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Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes (Excerpt) [PDF]. Detailed, step -by-step bread recipes, authored by master baker Jeffrey Hamelman. Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes [Jeffrey Hamelman] on cittadelmonte.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An updated new edition of the. [PDF] Bread a baker's book of techniques and recipes jeffrey hamelman. 1. Bread : A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes; 2. BREAD: A.


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Daniel T. DiMuzio Target Audience: Ken Forkish Target Audience: Peter Reinhart Target Audience: New Techniques, Extraordinary Flavor Author: Chad Robertson Target Audience: Mastering the Art of Extraordinary Bread Author: Rose Levy Beranbaum Target Audience: Hearth Loaves and Masonry Ovens Author: All proceeds generated by the Sourdough Library goes toward website maintenance.

Subscribe Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. When I began baking professionally in the mids.

Whatever little spark the book may have ignited in you.

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I hope. When we turn and look forward to the innumerable generations of bakers to come. What a wonderful feeling it is to turn and look behind us at the hundreds of generations who have baked before us.

I would like to acknowledge and thank the readers and users of this book. A baker has the potential to make breads that are enriching. Coupled as it is with early and often long hours. What begins as tangible—the work—has often over the years been transformed into something less tangible. Years of determined focus and commitment to hard work are necessary in order to achieve mastery.

I must say: Il miglior fabbro. The process and the joy of discovery. Pam Chirls. James MacGuire. After all.

Through her belief in and commitment to both the first and second editions of this book. Looking over my shoulder. We bake. I am grateful and immeasurably fortunate to have such a superlative editor.

With apologies to T. We learn these things with floury palms and sweaty faces. She inspires me daily with the lucidity of her life and vision. Debbie Wink has labored with a sharp eye and a sharp pencil.

Remember this—for all your days. Her ability to elucidate the inner nature of things is remarkable. It is only because of you that this second edition exists. I leave for last my thanks to my dear wife and partner and best friend Chiho.

These positive changes are not. Many bakers eschew mixing machines and prefer the direct connection of hand to dough. There really is no better way to see the extraordinary transformation a dough undergoes than to mix it by hand. Beer Bread. In fact. The new breads are not only delicious. A patient reader may perhaps find more to add to this list.

There are a number of additions to the second edition of Bread. No matter. Some of my favorites are Swiss Farmhouse Bread. Thanks and credit goes to the gradual evolution of the craft that has resulted from steady dedication to learning and sharing.

Both old friends from my early baking days as well as more recently developed recipes now rub shoulders with the original plus breads. There are many new illustrations in the second edition.

The great Raymond Calvel said. Thank you. I generally stayed on the side of slightly firmer doughs for the sake of those readers who found loose-textured doughs challenging to work with.

In the first edition. Since higher-protein flours absorb more liquid. As I read I sensed his great experience. I can only say bravo and once again. I thank him for this. It was for me a most agreeable surprise to find that such a book exists in English and I must add that I find it most difficult to adequately express the joy that this has brought me.

I should also say that it is clear that he has read my writings and often shares my opinions. Everything about good bread is covered: What we hold in our hands. I like to think of a more traditional sort of bakery when I consider the quality of life possible for a baker. There are bakers who are not bakers at all. I would contend that the cogs-in-a-wheel approach has.

And yet from the time the grain is planted until baked bread is on the table. There are bakers who work in factories larger than four football fields. Here the final magic is performed. Flour in the bag is trucked and hefted to the domain of the baker. In this sort of bakery. A shaper leaves and applies for work in another bakery.

The merest of ingredients are required. The process of bread baking is at once a simple endeavor. The subtleties of the mix. One style of mixer suffices and can mix a full range of doughs. This baker has earned. Grain is transported to the mill to be tempered.

In these conditions. Some couche linens. Farmers in the field plow. The needs are few. Preface B read. The style of work varies so widely from one shop to another that no accurate generalization is possible.

