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BRAHMANDA PURANA PDF

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The Brahmanda Purana (cittadelmonte.info) is a Sanskrit text and one of the eighteen major Puranas, .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. the Major 18 Puranas in one document. (overview of 18 Upa-Puranas, .. Lord Brahma's Life-Span and the Chronological Order of the. PURAN BRAHMANDA PURAN. Issue Date: Publisher: MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PVT. cittadelmonte.info, TITLE, kB, Adobe PDF, View/Open.


Brahmanda Purana Pdf

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The publication ofthe Puranas in English translation is a step towards that goal. PREFACE The present volume contains the Brahmanda Purana, Part I (Chapters . BRAHMA PURANA. Preliminaries. There was a forest known as Naimisharanya. The sages (maharshis) arranged for a sacrifice. (yajna) in this forest and the. Brahmanda Purana - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. Brahmanda Purana.

O n e has to dive into the ocean or delve into t h e rocks -to find t h e m out. Similarly, t r u t h lies concealed in t h e language which with the passage of time h a s become obsolete. But he has n e i t h e r the means n o r the leisure to embark on t h a t course. We have, therefore, planned to help h i m acquire knowledge by an easier course- We have started the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in English T r a n s l a t i o n. O u r goal is to universalize knowledge t h r o u g h the most p o p u l a r international m e d i u m of expression. T h e publication of t h e P u r n a s in English translation is a step towards t h a t goal.

Maine bahut sa blog padha par sahi jankari nehi mila. Kehi per likha hai ye samved ka slok hai jo ravan ne apni raksa k liye shivji k samne gaya tha. Kindly, kisi k pas sahi jankari hai to post kijiyaga. Please upload dash mahavidya pdf and shabar mantra pdf and also devi bhagwati purana…. Thank you so much. This will keep alive Hindu religion.

The site is wonderful. I like it very much. Sir, is there any site through which I can download Upnishdas. Devi bhagwat puran new edition with hindi translation. You upload old one words are hard to read. Rig Ved seems to have only upto 6th mandal. Kindly add a second part consisting of those. Is it possible. I understand that same was available with Venkateshwara press at Mumbai in the earlier years but now they are denying.

If someone is having, please upload. Do you anyone have Dhanurveda original book with mantra……. Kindly reply. Greatest compliment for this holy site containing greatest treasure. Thank you creator of this site. Please find out narad panchratra full edition in sanskrit with hindi translation not sankshipt short Please if you can it will be great. Thanks Vandana Goyal. May God shower his choicest blessings on all of you and your family members.

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Respected Sir, I honestly feel proud that your Organisation is working towards Collecting the religious books and maintaining a Treasure of Gyaan I request you to please if possible arrange for Ayurveda — Health related knowledge.

Becoz most of the disease disappears taking household items — e. Adrak, Lasun, Limbu, Sirka, Makhi, etc But each time we go to a doctor for Medicine it takes 2 — 3 days to completely kill the disease but that disease is not killed from Roots only we get relief for some time maybe few days, Once again we fall ill. Please work towards collection of Full Ayurveda details Today, America has patents on many indian Ayurvedic herbs — Neem, various indian herbs in Powdered form are filled into Capsules and sold to us.

That means we are eating our own Swadeshi items but paying hefty amounts to Foreign companies. Hope u understood my Intention. Quality is very poor. Plz do work on it.

Aap se namra nivedan karta hu ki manusmriti hindi pdf me milsakti he……? To plz yar upload karo…. Aap Vedic krishi vigyan pustak ko upload kare taking Sabha Vedic Vidhi dwara krishi ke kamo ko jaan sake.

Thank you so much for Shiv puran to make available here. You can make more clear scan of shiv puran pages as some of pages are not much clearly scaned in available pdf. See if possible. Dosto mujhe ravan samhita chahiye puri or apke paas isme nh hai agr kise ke paas ho to mujhe jarur bateye. App geeta press se le sakte hain. OR ocr software se convert kar sakte hain. Scanned to word.

Dhanywad un sabhika jenhone Hindu Dharm sambandhit pracharprasaar hetu bahut lagbhag sabhi Dharmik geranth shastro ko uplabdh krara. Mujhe mere Hindu Dharm ko janna samajhna bahut accha lagta hai. Bherata Ji aap aise he Dharm k prachar prasar krte raho. Bhagwan sadev aap k upar kripa banaye rakhe. Jay Shri RAM. Can you please upload bhagat Maha puran in good quality because the quality of the PDF is not good of bhagat puran. If you want bhagwad puran and other texts in very good quality then visit https: Is website ka look and feel achca nhi hai..

Hi vedpuran, Thanks for the good services that you people have been providing to us. Thanks for sharing lot of literature. Please share if somebody have. Great work! If possible, please provide Brahmanas and and Sutras also. With respect and thanks. Thank you very much for these archives … i search it anywhere but i cant get it … now i get it from your site.. Bahot accha prayas hai aap logo ka ,,muje vishnu saharsnamm chaheye tha ,,aaj jaker mila.

Thank you ,great wor. Dhanyawad for your Extreme Work. Please reply. Sanjiv Agarwal E, C. Park New Delhi sanjivagarwal7 gmail.

I would love to get the literature books related to the demon king Ravana, including the Ravan Smitha if anyone could help me please contact me on this no Arun ji for Rigveda audios please drop me a mail on punditsoam gmail. Please help me to find Bhagwat Mahapuran in English. If someone has then please share with me. Dear Kinjal ji please drop me a mail on punditsoam gmail. Can you please send Raavan Samhita hindi pdf file to my mail — ashok. Does any one have mahishasura mardini stotram in PDF.

Please guide. Tantra mantra wali koi pdf hai to please please … muje bhejo Or — lal kitab hoto bhejna sir please. Geet Govind by Jaydev in Hindi is not available here.

If anyone can make it available here? Sir pehle asp ka bhaut bhaut dhanywad. Phir aapse ek prathna h ki aap kakbhundi ramayan jise aadiramayan bhi kehte h ko Hindi version m PDF dalne ki kripa kare. Please send me Maha Indrajal and Rawan Samhita. Pdf format My email: I am really thankful to this site but I am looking for Shri dasam granth in Hindi meaning plz help me.

