basic shapes and their corresponding forms. Gather some objects from around your home to use as references, or study the examples here.

And by the way, feel free to put a translucent piece of paper over these drawings and trace them. It's not cheating—it's good practice. Begin by holding the pencil loosely in the underhand position.

See page Then, using your whole arm, not just your wrist, make a series of loose circular strokes, just to get the feel of the pencil and to free your arm. If you use only your wrist and hand, your sketches may appear stiff or forced. Practice drawing freely by moving your shoulder and arm to make loose, random strokes on a piece of scrap paper.

Keep your grip relaxed so your hand does not get tired or cramped, and make your lines bold and smooth. Now start doodling—scribble a bunch of loose shapes without worrying about drawing perfect lines. You can always refine them later. Now loosely sketch an assortment of shapes in a simple still life. See Chapter 2 for a more in-depth coverage of drawing still lifes. Collect objects that have a vari- ety of sizes and shapes—large and small, tall and short, spherical and rectangular— and put them together in an interesting arrangement.

Then start blocking in the shapes using a sharp HB pencil. Remem- ber to use your whole arm and to work quickly so you don't start tightening up and getting caught up in details. The more you practice drawing this way, the more quickly your eye will learn to see what's really there.

Measuring Up Before you start sketching the individual shapes, make sure you establish the correct proportions. When drawing freely like this, it's easy to lose sight of the various size relationships. Draw a few guidelines to mark the height of each object, and keep your sketches within those lines. Time's Up You can create this piece by lightly roughing out the objects using rectangles and circles.

Then refine the shapes and gently erase the initial guidelines. S ketching is a wonderful method of quickly capturing an impression of a subject. Depending on the pencil lead and technique used, you can swiftly record a variety of shapes, tex- Here are examples of a few pages that might be found in an artist's sketchbook Along with sketching tures, moods, and actions. For example, dark, bold strokes, can interesting things you see, make notes about indicate strength and solidity; lighter, more feathered strokes can the mood, colors, light, convey a sense of delicacy; and long, sweeping strokes can sug- time of day—anything gest movement.

See the examples below for a few common that might be helpful sketching techniques. Some artists often make careful sketches when you refer back to them. It's a good idea to use as reference for more polished drawings later on, but loose to carry a pad and sketches are also a valuable method of practice and a means of pencil with you at all artistic expression, as the examples on these pages show.

You times, because you never know when you might want to experiment with different strokes and sketching will come across an styles. With each new exercise, your hand will become quicker interesting subject and more skilled. Using Circular Strokes Loose, circular strokes are great for quickly recording simple subjects or for working out a still life arrangement, as shown in this example.

Just draw the basic shapes of the objects and indicate the shadows cast by the objects; don't pay attention to ren- dering details at this point. Notice how much looser these lines are compared to the examples from the sketchbook at right. Scribbling Free, scribbled lines can also be used to capture the general shapes of objects such as clouds, treetops, or rocks. Use a soft B lead pencil with a broad tip to sketch the outlines of the clouds; then roughly scribble in a suggestion of shadows, hardly ever lifting your pencil from the drawing paper.

Note how this technique effectively conveys the puffy, airy quality of the clouds.

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Using Wide, Bold Strokes This method is used for creating rough textures and deep shadows, making it ideal for subjects such as foliage and hair and fur textures. For this example, use the side of a 2B pencil, varying the pressure on the lead and changing the pencil angle to produce Sketching for Reference Material Here is an example of using a rough sketch as a different values lights and darks source of reference for a more detailed drawing.

Use loose, circular strokes to record an and line widths. This creates the impression of the flower's general shape, keeping your lines light and soft to reflect the realistic form and rough texture of delicate nature of the subject.

Then use the sketch as a guide for the more fully rendered a sturdy shrub. In the examples the arcing movement of the crest, and make tightly scribbled lines for the more random above, the arrows indicate the direction of movement—but your pencil strokes should actu motions of the water as it breaks and foams.

As in the examples at left, your strokes should ally be made in the opposite direction. Press down at the beginning of each stroke to get taper off in the direction opposite the movement of the wave. Also sketch in a few meander- a strong line, lifting your pencil at the end to taper it off.

Note how these lines convey the ing lines in the foreground to depict the slower movement of the pooled water as it flows upward and downward direction of water and the rising and billowing movement of smoke.

You'll find that when you draw the negative shapes around an object, the object itself. The area around and between objects is called the "negative you're also creating the edges of the object at the same time.