There are bakers who work in hard hats. The flour. And since so few ingredients are needed or necessary to the bread baker. I believe that. Each day. The perishable nature of bread requires a constant presence and connection to its life cycle on the part of the baker. It may be difficult to sort out who owns the place—is it the baker. In the traditional bakery. The bakery is quiet. For one whose work entails the all of baking. The sourdough cultures are daily links in an old chain.

Is this baking life then a drudgery? I have worn an apron and been involved with the work of bread for more than a third of a century. He surely has heard many a story of how his breads are enjoyed by toddlers and children.

The baker is a proud. The work is demanding. Problems and mishaps occur in the bakeshop. In my experience. John Ruskin. And each morning. There is a mutual need and a mutual benefit to this relationship. But if we acquire the skill to make a dozen or a hundred or a thousand loaves.

Making fifty loaves. Mix for a while. In short. Take some flour. If consistency is the goal. Not much to it. And that.

Those who wish to conquer bread making. How could there be such a variation of results? Since I was not the beneficiary of a standardized apprenticeship program.

I would never wish to forego the learning and lessons I garnered from those early years. I used to marvel at my ability to make acceptable loaves one day.

Reading books about baking will never be a substitute for time spent with your hands immersed in the dough. As my academic understanding increased. In a sense. Once the grains have been sown and grown. From the womb of the Earth to the mill— and beyond—the seed that makes bread is a living creature. Each step of the way we will examine not only the importance of the individual step. Volumes could be written on many of these individual steps.

Some of the information presented will be scientific. During mixing. Mixing the dough so that the gluten is adequately developed enables the dough to stretch well. The importance of spending a few moments calculating water temperature in order to achieve mixed dough in a correct temperature zone cannot be overstressed. If my grandparents visited us. Gram always had bread. The funny thing was. I visited or was visited by my grandparents most every weekend. Life in the mixing bowl is complex indeed.

At times. As a boy. Mixing accomplishes a number of important goals. Consistent baking results require many things.

Other aspects of mixing are far more complex. Step One: Scaling The first step in bread making is the scaling of ingredients. When scaling. Some steps. In those days. Once we have the correct water temperature. Step Two: Mixing The first step in proper mixing has nothing to do with actual mixing at all: It involves the simple determination of the water temperature required for the mix. Gram would order a few pounds.

Correct and accurate scaling is necessary in order to achieve consistency and uniformity of production. No matter where the visit took place. The bread was crusty. One of my grandmothers was Polish or Russian. At first. Most simply. Bear in mind from the outset that whatever the baker does to his or her dough will have an impact on every step in the rest of the process.

The bread-making process can be divided into twelve separate steps. I never saw an entire loaf. Measuring ingredients by weight and not by volume is the only way to ensure accuracy. There are. If there is an excess of elasticity this could be caused by either insufficient bench rest after pre-shaping.

Only by feeling the dough throughout the mixing process can we understand—through our hands—the considerable change from loose and shaggy to firm.

Reach in and yank on the dough again. It is important. And so it should. If the window is completely clear and the gluten totally developed. Once the ingredients are incorporated. Imagine that you are shaping a baguette. Extra flour added early on has ruined many a dough.

Both are necessary. These two qualities. The method for mixing rye breads is discussed in detail beginning on page Rye flour contains the proteins gliadin and glutelin. Glutenin helps develop dough structure and the elastic quality of the dough. At the other extreme. What seems to be excessively loose dough early in the mix. Ripping and tearing. Once we put the dough ingredients into the mixer and turn it on. Gliadin provides dough with its extensible characteristic. It offers no resistance whatsoever as you roll it out.

Once the consistency of the dough has been checked and corrected as necessary. And the balance between these discrete aspects continues to be important throughout the entire bread-production process. During this period of the mix.

This is one way to gauge gluten development. Pull on a handful—it will shred away from the bulk of the dough. It will be sticky.

It is woefully common at this point in the mix for inexperienced bakers to conclude that the dough is too wet and to add flour.