Maine sabhi PDF download kiye aur padhe hai sabhi ache hai aur scaning bhi achi hai. Sir please send ravan sanhita Hindi PDF at prashantsharma gmail. Hare Krishna, I am looking for all brahmana like shatpath and gopath and aranyak literature with either Hindi or English bhashya. I also got some but they are all in Sanskrit only.

Pls can u send raavna sahita book to my id arun. I need ravan samhita please hindi pdf please nishant27singh gmail. I have Ravan Samhita but after reading this, I feel, why?

Tantra Mantra Yantra. Bum Bhole. Any possibility of getting copy of Vriksha Ayurved? It may be part of a puran or a separate book granth!

DSpace at West Bengal State Central Library: THE BRAHMANDA PURANA PART. 3

I am very much thank full to you to create this website for download the religious books. May I upload some books on this site so that needy people can take benefit of the collection. Hello, can you please convert these files to audio files in hindi..

Hindu Vedas, Upnishad and Purans.. Rudra Ashtadhyayi ka book pdf me upload kariye jwala prasad mishra author hain aur khemraj shrikrishnadaas publisher hain. Thank you so much me apka jitna sukriya karu kam hai. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Ved Puran. Skip to content. Before Downloading large file you can download 4 pages sample file to check quality Download Sample 4 Pages your pc must have latest version of pdf is installed and have at least 2gb ram to open this file.

This file is in high quality scan. So that world will know. Share this: Like this: Like Loading November 28, at 8: Ansik says: May 9, at 6: Mayank Mishra says: July 4, at 4: Divas Mandal says: September 21, at Nhi direct download hoga uske bad pdf se offline mobile se computer se kisi se b dekh site ho.

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Please noted me. Monipandit says: December 17, at Vijay says: January 10, at Abhiahek choudhary says: January 17, at 6: Sagar says: January 21, at 8: January 22, at 5: Vishal says: January 25, at Can u plz share with me at vishalp yahoo. February 11, at March 21, at 1: April 6, at July 14, at 9: August 4, at 8: September 12, at July 26, at 4: November 27, at February 15, at March 21, at 2: Saim says: April 1, at Ye sabhi books mere pas hai…Or bhi bahut sari books h…Har subject ki.

Rajesh says: December 1, at 2: April 29, at 7: December 2, at 1: All the purana is of without table content Thus they are of no use. December 21, at 5: Rahul Sharma says: April 20, at 9: April 27, at Sourabh says: December 2, at 7: Subrahmanya G M says: January 28, at 8: Milan says: Santosh nirale says: December 4, at 8: Himanshu Mishra says: January 8, at 2: December 5, at December 7, at 5: June 20, at 6: Hemant Kumar says: March 8, at December 9, at 1: Tirthankar sen says: Abhinish Kale says: Thanks for sharing the Vedas..

Can anyone provide the pdf link for that as well.. Regards Abhinish Kale. Ranjith Kumar says: September 16, at 1: Amit Kumar Ghatak says: July 14, at 7: Nirav says: December 12, at 7: Nirav Amin says: December 24, at 9: December 14, at 9: December 18, at Dhaval says: January 14, at 6: Pratap says: September 21, at 8: Hitesh says: October 17, at 8: Sir, Can you share on hiteshr9 gmail.

Mohit says: October 18, at Sree says: October 20, at 7: Ravi says: October 20, at 8: Because no body confirm that they receive the said book…… If you really have kindly provide the requested user to get knowledge and help the peoples…. Thank You…. December 1, at 5: March 17, at 6: Jatin Bhandari says: October 23, at 3: January 13, at 1: December 18, at 9: Hi can you upload the following book Gyan ganga Geeta Tera gyan amrit.

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March 7, at 6: Puneet OM says: April 8, at 5: Bharat says: Brahma Puran. Vinod Vishwakarma says: December 28, at 1: February 7, at 8: December 29, at 9: Anshika kulshreshtha says: December 31, at 2: Prathamesh says: December 31, at 1: May 6, at 3: May 7, at 7: I am waiting for your reply Vaibhavji.

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P a r a u r m a , an i n c a r n a t i o n of Visnu, is advised by his forbear Aurva to perform p e n a n c e for propitiation of iva a n d secure from h i m his secret missiles. As a contrast, M b h.

As in KP 1. It is called para Brahman, the highest abode paramam padam etc. T h e identification of R u d r a a n d sacrificial fire is found in V e d i c literature e. T h e similarity in Liga-worship a n d fire-worship is significant. H e r e t h e phallusaspect has no place. G o d iva c a m e to bless the sages of D r u v a n a a n d d e m o n s t r a t ed to t h e m the P u p a t a way of reducing sins by inviting public censure, technically called 'Dvra' which includes o u t w a r d acts of courting rgrana , irrelevant speech avitad-bhsana e t c.

T h e sages were aghast as the behaviour was against dharma as they understood it. T h e words are: N o r the Liga-replica p r e p a r e d by t h e m could include Toni. But the h i n t of phallus-worship is clear, t h o u g h the two panegyrics o f Lord iva, one b y God B r a h m a W. T h e Varnramadharma is a later creation by god B r a h m a VV. Bath in holy ashes is essential.

H o l y ashes are the semen of god iva a n d they reduce to ashes all the sins of h i m w h o besmears himself w i t h it. It has vide Bhsarvaja's Ratnatk on Haradatta's Ganakrik. A person whose self is purified by applying the ashes a n d is self controlled is liberated W.

I n d r a being afraid of the child t h a t would be b o r n of Siva a n d U m requested Agni the omnipresent Fire-god to disturb their sexual intercourse. Being enraged, U m , as a p u n i s h m e n t for his disturbance at such a j u n c t u r e , forced Agni to carry the semen as foetus in his belly.

His b i r t h was welcomed w i t h j o y by all divine beings. He is the defeater of the enemies of gods a n d hence is called Skanda. W h e n he yawned, a javeline akti came out of his m o u t h. He was a n o i n t e d as the commander-in-chief of the a r m y of Devas.

Vana Being a destroyer of the a r m y of enemies of gods he is called Skanda. T h i s supports the tradition which explains his n a m e s M a h s e n a a n d K u m r a associated w i t h diseases like d e m o n cough as in Praskara Grhya Stra a n d his permission to the M o t h e r s to be evil spirits M b h.

Vana 2 2 0. Skanda's inability to intervene in the scuffle between. A cult worshipping the image of S k a n d a , was in vogue at the time of Patajali 1st C e n t A.