Free Perspective Drawing PDF

The examples space. Select some too complex or if you are having trouble "seeing" it, try focusing on the nega- objects in your home and place them in a group, or go outside and look at a tive space instead. At first it will take some effort, but if you squint your eyes, clump of trees or a group of buildings. Try sketching the negative space, and you'll be able to blur the details so you see only the negative and positive notice how the objects seem to emerge almost magically from the shadows!

Filling In Create the white picket fence by filling in the negative spaces around the Silhouetting This stand of trees is a little more complicated than the fence, but slats.

Don't draw the slats—instead draw the shapes surrounding them and then fill having sketched the negative spaces simplified it immensely. The negative shapes in the shapes with the side of a soft lead pencil. Once you establish the shape of the between the tree trunks and among the branches are varied and irregular, which adds fence, refine the sketch a bit by adding some light shading on the railings.

M any beginners draw without really looking carefully at their subject; instead of drawing what they actually see, they draw what they think they see. Try drawing something you know When drawing a sketch like the one of this man pushing a wheelbarrow, glance only occasionally at your paper to check well, such as your hand, without looking at it.

Chances are your that you are on track, but concentrate on really looking at the subject and trac- finished drawing won't look as realistic as you expected.

That's ing the outlines you see. Instead of lift- because you drew what you think your hand looks like. Instead, ing your pencil between shapes, keep you need to forget about all your preconceptions and learn to the line unbroken by freely looping back and crossing over your lines.

Notice how draw only what you really see in front of you or in a photo. In contour drawing, pick a starting point on your subject and then draw only the contours—or outlines—of the shapes you see. Because you're not looking at your paper, you're training your hand to draw the lines exactly as your eye sees them.

Try doing some contour drawings of your own; you might be surprised at how well you're able to capture the subjects. To test your observation skills, study an object very closely for a Jew minutes, and then close your eyes and try drawing it from memory, letting your hand follow the mental image.

Drawing "Blind" The contour drawing above can be made while occasion- ally looking down at the paper while you draw your hand. The drawing on the right is an example of a blind contour drawing, where you can draw without looking at your paper even once. It will be a little distorted, but it's clearly your hand. Blind contour drawing is one of the best ways of making sure you're truly drawing only what you see. Another way to train your eye to see the essential elements of a subject—and train your hand to record them rapidly—is through Starting with an Action Line Once you've established gesture drawing.

Instead of rendering the contours, gesture draw- the line of action, try building ings establish the movement of a figure. First determine the main a "skeleton" stick drawing thrust of the movement, from the head, down the spine, and around it. Pay particular attention to the angles of the through the legs; this is the line oj action, or action line. Then shoulders, spine, and pelvis. Then sketch in the placement These quick sketches are great for practicing drawing figures in of the arms, knees, and feet action and sharpening your powers of observation.

See pages and roughly fill out the basic shapes of the figure. Working Quickly To capture the action accurately, work very quickly, without including even a suggestion of detail. If you want to correct a line, don't stop to erase; just draw over it.

Studying Repeated Action Group sports provide a great opportunity for practicing ges- ture drawings and learning to see the essentials. Because the players keep repeating the same action, you can observe each movement closely and keep it in your memory long enough to sketch it correctly. Drawing a Group in Motion Once you compile a series of gesture drawings, you can combine them into a scene of people in action, like the one above.

You can measure your subject with just about anything for example, your thumb. Using a pencil is a very easy and accurate way to take measurements, as shown below. Measuring Width Close one eye and hold out your arm with your pencil positioned horizontally between your fingers, and line up the tip of your pencil with one side of the subject. Move your thumbnail down the pencil until it just touches the opposite side of your subject.

Transferring Measurements Mark the length of your pencil measurements on your paper. If you want to enlarge the subject, multiply each measurement by two or three.

If Measuring Height Using the same procedure, measure the distance between you extend the initial markings to this new measurement, the highest and lowest points of your subject. Adding Up the Numbers After you've created the basic Mapping Out Elements As long as you stay in the Correcting Calculations While progressing from a rectangle, using the tallest and widest measurements of same position with your arm extended at full length, you basic shape to a gradually more detailed outline drawing, the subject, sketch the cat's general shape within the rec- can take additional measurements, such as the cat's foot take measurements before applying any marks to keep tangle.

Keep the shape simple and add details later. Window Outline Exercise To train your eye and Portable Window Create a portable window from a Foreshortening in a Window Drawing brain to observe, stand or sit in front of a window and piece of rigid acrylic, which is available at your local Foreshortening—when an object is angled toward the trace the outline of a tree or car onto the glass with an hardware store.