A well-mixed dough will resist your pulling. When white flour is first milled. In the presence of oxygen. At that misty molecular level of things. During this period of oxidization. In earlier days. Without sufficient oxidation. One further consideration is that a warm dough oxidizes more quickly than a cool dough. I give this miniature explanation to bakers and distinctly not to scientists.

The action of the dough hook or mixing arm is adequate to provide this oxidizing of the dough. Oxidizing and Overoxidizing We read and hear about the need to oxidize flour before using it in bread production and.

As a baker and not. Double-walled bags are the norm in bakeries today. What are known as thiol compounds. Just as egg whites. An alternative to the natural aging of flour is to chemically treat it and thereby artificially oxidize it. When flour is placed in the mixer and dough is mixed. In spite of the considerable negative effects on flour and baked breads. After milling. Oxygen gently penetrates the flour during this natural form of aging.

Overoxidizing the dough from overmixing. An explanation of the needs and precautions for oxidizing flour may serve to clarify the topic. This oxidizing of the flour is best achieved simply by letting it age.

The carotenoids have not suffered from overoxidation in the mixer.

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Loaf volume. The concept of the relationship among the degree of mixing. Mixing Time Many other factors affect mixing time. The carotenoids are not oxidized out of the dough. An excess of oxygen. Bread volume is good. The development of full bread flavor. Physical development is furthered both by time—sufficient bulk fermentation—and appropriate folding.

With careful attention to mixing and careful observation of the results that is. Another effective method of increasing strength is to fold the dough.

What has been achieved by this method is a balance that respects both the need for gentle mixing in order to preserve the fragile carotenoids. If our only goal is dough volume. Spiral mixers. The incorporation of oxygen is important. Maximum volume is one thing. At one extreme we have the following: The dough is mixed on high speed to maximum gluten development. There is no doubt that dough of proper strength is necessary for the best bread.

Carotenoid pigments. Then there is the middle ground: The dough is mixed to moderate gluten development in the bowl. Carried to an extreme. There are alternatives. With each revolution of the mixing arm. Like so many parts of bread production. The type of mixer. Dough strength is at a peak. Bulk fermentation lasts for many hours. Gluten development is at a minimum. Long fermentation times and the use of pre-ferments both increase the acidity of the dough through the development of organic acids.

Here is a brief discussion of some of them. Even before reaching that point of breakdown. While an excess of protease activity could result in a shreddy dough lacking in structure. This also has a favorable impact on loaf volume. Much less mixing time is required to develop the dough. Once the flour and water are incorporated. The exceptions to this are when a liquid levain or a poolish is used. In these cases. Using the autolyse technique. Pre-ferments are generally not added because of the presence of both yeast activity and acidity.

Of the many tips and tools that the baker keeps in his or her back pocket. It is beneficial in French bread production. Salt is not added to an autolyse. Autolyse The repos-autolyse technique was developed by Professor Raymond Calvel.

After the rest period. During the rest period. Consider this: Loosely translated. Some degree of acidity is a general characteristic of naturally leavened breads.

The autolyse technique can serve the baker well in this instance for the following reason: Since the autolyse method reduces the overall mixing time.

The technique. Yeast is not added to the autolyse. With a very wet dough roughly 72 percent or more hydration. Rye flour has little of the structure-forming properties of wheat flour. When mixing whole-wheat bread. Because of the action of the mixing arm.

Hamelman's Bread Book: Formulas and Decorative Breads [PDF] : ArtisanBread

Hydration is the percentage of water in a dough relative to the flour. The types of flours in the dough. I was mistaken. Soft wheat flours. A high-gluten white flour will require more mix time than a white flour with a lower gluten content. I have always believed they were designed to simulate the kneading performed in former times by two bakers standing opposite each other at a dough trough. With any mixer.

Being so efficient. Planetary mixers operate with the mixing arm descending vertically from above the bowl. The amount of dough in the bowl. White flours have their own considerations. Wet dough. Not only are the revolutions per minute different in each speed for each mixer.