O u r P u r n a notes two exploits of this leader of the G a n a s of god iva. W h e n P a r a u r m a w e n t to L o r d iva to report his exploit the killing of Sahasrrjuna iva a n d U m were in their privacy. W h e n he was forcing his way in, G a n e a lifted up P a r a u r m a , whirled h i m in all the different worlds a n d placed h i m on the ground again.

In order to respect the axe of god iva, G a n e a allowed a tusk of his to be cut down II. T h e second episode Bd. Siva's mother-in-law did not approve of his u n c o n v e n t i o n a l ways. U m , Siva's spouse felt insulted a n d straightway urged iva to seek residence elsewhere. M a k a n a obeyed a n d G a n e a went on giving munificent gifts a c c o r d i n g to the wishes of all his worshippers.

At last t h e fame of t h e deity as a dispenser of all desires i n c l u d i n g sons, gold, longevityin fact everything reached king Suds. T h i s is no god b u t an evil spirit Bhuta. Epithets of Ganea D u r i n g reconciliation of Prvat, K r s n a explains the signi ficance of various n a m e s of G a n e a: In the future creation his snout will be b e n t.

Since the T e n t h K a l p a , G a n e a got priority of worship before all gods. K r s n a further gives the boon t h a t all auspicious rites such as Jtakarma consecratory rites after b i r t h , Garbhdhna, in proceeding on a j o u r n e y to holy places or on trade or business missions or military expedition.

As the enlightener a n d revealer of the G u n a Rajas he becomes Brahma, t h e creator, a n d of the T a m a s , he becomes K l a , the destroyer, a n d t h a t of Sattva, he stands separate as a sustainer of t h e universe Bd.

Visnu is called a thou sand-headed P u r u s a who is threefold according to gunas, four fold according to Vyhas manifestations. He is dya First , Aja u n b o r n , Nryana causing sleep i. Bhrgu's wife rushed forward a n d ordered I n d r a a n d others to get out, other wise she would b u r n t h e m down by her power of P e n a n c e. At the instigation of I n d r a , Visnu killed her. T h e sage Bhrgu cursed Visnu to take birth as a h u m a n being seven times a n d in their presence restored his wife back to life ibid 7 2.

W T h e original P u r n a h a d ten incarnations of Visnu, three divine a n d seven h u m a n. T h e serial Nos. Incar nation No. Name of his Preceptor and other details Son of D h a r m a God Brahma himself be came the sacrificial priest of P r t h u ' s yaja.

Born within the O c e a n when gods were in distress. For slaying H i r a n y a Kaipu. Begged of Bali, while he was performing a sacri fice, three paces of l a n d. Bali gladly d o n a t e d it when V m a n a assumed a refulgent T r i v i k r a m a form, deprived Bali of his kingdom of the three worlds, bound down Bali a n d confined Bali a n d his tribe to P t l a.

He enumerates the following seven incarnations of Visnu a m o n g h u m a n beings. Period Name Details Incar nation No. King His preceptor, U t a t h y a. Killing of Rvana. Annihilated K u r u s , established D h a r m a.

Kalki conquer a n d extermior Visnuyaas of P a r a r a , son of Devan a t e Mlecchas. People end of Kaliin C a n d r a m a s also will kill each other, Yuga. T h e cause of non-mention of the Boar-incarnation is per haps d u e to its detailed t r e a t m e n t in I.

W h e n Prvat threatened to leave the house d u e to Siva's inaction against P a r a u r m a , iva meditates a n d invokes Lord K r s n a w h o comes w i t h R d h. T h e epithet is applied to god iva I l. T h e r e is no difference between us.

You U m are Visnu a n d I am iva w h o has duplicated in forms. In the h e a r t of Siva, Visnu has assumed your form a n d in the h e a r t of Visnu, iva has assumed my f o r m ". T h e Synthesis of aiva a n d Vaisnava cults was the mission of the P u r n a s a n d Bd. Suras gods c o m m i t t e d u n g o d l y acts a n d Asuras showed super-human magnanimity. Our Purna indicates that D e v a s and Asuras were cousin-tribes.

For a full period of ten yugas, the universe was uninter 7 2. But due to the mischief, fraud or aggression of Devas, twelve battles were fought between them in the V a r h a K a l p a and V i s n u ' s incarnation was involved in some. V m a n a ' s fraudBali was cheated and deprived of his empire a n d confined to Ptla.

Churning of the nectar, Daityas cheated by V i s n u a s M o h i n i. Prah l d a was defeated by Indra. DhvajaVipracitti a n d his younger brother assumed Dhvaja form by M y I n d r a penetrated a hundred thousand killed him. Dhvajas and Asura a n d Asuras supported Cause. Although there is a big section of 40 chapters IV. T h e concluding verses of Ch. T h e section on Lalit Mhtmya starts with a ne-wMagalcarana benedictory verses and a new p a i r of interlocutors, a n d t h e contentsmanifestation of Goddess Lalit to kill the Asura Bhanda, her marriage with K m e v a r a iva , glorification of the goddess M a h p a d m a n d K m k s etc.

If Lalil-mhtmya is treated as an integral p a r t of the Bd. The Sun-worship T h e r e are references to the Sun-worship or propitiation of the Sun-god. T h u s Yjavalkya ireturns"vomits b a c k " Yajurveda to his teacher V a i a m p y a n a , propitiates the Sungod who confers on Brahma-rti Yjavalkya Yajur-mantras, after assuming the form of a horse I.

H e n c e white Yajurveda is called Vjasaneyi Samhit. C a n we regard this m y t h i c a l astronomy as a p a r t of t h e Sun-worship, as we can say a b o u t it in the Bhavisya Purna where M a g a Brahmins are found worshipping the Sun? In Il. In the description of K a l i Age, t h e ochre-coloured Buddhists , the nirgranthas J a i n s a n d K p l i kas are bracketed with the " m e r c h a n t s " of the V e d a a n d holy places 1.

T h e P u r n a strongly opposes a n i m a l sacrifices. In the T r e t Yuga sages declared to I n d r a t h a t the slaughter of animals in a sacrifice was n o t dharma. Hirhs Injury to a n i m a l s can never be dharma. Sacrifices are to be performed w i t h Seeds which a r e three years old u n p r o d u c t i v e ".