Try the same window outline exercise viewer—causes the closest parts of an object to appear erasable marker. If you move your head, your line will indoors; it will help you understand how to reproduce much larger than parts that are farther away. This can no longer correspond accurately with the subject, so try the challenging angles and curves of your subject.

The viewing grid shown below is an open, framelike device divided with string into several sections of the should be placed on the paper. A grid stand will hold it steady and in the same place for you. This tool helps you break down the scene into small,. You can Step Two Use a ruler and a pencil to lightly draw the same size grid or a proportionally also make one using cardboard and string. Cut a rectangle out of the center of a piece of larger or smaller one with the same number of squares on a piece of drawing paper.

To cardboard. Find the exact center of all four sides of the outer rectangle and make a small draw a larger or smaller grid, multiply or divide each measurement by the same number, cut on the outside border. Slip two pieces of string through the slits—one horizontally and usually two or three.

You must keep the grid and your head in the same position for the points its outlines cross the grid lines.

Then carefully transfer these points to the grid on duration of the drawing, so make yourself comfortable from the start. Step Five Now that you've plotted these important reference points, you can begin to fill Step Six Keep drawing, square by square, frequently studying the subject through the in the lines between the points.

Draw one section at a time, looking through your grid and grid until the drawing is complete. Then erase the grid lines, and you will have an accurate noting where the shape fits within the grid lines. A nyone can draw just about anything by simply breaking down the subject into the few basic shapes: By drawing an outline around the are diagrams showing how to draw the forms of the four basic shapes. The basic shapes of your subject, you've drawn its shape.

But your ellipses show the backs of the circle, cylinder, subject also has depth and dimension, or form. As you learned and cone, and the cube is on pages , the corresponding forms of the basic shapes are drawn by connecting two spheres, cylinders, cubes, and cones. For example, a ball and a grapefruit are spheres, a jar and a tree trunk are cylinders, a box squares with parallel lines.

How to shade these forms is shown on page IT -J H and a building are cubes, and a pine tree and a funnel are cones. That's all there is to the first step of every drawing: After that, it's essentially just connecting and refining the lines and adding details.

Combining Shapes Here is an example of beginning a drawing with basic shapes. Start by drawing each line of action see page 15 ; then build up the shapes of the dog and the chick with simple ovals, circles, rectangles, and triangles.

Building Form Once you Drawing Through Drawing through means drawing the complete establish the shapes, it is easy forms, including the lines that will eventually be hidden from sight. Even though you can't see that side in the finished Notice that the subjects are drawing, the subject should appear three-dimensional. To finish the now beginning to show some drawing, simply refine the outlines and add a little fluffy texture to the depth and dimension.

Basic Underhand The basic underhand position Underhand Variation Holding the pencil at its end Writing The writing position is the most common one, allows your arm and wrist to move freely, which lets you make very light strokes, both long and short. Drawing in this It also gives you a delicate control of lights, darks, and cise lines. Be careful not to press too hard on the point, position makes it easy to use both the point and the textures. Place a protective "slip sheet" under your or you'll make indentations in the paper.

And remember side of the lead by simply changing your hand and hand when you use this position so you don't smudge not to grip the pencil too tightly, as your hand may get arm angle. Now train your eye and hand by practicing drawing objects around you.

Set up a simple still life—like the one on page 11 or the arrangement below—and look for the basic shapes in each object. Try drawing from pho- tographs, or copy the drawings on this page. Don't be afraid to tackle a complex subject; once you've reduced it to simple shapes, you can draw anything! Notice that the whole shapes you see. At this stage, ignore all the details and draw only squares and rectangles. These are apple is drawn, not just the only guidelines, which you can erase when your drawing is finished, so draw lightly and don't worry part that will be visible.

That's about making perfectly clean corners. Also pencil in a few lines on the sides of the book, parallel to the top and bottom, to begin developing its form. Start to develop the form of the windshield with angled lines, and then sketch in a few straight lines to place the door handle and the side detail.

Once you're happy with your drawing, erase all the initial guidelines, and your drawing is complete. Your guidelines are still in place here, but as a final step, you can clean up the drawing by erasing the extraneous lines.

Values are the lights, darks, and all the shades in between that make up an object. First, they white to grays to black, and it's the range of values in shading anchor the image, so it doesn't seem to be floating in air.

Second, they and highlighting that gives a three-dimensional look to a two- add visual interest and help link objects together. When drawing a cast shadow, keep in mind that its shape will depend on the light source as dimensional drawing. Focus on building dimension in your well as on the shape of the object casting it.

For example, as shown drawings by modeling forms with lights and darks.

The length of the shadow is also affected: Sketching the Shapes First lightly Side lit from Baeklit from sketch the basic shape a high angle a high angle of this angular wedge of cheese. Side lit from a low angle. The angle, distance, place the darkest values in holes where the light doesn't hit. You might want to practice drawing form and cast shad- ows on a variety of round and angular objects, lighting them with a bright, direct lamp so the highlights and shadows will be strong and well-defined.

Highlighting Either "save" the white of your paper for the brightest highlights or "retrieve" them by picking them out with an eraser or painting them on with white gouache. Shading Shade in the Adding Shadows took middle value of these at a bunch of grapes as a grapes with a couple of group of spheres.

You can swift strokes using the place all the shadow areas side of a soft lead pencil. Using Photographs Many artists often draw from photo references, changing them as they see fit. They may prefer to "interpret" in their draw- ings, rather than simply copying a photograph. Some artists often sketch with a single HB pencil, but they rarely render a complete drawing with one.

Instead they change pencils depending on which values they are applying, using hard leads such as H and HB for light areas and a soft 2B lead for darker areas.

You can also make very dark areas by increasing pencil pressure and bearing down harder for the darkest values. Shading Consistently If you have only one light source, make sure that all the highlights are facing one direc- tion and all the shadows are oriented in the opposite direction. If you mix them up, your drawing won't be believable. Getting to Know Your Subject Quick, "thumbnail" sketches are invaluable for developing a drawing.

You can use them to play with the positioning, format, and crop- ping until you find an arrangement you like. These aren't finished drawings by any means, so you can keep them rough.

And don't get too attached to them—they're meant to be changed. Still life drawings offer a great opportunity to learn and practice a variety of drawing skills, including developing form, applying shading, and using perspective. Still life compositions traditionally depict a carefully arranged grouping of a number of household objects, such as fruit, vegetables, glassware, or pottery—all of which offer a wide range of textures, sizes, and shapes. But you don't have to restrict yourself to traditional items; use your artistic license to get as creative as you want!

The following lessons will guide you through the basics of drawing still lifes, from designing the composition to blocking in the basic shapes and adding the final details for depth and texture. S tudy your subject closely, and lightly sketch the simple shapes. Notice, for example, that the pear is made up of two circles— one large and one small.

Once the basic shapes are drawn, begin shading with strokes that are consistent with the subjects' rounded forms, as shown in the final drawings. Drawing the Pear Start with two circles for the pear; next place the stem and the water drop. Begin shading with smooth, curving lines, leaving the highlighted areas untouched.

Then finish shading and refine the details. Drawing the Peach First draw the general shapes in step i. Then, in step 2, place guide- lines for the texture of the pit and the cavity on the slice. Begin shading the skin of the peach with long, smooth strokes to bring out its curved surface in step 3. Use a sharp 2B pencil to create the dark grooves on the pit and the irregular texture on the slice. Finish with lines radiating outward from the seed and the top of the slice. Smooth the sketch lines into curves, and add the indentation for the stem.

Then begin light shading in step 3. Continue shading until the cherry appears smooth. Use the tip of a kneaded eraser to remove any shading or smears that might have gotten into the high- lights. Then fill in the darker areas using overlapping strokes, changing stroke direction slightly to give the illusion of three-dimensional form to the shiny surface. Water Drops Detail Use the arrow directions shown above as a guide for shading the cherry according to its contour.

Leave light areas for the water drops, and shade inside them, keeping the values soft. Pools of Water Detail Sketch the outline shape of the pool of water with short strokes, as you did with the cherry. Shade softly, and create highlights with a kneaded eraser. Rendering the Chestnuts To draw these chestnuts, use a circle and two intersecting lines to make a cone shape in steps 1 and 2.

Then place some guidelines for ridges in step 3. Shade the chestnuts using smooth, even strokes that run the length of the objects. These strokes bring out form and glossiness. Finally add tiny dots on the surface. Make the cast shadow the darkest part of the drawing. T hese strawberries were drawn on plate- finish Bristol board using only an HB pencil.

Block in the berry's overall shape in steps 1 and 2 to the right. Then lightly shade the middle and bottom in step 3, and scatter a seed pattern over the berry's surface in step 4. Once the seeds are in, shade around them. Drawing Guidelines Draw a grid on the strawberry; it appears to wrap around the berry, helping to establish its seed pattern and three-dimensional form.

Sketch a grid for the surface pattern. Developing Highlights and Shadows It's important to shade properly around the seeds, creating small circular areas that contain both light and dark. Also develop high- lights and shadows on the overall berry to present a realis- tic, uneven surface.