W h e n king ' U p a r i c a r a ' Heaven-moving Vasu disagreed w i t h this principle of non injury, he fell down a n d sank to P t l a 1. It is not certain whether the anikitat-vda in I. But very little information is preserved a b o u t non-Vedic Section of this P u r n a. Dharma-straAncient LoresScience of Music. O n e , however, wonders how this a t t i t u d e to ahims is to be recon ciled w i t h t h e promised fruits for non-vegetarian articles of food to be served at r d d h a Bd.

But Bd. Anusana C h. T h e topic of r d d h a is so comprehensively discussed t h a t it covers the following topics of D h a r m a - s t r a viz. H o l y places of Pilgrimage II. T h e classification of Pitrs into seven as in V. Srsti 9. T h e superstition of foodpollution by the sight of non-Vedic ascetics Skhyas, aivas like K r u s a s etc.

T h e r e is some contradiction in the tests of the B r h m a n a invited for r d d h a ch. N o t t h a t the contradictions m e n t i o n e d above are limited to Bd. T h a t is a charac teristic of literature of growth like P u r n a s where, due to lack of critical editing, b o t h old a n d new portions a r e allowed to r e m a i n despite their non-agreement. In spite of these, Bd. A p a r r k a quotes 75 verses from Bd. Smrti Candrik quotes a b o u t 50 verses on Ahnika a n d r d d h a.

Ancient Lores in Bd. Name of the Veda Total No. Total No. CVS supports T h e only 75 Sman 3. In statements about Rsis Sages , their lineage, t h e khs Branches of the V e d a s , there are a n u m b e r of discre pancies between Bd.

O u t of the ten different characteristics of t h e B r h m a a Texts, Bd. Science of Music1 T h e r e are seven notes Svaras viz. T h e r e are three Gramas basic scales. These have Sa, Ma a n d Ga as the starting notes. T h u s the Sa-scale would have notes: Sa, Ri, Dha, Ni. Sa scale: T h e n o t e is based on the translation a n d annotations of Ch. MSrchan was the g r a d u a l ascent and descent of the seven notes of the basic scale. As the Murchans started from each note of the scale, there were seven Murchans of each scale.

T h u s the murchanas of the three gramas n u m b e r e d twentyone. Tana is like Mrchan in which one or two specific notes are d r o p p e d. W h e n one specific svara note is dropped it is called Sadava Tna one consisting of six notes a n d when two specific notes are dropped, it is called Auduva Tna O n e consisting of five n o t e s.

According to P u r n a s , there were twenty Tnas of Madhyama-grma, fourteen of Sadja-grma a n d fifteen of Gandhara grma. T h e P u r a n i c concept of Tana is different from t h a t of the present day. T h e T e x t enumerates the names of 31 Tnas only in their corrupt forms, b u t they do not throw any light on their n a t u r e.

But they disclose the names of two ancient authors on Music. Bhlmasena with reference to the Tna Ngarapya form reconstructed from the obscure form Ngartnayapriyh in the text, a n d N r a d a. Very obscure names of murchans a n d their presiding deities a r e given in O n l y a critical edition of the text will help to clarify it.

Alankaras in Music1 As the whole c h a p t e r on Alakras Ch. Alakras are to be spoken of along with the Varnas move m e n t s of notes such 'steady', 'ascending' e t c. T h e a u t h o r enumerates four alakras such as Sthpani, Pramda, Apramda, promises to explain t h e m b u t the explanations are n o t found in t h e text. He is however right w h e n he emphasizes the use of the right Alakra 1.

Based on II. About Tolas, Bd. Lastly, he mentions three Vrttis viz. Citr, Vrtti a n d Dakfin. In Citr, the music of stringed instrument was p r o m i n e n t a n d the song subservient.

In Daksin, the song was p r o m i n e n t a n d instru m e n t a t i o n subservient a n d in the Vrtti, b o t h were employed equally vide Ntya stra Baroda Vol. IV, p p. In t h e Magalcarana benedictory verses at t h e beginning of the B d. Resorting to Yoga he created the world of mobile a n d immobile beings I. T h e B r a h m a n has neither beginning nor end. It is u n b o r n , subtle, incomprehensible, beyond b o t h Sat and A-sat existence a n d n o n existence I.

It is the source of the world. In concluding the P u r n a III. V i s n u assumes these forms. He is called Paramarsi I. T h i s epithet is preceded by the description of the evolution of the Universe ibid W. This is Theistic Skhya probably posterior to I v a r a k r s n a circa A. Toga Yoga as a philosophy is n o t directly discussed in the Bd. Visnu crea ted the world t h r o u g h his power of Yoga I.

A guest at t h e time of r d d h a should be received as 'masters of Yoga move in different forms to guide people in D h a r m a ' ibid V. T h e r e Bhakti is classified as follows: T h e middle class. Of ordinary people. A n d its utilization is for the achievement of everything T h e M a n t r a is followed by Kavaca Protective c h a r m with mystical syllables called Trailokya-Vijaya Accompanied with mystic syllables like Om Hrim a n u m b e r of epithets of K r s n a express his close association w i t h R d h.

Later, a Stotra, called Krsnmrta Stotra, a series of epithets of K r s n a reported to have been recited by esa, is n a r r a t e d by Agastya to P a r a u r m a T h e section on Lalit Mhtmya starts with a new Magalcarana benedictory verses a n d a new pair of interlocutors, a n d t h e contentsmanifestation of Goddess Lalit to kill the Asura B h a n d a , h e r m a r r i a g e w i t h K m e v a r a iva , glorification of the goddess M a h p a d m a n d K m k s etc.

But if Lalit-Mhtmya is treated as an integral p a r t of t h e Bd. Other points A few m o r e points are remarkable: For Bd. T h e tirade against Trsn covetousness in the t r a d i t i o n a l verses ascribed to K i n g Yayti Il.

Vana , nti a n d in other P u r n a s. T h e legend deserves special a t t e n t i o n as o u r P u r n a has devoted 37 chapters chs. T h e basic incident of the legend took place in the hoary a n t i q u i t y circa B.

Paraurma's killing Krttavrya in retaliation. T h e story begins after the rddha-Kalpa procedure of performing r d d h a as follows: W i t h the permission of his father, P a r a u r m a visits his grandfather Rcka a n d t h e n his great-grandfather a n d so on till he visits Bhrgu the founder of his family. Ibid, p. S e e below: W a s Karttavirya a villain? He becomes his p e r m a n e n t companion.

P a r a s u r m a ' s vow to annihilate Ksattriyas twentyone times. P a r a u r m a approaches iva, propitiates him a n d gets the secret of the perfect missile Chs. T h e protective m a n t r a Kavaca is called Trailokya-Vijaya conquest of the three worlds Ch. T h e story of the m a l e a n d female deer illustrating the fruit of the h y m n called Krsnapremamrta Ch.

After carrying out his vow P a r a u r m a goes to iva to report his exploits b u t is prevented by Ganea to enter, as iva a n d Prvat were taking rest. Prvat strongly complains against this.

After completing his p e n a n c e for Twelve Years P a r a u r m a learns how his father was killed. He recalls his divine charioteer a n d advances against H a i h a y a s , K r t t a v r y a ' s son Vtihotra hides a n d saves his life.

P a r a u r m a repeats the slaughter of Ksattriyas twenty-one times. Thereafter, he quietly performs p e n a n c e there Chs. T h e Sagara episode Chs. V a r u n a , t h e Sea-god, does not respond.

Parau r m a angrily fixes an arrow to his bow to evaporate the whole ocean. T h e n only V a r u n a appears a n d concedes to vacate. In fact it was a fight for the control of Indo-Gangetic plain between.

T h e sources of these new extra episodes are obscure. But the legend of P a r a u r m a as amplified in the Bd. Some works like Paraurama-Kalpastra, veda are a t t r i b u t e d to h i m. T h e P a r a u r m a legend raises a few problems of historical imp or t a n ce.

Phrug us leads one to believe that they came from Phrygia in West Asia. T h e Vedas credit the Bhrgus to have brought the fire from the heaven a n d that they were performers of Soma-Sacrifice. T h e y explored the technique of the use of fire in war, as a Bhrgava sage Aurva is said to have been dissuaded by his Pitrs probably elderly people of his c l a n to desist from per fecting his fire-missile. Karandikar states that R o m a n s were a Bhrgava people w h o M a n u , a Bhrgava was a law giver.

T h e y were experts in arts a n d crafts as they are m e n t i o n e d as chariot-buildjers 2. T h e y were on the coast of Gujarat at the time of P a r a u r m a , as his father is associated w i t h Bhrgukaccha Broach from which they migrated to Madhya-dea due to the pressure of H a i h a y a s 4.

N o b o d y has raised this point. But in Mbh. Pargiter, A I H T. T h e fact is t h a t the Patriarchical system was well-established in t h e days of M b h. To credit a m a n w i t h span of active military leadership for twentyone generations is historically absurd. A n d it shows t h e hollowness of the refrain, if it is taken literally to be t r u e. A n d a com plete genocide of Ksattriyas is not implied by the P u r n a s as shown below: T h e only fault committed by h i m was the raid on J a m a dagni's hermitage w h e n he a n d his entourage were given a royal 1.

Arjurtas tu mahtej ball nityarh amtmakah. Politically it was not desirable to allow such an inimical centre either in or n e a r the borders of his kingdom.

For m a n y years Bhargavas t u r n e d inimical since when his tax-collectors haras sed t h e m a n d m a n y fled for life, though they were on friendly terms d u r i n g his father's reign.

No sane ruler should allow such an economically powerful inimical centre n e a r his kingdom even t h o u g h he be given a rousing reception a n d treated w i t h sump tuous b a n q u e t s etc. But he did not raid the rama. Even the pro-Bhrgava M b h. O t h e r P u r n a s offer different versions: T h e frustrated king, m a d w i t h rage, killed the sage by the blows of his fist.

Bhavisya 3. It is obviously due to the political i m p o r t a n c e of M a g a d h a as a seat of imperial power while the P u r n a s were in the formative stage.

T h e details of dynasties t h a t ruled over M a g a d h a since the beginning of t h e K a l i Age are as follows: Although Bh. The Arabic figures in brackets after the n a m e of the king denote the n u m b e r of years of the reign of that king. These 22 B r h a d r a t h a kings ruled for years.

II Pradyota Dynasty. This account in the P u r n a is misleading. T h e following were t h e rulers: The Vedic Age, p. T h e r e is a discrepancy in the total period of this dynasty viz. Vidhisra i. Bimbisra Seniya in the A M g c a n o n occupied the t h r o n e of M a g a d h a immediately after Arijaya a n d t h a t iunga c a m e a few generations after a n d not before Bimbisra 1.

IV Nanda Dynasty Op. T o t a l period of N a n d a dynasty years. V Maurya Dynasty Op. Though Bd. VI uga Dynasty Op. T h u s 10 uga kings are said to have ruled for atam prnarh daa due ca years in B d.

T h e r e were five kings in his dynasty as follows: These K a n v y a n a kings ruled for 45 years. T h e fullest list of 30 kings is in the M t. Pulomvi 7. T h e total span of these dynasties of K a l i a g e is given as follows: O u r P u r n a presents this m u c h historical d a t a from the beginning of the K a l i Age to the end of the n d h r a dynasty. O t h e r great dynasties like the Solar race a n d t h e L u n a r race are n o t adequately treated. After the description of t h e A n d h r a dynasty, Bd.

After these, K i l a k i l a clan will rule, after w h o m Vindhyaakti A. Vindhya-akti's son Pravra i. The Date of the Bd. Like the M b h. We can fix the d a t e s of t h e different parts of t h e text, the general d a t e being t h a t of its last redaction. Adhismakrsna was the fourth in descent from Parlksit. This m e a n s the Birth of Parksit took place in B. Pargiter's assumption of B.

T h e Vedic Age p. If B. Political as as is Chatterji. History of India from the that i t should. Parksit to the extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, p. But the present text is definitely later both in language a n d contents as can be seen from the following: It means Sk. T h e evidence given by Pargiter in D K , p. Sapta-vamajh instead of Gupta-vamajh in the corresponding verses in V. T h e following verse is the verse in question. Vamajhj Bd.

T h e verse describes correctly the region ruled by G u p t a s. G o n d a attributes this to the lack of interest of the Indonesian translator in I n d i a n dynasties. But w h e n the Indonesian translator sum marises or translates the major portion of the Bd. It must have been an incomplete copy which reached Indonesia in the early centuries of the Christian era. In spite of the interpolatory portion, the Bd. Appendix to the date of the Bd. Some etymologies T h e a u t h o r of the Bd.