Indicate the shaded areas by lightly drawing circles around the seeds as guides. L ike the strawberry, a prickly pineapple has an involved surface pattern. The pineapple below was done on plate-finish Bristol board using an HB pencil for the main layout and Practice drawing other light shading, as well as a 2B for darker areas. Drawing the Pineapple Sketch the primary shape in step 1, and add block-in lines for the pineapple's surface pattern in steps 2 and 3.

Use a sharp 2B to draw subtle tex- ture lines at various angles on each pineapple "section," using the stroke and lift technique; begin at the edge, stroke toward the middle, and lift the pencil at the end of the stroke. Finally shade the cast shadow smoother and darker than the fruit surfaces, and add drops of juice for an appealing effect.

C ompare the highly textured surface pattern of the pinecone with the strawberry and pineapple on pages Using an HB pencil, position the pinecone with light guidelines in step 1. Then indicate the tree trunk and pine needles in step 2, and add a grid for the pattern on the pinecone.

Establishing Detail Draw the shapes of the spiked scales, which change in size from Sketch a one end of the cone to the other. In step 4, begin shading the cone and surrounding the surface pattern objects. Make the cast shadow appear to follow the curve of the tree root. Working with Negative Space Develop the grass in step 5 by drawing the negative spaces; instead of drawing individual pine needles and blades of grass, fill in the shadows between them. By shading around the negative spaces, the grass shapes will automatically emerge from the white of the paper.

See page 13 for more on negative space. Tree Texture Guidelines To render the bark and Tree Texture Shading Short, rough strokes give the Pinecone Scale Shading Develop each pinecone knothole of the gnarled tree trunk, first lightly draw in impression of texture, whereas long, smooth strokes scale separately, following the arrows on the diagram the texture design.

Then, when you're happy with the provide interest and contrast. Use a combination of the above for the direction of your strokes. Keep the hatched general appearance, proceed with the shading. The pewter-and-glass candlestick, painting, and paintbrushes were arranged on a table; then a quick sketch was made to check the composition, as shown in step 1. Blocking In the Composition When setting up a still life, keep rearranging the items Developing Shape and Form In step 2, place all the guidelines of your subjects; then until the composition suits you.

If you're a beginner, you might want to keep the number of begin shading with several layers of soft, overlapping strokes in step 3.

Gradually develop objects to a minimum—three to five elements is a good number to start with. Flame Detail A candle flame isn't difficult to draw. Just make a simple outline, keep all shading soft, and make the wick the darkest part. Be sure to leave white area in the candle top to suggest a glow.

B y varying your techniques, you become a more versatile artist. Therefore this drawing was drawn more loosely than the previous one. Begin with an HB pencil, lightly drawing in the basic shapes within the floral arrangement. Sketching Loosely This rendering was finished using a loose, sketchy technique. Sometimes this type of final can be more pleasing than a highly detailed one.

Establishing the Shading The sketch above shows shading strokes for the flower petals and leaves. Try not to add too much detail at this stage of your drawing.

Blending the Cast Shadows As shown in the close- up above, the cast shadow needs the smoothest blending. Position the shadows using the side of an HB pencil; then blend softly with a paper stump. T his drawing was done on Bristol board with a plate smooth finish.

Use an HB pencil for most of the work and a 2B for the dark shadows. A flat sketch pencil is good for creating the back- ground texture. Starting Out In step 1, sketch the basic shapes of the glass, liquid, and flowers.

In step 2, add more details, and begin shading the glass and: Take your time, and try to make the edges clean. Note the pattern of lights and darks that can be found in the cast shadow.

Placing Highlights Use the arrows below as a guide for shading. Remember to keep the paper clean where you want your lightest lights. These highlights help to suggest light coming through the glass stem, creating a transparent look. Finalizing Highlights and Shadows Use the finished drawing as your guide for completing lights and darks.

If pencil smudges accidentally get in the highlights, clean them out with a kneaded eraser. Then use sharp-pointed HB and 2B pencils to add final details. M any beginning artists believe a rose is too difficult to draw and therefore may shy away from it. But, like any other object, a rose can be developed step by step from its most basic shapes. Stroke from inside each petal toward its outer edge.

Establishing Guidelines Use an HB pencil to block in the overall shapes of the rose and petal, using a series of angular lines. Make all guidelines light so you won't have trouble removing or covering them later. Use what is known as a stroke and lift technique. For this technique, you should draw lines that gently fade at the end. Just press firmly, lifting the pencil as the stroke comes to an end.

Following Through Continue adding guidelines for the flower's interior, following the angles of the petal edges. Make the cast shadow the darkest area of your drawing.