Although most of t h e m a r e discussed in the annotations, here are a few specimens: Obeisance, obeisance to the Self-born deity consisting of the quality of sattva on the occasions of annihilation, creation or sustenance of the universe. Obeisance to the selfb o r n deity of three-fold forms viz. Sattva, Rajas a n d Tamas. Victorious is Lord H a r i w h o sustains t h e worlds, w h o is u n b o r n , who is omnipresent a n d possessed of the t h r e e qualities yet is also devoid of them.

T h e term Brahmnda connotes a mixture of ancient Indian concepts about Cosmography, Cosmo logy and Cosmogony. In the Nrada Purna N P. It contains a number of verses and chapters c o m m o n to the Vyu Purna V. Purna PacaLaksaria. Perhaps the wording of the Krma Purna K. Ali to believe that 'The geographical section of this Purna Bd. But the statement in the Bd. T h e problem however will be discussed in the Introduction.

But I must acknowledge that the text of the identical and similar verses Bd. I seek refuge in g o d Brahma, the creator of the world, who is omniscient, unvanquished, who is the lord of everything past, present and future a n d who is the real Master of all.

F o u r things are to be resorted to by the goodnamely, the unparalleled knowledge a n d d e t a c h m e n t , a n d super-human power a n d virtue found in full form in case of the lord of the universe. T h e Lord knowing t h a t these h u m a n dispositions always consist of the good a n d the evil, created them again, indeed, without hesitation aviakah for the sake of performance of religious actions. T h e creator of the world who knows full well the reality about the world and is conversant with Yoga, resorted to Yoga a n d created all living beings mobile a n d immobile.

I am desirous of knowing the P u r n i c narrative a n d so I seek refuge in the m i g h t y L o r d t h e creator of the universe , the witness of the worlds a n d the supreme all-pervading R u l e r. T h a t Prajpati L o r d of all creatures , Lord Brahma recounted to Vasistha 1 , the entire P u r n a t h a t is on a p a r with the Vedas a n d the m a i n theme of which is t h e real state of the universe.

T h e holy sage Vasistha taught to his grandson, Par ara, the son of akti, this sacred P u r n a which is the n e c t a r of the knowledge of reality. An important point to note is the missing link of Vyu here. Vyso labdhv tatai'caitat, Prabhajana-mukhodgatam T h a t is according to N.

JtukarnyaVyu or P r a b h a j a n a V y s a , is the proper Parampar line of oral transmission. T h i s lacuna is however indi rectly supplied in V. Another point is the emphatic claim of the P u r n a to a status equal to the V e d a. A n d the third point is about the m a i n object of the P u r n a viz. D v a i p y a n a was delighted thereby. T h a t self-contro lled sage passed on the kuowledge of t h a t extremely wonder ful P u r n a t h e content of which was t h e knowledge of the real state of t h e world.

His modes of n a r r a t i o n were extremely wonderful. He became extremely intelligent and virtuous. He was a p p r o a c h e d and questioned by a sage like you? He h a d t h e most excellent selfcontrol. Along with the other sages, he used to bow down to the sages after c i r c u m a m b u l a t i n g them. He was endowed with great devotion. After acquiring learning, he b e c a m e satisfied 1.

Secondly, Parara teaches this Purna to Jtukarnya and not to his own son Vysa. P a i l a took interest in the V e d a , leaving the Lore to S t a narration. L o R o maharsana. H e humbly a p p r o a c h e d t h e p u r e sages who were performing t h e elaborate-sacrificial session. He excelled t h e m in intel lect b u t as laid down in t h e scriptures 2 , h e bowed down duly to them. On seeing R o m a h a r s a n a then, all those sages were extremely pleased.

T h e y were glad a n d their minds became happy. T h e y worshipped h i m with all necessary requisites of hospitality, such as Arghya M a t e r i a l s of worship , Pdya w a t e r for washing t h e feet etc.

He paid respects to all t h e sages. He received the permission of the king? He a p p r o a c h e d all those sages individually consider ing t h e m to b e t h e eternal B r a h m a n , the great splendour.

W h e n t h e assembled persons indicated their consent, he sat on a beautiful well-covered seat. W h e n he h a d taken his seat, all t h e sages of praise worthy, holy vows, well-disciplined according to religious rules, a n d of calm a n d concentrated m i n d s , became delighted a n d surrounded h i m w h o was an observer of great religious vows.

H o w glad are we, the residents of this place, to see you, t h e best of sages, of excellent vows, hale a n d hearty, O intelligent one! He is the Pratiloma offspring of a and Smrtis of M a n u , Yjavalkya 1. H e n c e this foranmaya and not Stra. Ksattriya father and a Brahmin mother vide Gaut. T h a n k s to you t h e performer of meritorious h o l y rites. I no longer consider this e a r t h a void, O S t a , you a r e t h e disciple of t h a t noble-souled sage Vysa.

You a r e intelligent a n d you are always worthy of his blessings. You a r e fully epuipped w i t h t h e good qualities of a genuine disciple. You a r e learned a n d educated. Since you a r e worthy of being blessed, O holy lord, you have understood t h e principles.

After having a t t a i n e d vast knowledge, you are free from d o u b t s in every respect. O wise one, it always behoves you to r e c o u n t to us, everything t h a t we ask you. This has already been h e a r d by you from V y s a.

On being requested t h u s by t h e sages then, the excessively intelligent Sta, endowed w i t h humility, offered an excellent reply full of modesty thus: It behoves you to ask questions on a n y topic w h i c h you desire to k n o w.

You have seen Vysa personally. H e n c e you explain t h e origin of t h e world completely. We wish to know who was b o r n in which family. W e wish to know t h e details of the family and ancestry of t h e kings, sages e t c.

K i n d l y recount the wonderfully diversified creative activity of Prajpati during the days of y o r e ". T h u s was t h e excellent a n d noble-souled R o m a h a r s a n a requested after offering h i m d u e hospitable reception.

T h a t excellent-most Sta n a r r a t e d everything in detail a n d in d u e order. T h i s is indicative of the title 'Brahmnda Purna'. A P u r n a is characterised by five topics 3. T h e first pda section of this P u r n a is called Prakriy-Pda section on rites. In this section there is the summing 1.

Secondly This is modern Nimsar at a distance of 20 miles from Sitapur from and two the present text is a rehp. T h e word Naimisa is derived different words 1 Nimisa 'the twinkling of the eye' a n d.

According to 1 , this place c a m e to be called N a i m i s a as V i s n u killed an army of Asuras within the twinkling of an e y e at this place ridhara on Bh.

According to 2 w h i c h is accepted here in infra 1. T h e sages w h o followed it to that place accepted it for their sacrificial session. This popular etymology from Nemi is endorsed by V. It was at this place that R m a performed his horse-sacrifice 7. Although there was another N a i m i s r a n y a in Kuruksetra sion was from the West to the East, the N a i m i s r a n y a on to be the 'birth-place' 3.

Although these characteristics have been unanimously accepted as essential parts of the Purnas, ' T h e Purna T e x t s that h a v e c o m e d o w n to us hardly conform to this definition" The Hist, and Culture of the Indian People V o l. If the original Purna texts conformed to this description, the present texts of the Purnas must have been revised or mutilated during their transmission. T h u s the four sections are briefly mentioned by m e.

Thereafter, the Vedas c a m e out of his m o u t h s. Simi larly, the Vedgas ancillary subjects , the D h a r m a s t r a s L a w codes , the sacred rites and holy observances also c a m e out. T h e n the decision 2 " I will create the entire universe beginning with Mahat t h e G r e a t Principle a n d ending w i t h ViSesa the p a r t i c u l a r creations of worldly o b j e c t s " by the unmanifest cause which is eternal a n d of the n a t u r e of Sat Existent and Asat Non-existent.

T h e covering of the waters by the Tejas t h e fiery e l e m e n t. T h e enclosure of the Tejas by the gaseous element. T h e n the encircling of the gaseous element by the Ether. Its covering by Bhtdi E g o. T h e Egg itself has been described as situated within the enclosure of t h e elements.

T h e a p p e a r a n c e of the rivers a n d the mountains"is described here. After this is t h e description of the creation of the 1. T h e Purna-writers claim their priority in creation and hence existed the. As the following topics are given as table of con tents their special explanations will be given in their respective chapters. T h e occurrence of the K a l p a s ; the stabilisation of the Universe; H a r i ' s lying down in the waters a n d the uplift of the E a r t h.

T h e particular description of the cities etc. T h e positions of the stars and the planets a n d their transit from one Zodaical sign to a n o t h e r a n d the a b o d e of the Siddhas a n d their distance in yojanas in details a n d the allocation of places in the heaven to m e n of auspicious conduct. T h e n a r r a t i o n of the different species of trees, medicinal herbs a n d creepers.

T h e two paths viz. T h e creation and manifestation of M a n g o a n d other trees. T h e n the nine types of intentional creations by god B r a h m a are described. Priyavrata, U t t n a p d a as well as t h a t of the auspicious Prasti a n d Akrti kti. Those who h a d rid themselves of sins a n d are well established themselves in the t h r e e worlds are glorified.

After wards t h e b i r t h of twins in Akti from Ruci, the Prajpati. T h e auspicious births of Daksa's d a u g h t e r s from Prasti. Vyu P. As well as the r a c e of A d h a r m a E v i l from Hirhs Violence characterised by T a m o - g u n a a n d inauspiciousness.

T h e description of t h e creation of subjects by Bhrgu a n d o t h e r sages, where-in t h e lineage of the B r h m a n a sage Vasistha is recounted. T h e protest against the e n m i t y b y R u d r a of wonderful feats, because defects were seen is described.

T h e auspicious characteristics of t h e d a u g h e r of K a r d a m a , the Prajpati. So also t h e description of the Varsas sub-continents a n d rivers a n d t h e i r different types. H o w thousands of t h e different continents com prise t h e g r o u p of seven Dvpas. HemaktaLadakhKailashTrans-Himalayan chain. T h e distance between pairs of these, the girth, height and extent of these mountains, all these are mentioned is so m a n y Yojanas. T h e inhabitants of these mountains are recounted.

B h r a t a a n d other sub-continents are described, alongwith the rivers a n d m o u n t a i n s therein. H o w they are inhabited by the mobile a n d the immobile living beings. J a m bdvpa a n d other islands continents are surrounded by seven oceans.

Thereafter the golden e a r t h a n d Lokloka m o u n t a i n is described. These worlds have definite extents a n d magnitudes, consist of seven continents. R p a form, colour etc. All these a r e partial transformation of the P r a d h n a.

T h e dtmerttions are mentioned. M a h e n d r a and other splendid a n d sacred m o u n t a i n s on the summit n o r t h of the M n a s a lake are described along with t h e present beings that are in possession of t h e m a n d t h a t identify themselves with them.

T h e sun's movement above these, like a firebrand moving in a circle, has been mentioned. T h e characteristics of Ngavthi a n d Aksavthi a r e m e n t i o n e d. T h e description of the two ksths kosfhaamisprint quarters or courses of w i n d s , the two Lekhas, horizons or Lekhasdeities a n d the zones in Yojanas; of the Lokloka m o u n t a i n of the twilight, of the d a y a n d of the Visuvat Equinox.

It has t h e efficacy of according auspiciousness as well as inauspiciousness to t h e subjects. T h e chariot whereby t h e lord goes to his abode from t h e heaven is presided over by t h e Devas, the Adityas, t h e sages, t h e G a n dharvas, t h e Apsaras, the G r m a n s , t h e serpents a n d t h e Rksasas. T h e Rasa juice t h a t exudes from t h e chariot evolved out of t h e essence of the waters, is m e n t i o n e d: T h e heavenly porpoise a t t h e tail end of which t h e pole star is stationed is also described.

All t h e constellations of stars along w i t h t h e planets wherein t h e gods of meritorious acts h a v e their abodes are described.

Brahmanda Purana

T h e introduction and c o m m e n c e m e n t of agricultural activities e t c. T h e penance is praised a n d so also the situations of the Yugas entirely. So also is t h e definition of Pratisandhna Period of transition between two M a n v a n t a r a s.

So also t h e way of t h e knowledge of Kla Time. T h e characteristic features of the sons of charioteers a n d those of t h e B r h m a n a s are described in full. T h e classi fication of the Vedas by t h e noble-souled Vedavysa is also given. T h e grandsons of Daksa ; the splendid progeny of his beloved d a u g h t e r ; the children procreated by B r a h m a a n d others a n d the children begot by t h e intelligent D a k s a ; the S v a r n a M a n u s who h a d resorted to M e r u are also recounted here.