Step One The gardenia Gardenia.

T his morning glory and gardenia are great flowers for learning a few simple shading techniques called "hatch- ing" and "crosshatching. With straight lines, block in an them farther apart for lighter values. Cross-hatch strokes are irregular polygon for the made by first drawing hatch strokes and then overlapping overall flower shape and them with hatch strokes that are angled in the opposite direc- add partial triangles for leaves.

Then determine tion. Examples of both strokes are shown in the box at the the basic shape of each bottom of the page. Step One took carefully Morning at the overall shape of a Glory morning glory and lightly sketch a polygon with the point of an H B pencil.

From this three-quarter view, you can see the veins that radiate from the center, Step Two As you draw so sketch in five curved each of the petal shapes, lines to place them. Then pay particular attention to roughly outline the leaves where they overlap and to and the flower base. Accurately reproducing the pattern of the petals is one of the most impor- tant elements of drawing a flower.

Once all the shapes are laid in, Step Two Next draw refine their outlines. You can also change the pressure of the pencil on the paper to vary the Step Three Again, line width, giving it a little using the side and blunt personality.

Then add the point of an HB pencil, stamens in the center. Lift the pencil at the end of each petal stroke so the line tapers and lightens, and deepen the shad- ows with overlapping strokes in the opposite direction called cross- hatching with the point of a 2B pencil. Step Three Now you are ready to add the shading. With the round- ed point and side of an HB pencil, add a series of hatching strokes, fol- lowing the shape, curve, and direction of the sur- faces of the flower and leaves.

For the areas more in shadow, make darker strokes placed closer together, using the point of a soft 2B pencil. I f you look carefully, you will see that although the roses resem- ble one another, each one has unique features, just as people do. If you make sure your drawing reflects these differences, your roses won't look like carbon copies of one another. Block in only the outlines and a few major petal shapes, without get- ting involved in the details. Then sketch in the stems 7 and the shape of the rib- bon.

Step Two Once you've Step Three Now begin to Step Four Sometimes established the general define the shapes more keeping the shading fairly outlines, begin developing precisely, adding detail to minimal and light shows the secondary shapes of the innermost petals, refin- how effective simple draw- each flower—the curves ing the stems, and devel- ings can be.

These are the ele- bon. Vary the thickness of demonstrated in more ments that make each rose each line to give the draw- detail. Here use hatched unique, so pay careful ing more character and strokes and place only attention to the shapes at life.

Don't shade at all in enough shading on each this stage of the drawing. T here are several classes of tulips with differently shaped flowers. The one below, known as a parrot tulip, has less of a cup than the tulip to the right and is more complex to draw. Use the layout steps shown here before drawing the details. Creating Form Look for the rhythm of line in this next tulip. It begins with three simple lines in step 1, which set its basic direction. Step 2 demonstrates how to add lines to build the general flower shape.

Step 3 adds more to the shape and begins to show the graceful pose of the flower. Step 4 shows more detail and leads to shading, which gives the flower its form. Just a few shading strokes here enhance the effect of overlapping petals. Add petal angles in step 2.

Then draw in actual petal shapes, complete with simple shading. C arnation varieties range from deep red to bicolored to white. They are very showy and easy to grow in most gardens. They are also fun and challenging to draw because of their many A dark background allows the overlaying petals. Shade them solid, variegated, or with a light or flower to pop off the page.

Replicating Patterns and Shapes The front view above shows the complex pattern of this type of carnation. Step 1 places the basic shapes seen within the flower. From here, begin drawing the actual curved petal shapes. Once they are in place, shade the flower. The crinkled petals evolve from drawing irregular edges and shading unevenly in random areas.

Establishing the Basic Shapes Develop the overall shape of the side view, including the stem and sepal. Begin drawing the intricate flower details in step 2, keep- ing them light and simple. P eonies grow in single- and double-flowered varieties. They are a showy flower and make fine subjects for flower drawings. The background strokes follow the direction of the petals and blend outward from the center.

Developing the Peony This exercise should be drawn on vellum-finish Bristol board. On this surface, shading produces a bit more texture than the smoother plate finish.

Begin the exercise by drawing and positioning the major flower parts in step l. In step 2, begin shading the petals and surrounding leaves. Start shading in earnest in step 3, and establish the background pattern. American flowering dogwood.