T h e creative activity of Cksusa M a n u , the descrip tion of the prowess of the subjects; the act of milking the e a r t h by the lord K i n g P r t h u , t h e son of Vena. T h e special m e n t i o n of the vessels, milks and calves; the fact t h a t this e a r t h h a d already been milked by B r a h m a and others. T h e birth of D a k s a the intelligent Prajpati from the ten Pracetasas in M r i s as occurring t h r o u g h e q u a l p a r t of everyone of t h e m is described.

T h e lordship over the past, present and future things of M a h e n d r a s is recounted. T h e M a n u s a n d others who are covered with M a n u narratives will be described. T h e detailed creative activity of Vaivasvata M a n u is recounted. N r a d a , the m e n t a l son of Brahma, engaged t h e extremely powerful sons of Daksa in convex sation and destroyed t h e m and was cursed as a r e s u l t.

T h e seven times seven 49 groups of M a r u t s are recounted here. T h e y acquired Devatva state of being Devas because of their staying a l o n g w i t h I n d r a.

T h e i r residence is the shoulders? T h e origin of t h e Daityas, D n a v a s , Yaksas, G a n d h a r v a s , Rksasas, ghosts a n d evil spirits, of the Yaksas, birds, creepers etc. T h e origin of the Apsaras is n a r r a t e d in great details. T h e detailed narratives of t h e races of Bhrgus a n d t h e Agiras a r e recounted. T h e detailed description of t h e progeny of K yapa, Pulastya, noble-souled Atri a n d sage P a r a r a.

T h r e e girls in w h o m t h e worlds are stabilised are glorified. Iksvku a n d others are glorified briefly. T h e creation of the king Nisi etc. D h r u v a is not credited w i t h destroying Brhadbalas, vide P E. T h e greatness of J y m a g h a and his creation of subjects is recounted. T h e wickedness of Kariisa a n d t h e b i r t h of Vasudeva Visnu of u n m e a s u r e d splendour in Devak, d u e to t h e unification of t h e families?

Afterwards t h e creative activity of t h e sages; the description of t h e creation of the subjects; w h e n t h e war of t h e Devas a n d t h e Asuras s t a r t e d ; a w o m a n was slain by Visnu while protecting akra from d e a t h a n d a curse was obtained by him from Bhrgu. Bhrgu resuscitated the divine m o t h e r of ukra. T h e propitiation o f S t h n u iva by ukra by m e a n s of severe penance. Afterwards t h e m a t e r i a l activity of t h e Devas a n d the Asuras is recounted.

W h e n t h e noble-souled ukra was a t t a c h e d to J a y a n t , t h e intelligent Brhaspati, assuming t h e form of ukra deluded Asuras for which a c t ukra cursed Brhaspati. Vifnor divybhiSarhsanam, ' T h e divine e u l o g y of g o d Visnu'. T w e l v e wonderful battles between gods and demons. It should be as V. T u r vasu w h o was t h e younger brother of Y a d u was t h e grandson of ukra. T h e descendants of A n u were noble-souled.

Excellent kings a m o n g t h e m are fully described. T h e y h a d plenty of wealth a n d their splendour was m u c h. T h e r e t h e curse of Brhaspati by the poets 1? In t h e concluding portion, the future kings are recounted. T h e description of t h e groups of lords, yet to come, is given in detail.

T h e annihilation is divided into Naimittika at t h e end of a K a l p a Prkrtika after two parrdha years w h e n B r a h m a dies and tyantika w h e n t h e individual soul merges in the Brahman. T h e re-absorption a n d dissolution of all living be ings in various ways is described.

The description of Prkrtika Pralaya is described in t h e S m k h y a system of philosophy. T h e corresponding verse in V. T h e description of the seven worlds beginning w i t h Bh.

T h e ultimate sequel of all living beings is deci sively fixed. T h e description of the worldly existence through the Pratisarhsarga secondary creation of B r a h m a.

T h e move ment upwards or downwards as dependent on virtue or evil has been m e n t i o n e d. T h e annihilation of great Bhtas elements in every K a l p a. Even god Brahma is not eternal. T h e wickedness of worldly pleasures, the p a i n in the course of worldly existence. One abandons the Sattva living beings whether manifest or unmanifest a n d is established in the B r a h m a n. Since multiplicity is seen, t h e idea of purity of the world recedes. T h e n t h e devotee becomes afraid of the three types of Tpa distresses arising from Rpa a n d Artha forms a n d objects.

After obtaining the bliss of B r a h m a n , he is not afraid of anything. Again the creation by another Brahma as before, is recounted. T h e Vikriys changes of the universe such as crea tion a n d annihilation are described. Sathhra emended as Samsra, otherwise it w o u l d m e a n 'Pain annihilation'. T h e activities of the living beings t h a t a r e b o r n a n d the fruits they obtain a r e described.

T h e n t h e creation of the groups of sages is described. It is destructive of sins. T h e h a t r e d towards sage Vivmitra of t h e intelligent P a r a r a along with his son. T h e collection of Agni fire by Vasistha w i t h a desire to kill Vivmitra.

W i t h the blessings of arva i v a , t h e saintly lord Vysa split one V e d a of four quarters into four V e d a s. T h e lord w h o wished for their welfare told t h e m like this: Its b e a u t y a n d splendour is divine. It has seven spokes. As it rolls d o w n , all of you follow it alertly, watchfully. T h a t place where t h e r i m of this wheel is broken is a holy land. It should be considered sacred.

Saudssthi-grahacsya in this text is contrary to facts. It was Sau-. H e n c e the better reading is in V. A popular etymology of ftTaimifranya vide n o t e 2 p.

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Saudsn nigrahas tasya Vivmitra-. After saying this to all those sages, he b e c a m e invisible. T h e sages of Naimisa forest performed a S a t r a there taking only Tava b a r l e y as their food along with the w a t e r of G a g.

W h e n S a r a d v n died, he was resuscitated, as the sages of N a i m i s a forest were endowed with great kindness. W i t h great pleasure, a n d hospitality, the king was received a n d h o n o u r e d duly. W h e n the king vanished, the sages followed h i m. Again the Yaja was begun by the great sages. On seeing everything golden, he h a d an a r g u m e n t w i t h t h e m in the Satra that lasted for twelve years a n d performed by the sages of N a i m i s a.

Y a d u was installed by them even as they were arguing.

KIRBY from Maine
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