T here are different varieties of dogwood. Below is an oriental type called the "kousa dogwood," and at the right is the American flowering dogwood. Both of their flowers vary from pure white to delicate pink. Follow the steps closely to draw them. L ilies are very fragrant, and the plants can grow up to 8 feet tall. Use the steps below to develop the flower, which you can attach to the main stem when drawing the entire plant, as shown at the bottom of the page. Bud Detail The lily bud in step 1 above starts out com- pletely closed.

Step 2 illustrates the two angles you should shade to give the bud form. It also shows how to transform the bud so it appears slightly opened. Add these types of buds to your lily plant, paying attention to how they attach to the stems.

Shading lines like these illustrate a technique called crosshatching and give the petals form. T here are many primrose varieties with a wide range of colors. This exercise demonstrates how to draw a number of The unopened primrose buds begin with small, flowers and buds together. Take your time egg-like shapes. Forming the Primrose Blossom Draw a main stem first, and add smaller ones branching outward. Keep them in clusters, curving out in different directions from the.

Developing the Leaves These steps show three shad- ing stages of leaves. In step 1 at the far right , lightly out- line leaf shape. Begin shading in step 2, sketching where the leaf veins will be. Then shade around those areas, leav ing them white, to bring out the veins. When you reach step 3, clean up the details, and add a few darker areas along some of the veins. H ibiscus grow in single- and double-flowered varieties, and their colors include whites, oranges, pinks, and reds—even blues and purples.

Some are multi- or bicolored. The example Hibiscus Bud Detail Try drawing a few buds, and attach them to stem here is a single-flowered variety. Planning Your Drawing Even though the hibiscus has a lot of detail, it isn't difficult to draw.

Steps leading up to the finished drawing must be fol- lowed closely to get the most out of this exercise. Step 1 shows the overall mass, petal direction, and basic center of the flower. Consider the size of each flower part in relation to the whole before attempting to draw it.

Shading Before shading the petals in step 2, study. Add the details of the flower center, and block in the stem and leaves. H ybrid tea roses have large blossoms with greatly varying colors.

When drawing rose petals, think of each fitting into its own place in the overall shape; this helps position them correctly. Begin lightly with an HB pencil, and use plate-finish Bristol board. Making Choices The block-in steps are the same no matter how you decide to finish the drawing, whether lightly outlined or completely shaded. For shading, use the side of a 2B pencil and blend with a paper stump.

Using the paper stump in small circle movements will let you blend small areas to a smooth finish. F loribunda roses usually flower more freely than hybrid tea roses and grow in groups of blossoms. The petal arrangement in these roses is involved; but by studying it closely you'll see an overlapping, swirling pattern. Outline the overall area of the rose mass in step l. Once this is done, draw the swirling petal design as shown in steps 2 and 3.

Begin fitting the center petals into place in step 4. Use the side of an HB to shade as in step 5, being careful not to cover the water drops. They should be shaded separately. The downward shading lines follow the angle of the leaf surface, and the pattern suggests veining. Use a kneaded eraser to pull out highlights. Pompon chrysanthemum. T he two varieties of chrysanthemums on this page are the pompon and the Japanese anemone. The Japanese anemone grows four inches or more across and produces flowers with irregular outlines that, in some cases, resemble forms of anemone sea life.

Follow the steps for each flower type, trying to capture the attitude and person- ality of each flower and petal formation. It's best to draw this exercise on plate- finish Bristol board using both HB and 2B pencils. Smooth bond paper also provides a good drawing surface. Observe the difference in texture between the top of the Japanese anemone blossom below Side view and its sides. The voluminous, bushy effect is achieved with many short, squiggly lines drawn in random directions, in contrast to the sloping lines of the lower petals.

Japanese anemone chrysanthemum. Short squiggly lines. Their petal arrangement is challenging to draw. Develop the drawing outline with a 2B pencil, then add an inter esting background using a flat sketch pencil with random strokes and varying pressures.

Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach, 6th Edition

The unopened bud resembles a miniature pumpkin. Draw in the ereases first to make shading easier.

Shade darker near the creases to make them appear indented into the leaf. Drawing Petals Follow the arrows when developing the petals. Work from the center outward, allowing each new petal to be overlapped by the previous one. Step 2 shows most of the petals in place, Applying Shading A flat sketching pencil is best for shading the broad portions of the but notice that changes to leaves.

Use the corner of the lead to draw the outlines and indicate veining. To create a their position may occur more interesting "sketchy" look, leave some parts unshaded rather than finishing them off when you shade.

T he bearded iris is probably the most beautiful of the iris varieties. Its col- ors range from deep purples to blues, lavenders, and whites. Some flowers have delicate, lightly colored petals with dark veining. They range in height from less than a foot to over three feet. Beginning to Shade Follow the arrow directions in step 3 for blending and shading strokes; these strokes make the petal surfaces appear solid.

Darken shadowed areas using the point of a 2B. Using Guidelines Step 1 above shows the block-in lines for a side view of the iris, whereas step 1 below shows a frontal view. Whichever you choose to draw, make your initial outline shapes light, and use them as a general guide for draw- ing the graceful curves of this flower's petals.

Good, clean block-in lines are helpful for shading an involved subject. Take your time, and plan ahead to save correction time. It just has more flowers and shading steps. Once again, we must first draw the overall layout of the flowers before attempting any shading. Drawing the Petals Sketch the ridge lines in the petals; they are necessary for accurate shading.

Develop the shading in stages, filling in the grooved areas first. Then make the whole flower slightly grayer by adding what is known as a "glaze" over it. To glaze, use the side of an H B lead very lightly, shading with smooth, even strokes over completed sections of the drawing.

To make petal surfaces appear even smoother, blend them with a Dark shading under the paper stump. The more detail you add, the more time a drawing will f take. Don't become discouraged. Create highlights by molding a kneaded eraser into a sharp wedge, "drawing" with it in the same direction as the shading. C reating a good still life composition is simply arranging the elements of a drawing in such a way that they make an eye- pleasing, harmonious scene.

It's easy to do once you have a few guidelines to follow. The most important things to keep in mind are: Like everything else, the more you study and practice forming pleasing compositions, the better you'll become.

Begin by choosing the items to include, and then try different groupings, lighting, and backgrounds. Test out the Composing with Photos Dynamic compositions rarely "just happen"—most arrangements in small, quick thumbnails, like the ones shown are well planned, with objects specifically selected and arranged in an appealing manner to create good flow and depth.

Taking snapshots of your arrangements below. These studies are invaluable for working out the best pos- will help you see how your setups will look when they're drawn on a flat surface. Step One From your thumbnail sketches, choose a horizontal format. Notice that the tureen is set off-center; if the focal point were dead center, your eye wouldn't be led around the whole drawing, which would make a boring composition.

Then lightly block in the basic Horizontal Format The "landscape" format is a traditional one, perfect for shapes with mostly loose, circular strokes, using your whole arm to keep the lines free. Here, as in any good composition, the overlap- ping vegetables lead the viewer's eye around the picture and toward the focal point—the tureen. Even the tile pattern points the way into the picture and toward the focal point. Vertical Format In this "portrait" format, the carrot tops add height to the composition and counterbalance the arc of vegetables in the foreground.

The tip of the head of garlic and the angle of the beans lead the viewer into the composition and toward the focal point. In the background, only a sug- gestion of shadows are drawn, and the vertical tiles are not clearly defined.

This adds to the upward flow of the entire composition and keeps the view- er's attention focused on the tureen. Step Two Next refine the shapes of the various elements, still keeping your lines fairly light to avoid creating harsh edges. Then, using the side of an HB pencil, begin indicating the cast shadows, as well as some of the details on the tureen.

Step Three Continue adding details on the tureen and darkening the cast shadows. Then Step Four Next build the forms of the other vegetables, using a range of values and shad- start shading some of the objects to develop their forms.

You might want to begin with the ing techniques. To indicate the paper skins of the onion and the garlic, make strokes that bell pepper and the potato, using the point and side of an HB pencil. For the rough texture of the potato, use more random strokes. Step Five When you are finished developing the light, middle, and dark values, use a 2B pencil for the darkest areas in the cast shadows the areas closest to the objects casting the shadows. T he shiny surface of a highly polished, silver creamer is perfect for learning to render reflective surfaces.

For this exercise, use plate-finish Bristol board, HB and 2B pencils, and a kneaded eraser molded into a point. Begin by lightly drawing in the basic shapes of the egg and creamer. Step One Begin by lightly blocking in the basic shapes of the egg and the creamer. Don't go on to the next step until you're happy with the shapes and the composition. Step Two Once the two central items are in place, establish the area for the lace, and add light shading to the table surface.

Next position the reflection of the lace and egg on the cream- er's surface. Begin lightly shading the inside and outside surfaces of the creamer, keeping in mind that the inside is not as reflective or shiny. Then start lightly shading the eggshell. Step Three At this stage, smooth the shading on the egg and creamer with a paper stump. Then study how the holes in the lace change where the lace wrinkles and then settles back into a flat pattern. Begin drawing the lace pat- tern using one of the methods described on the opposite page.

You might often find objects for your still life drawings In the most unexpected places. Combine objects you believe aren't related, and they might surprise you by creating an appealing still lift.

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