Spiral mixers are highly efficient. While there are some effective methods for improving the performance of poor flour for example. As with spiral mixers. They are highly regarded and rightfully so as all-purpose mixers.

Although they are fairly inefficient as bread mixers. With a very dry dough roughly 60 percent or less hydration. I used to believe that when the mixer was three-fourths rather than half full. Oblique mixers are slower and gentler seeing them spin. We should also note here that oxidation of carotenoids occurs less rapidly in wetter doughs. For most breads then. For better or worse.

Without a doubt. One useful guideline is knowing how many revolutions a dough hook makes per minute in each speed. A stand-type mixer in particular has difficulty developing the strength of the dough. On the other hand.

Note that revolutions per minute vary not only between different mixer styles. When bread dough is mixed slowly. Once the mixer is switched on. With few exceptions.

It is in fact quite startling to see a dough that leaves the mixer as a weak sticky mass become transformed by something as simple as a few folds into a cohesive.

Generally speaking. The following chart gives approximate mixing times to achieve to 1. This lack of strength is compensated for by a lengthy bulk fermentation the acidity produced during the fermentation strengthens the dough and a few folds along the way. The dough has become overoxidized. In other words. In this case. Make a call. Mixing Guidelines Different mixers and their mixing times One of the most common defects in bread is overmixing and the consequent loss of color and flavor.

The dough strength that is not developed during mixing can be built into the dough through correct folding during bulk fermentation. Some breads are made with sourdough or some other preferment. It is hard to generalize about mixing times.

Needless to say. The presence of other ingredients. First of all. As fat content increases. While this accomplished an important need. Of great importance for the development of bread flavor is the production of organic acids during fermentation. Whatever oxygen is in the dough at the end of mixing is consumed within minutes by the yeast. Flavor development must also be considered.

Not only do these organic acids contribute significantly to bread flavor. As a rule. Step Four: Folding Until quite recently. From the narrow perspective of yeast activity and gas production. For wheat-based breads. Proper folding. Flour the work surface. Excess flour will not be incorporated into the dough because it will all be brushed off.

Since the organic acids develop quite slowly—it takes hours before they are sufficiently present to benefit bread flavor—the use of pre-ferments. It is for this reason that doughs such as brioche. Another result of dough fermentation is the production of carbon dioxide. If there is a lack of flour on the work surface.

Sugar also softens gluten structure. When fats are added in the form of butter. Some of the carbon dioxide exists in a gaseous form in the dough and some is present in a dissolved state in the liquid portion of the dough. Step Three: Bulk Primary Fermentation As soon as the mixer is turned off. Folding the dough. An alternative to the folding method described above is known as bucket folding.

Once the loaves are shaped. After dividing and preshaping. Now take about one-third of the dough from the right side and fold it in toward the center. Flour the work surface. While this accomplished an important this phase by using dough conditioners. Flavor end of mixing is consumed within minutes by the development must also be considered. Some of the carbon dioxide exists in a gas- softens gluten structure. Proper folding. Of great importance for the development of at the right time. When fats are of baked loaves.

The presence of other ingredients. Since the organic acids develop added in the form of butter. It is for this reason that doughs such as brioche. For wheat-based breads. Excess flour will not be incorporated into the therefore are a major contributor to dough develop. Organic acids also improve the keeping quality a lack of flour on the work surface.

Sugar also activity. Folding use of two or more of these. As a rule. Bulk or primary fermentation is the first stage. While it may not be quite 14 Bread: The dough may be folded once. The Stages of Fermentation There are four distinct. This phase. It is not unusual or particularly dif- to expel the major portion of the gases. Once the loaves are shaped. After dividing and preshaping. Again press to degas.

Make less dough in each. An optional phase of fermentation takes place when pre-ferments are used. Now take ficult to fold a container of Now take one side. With spread fingers.

The hours of yeast activity that occur as the pre-ferment ripens are a distinct phase of fermentation. Finish is neatly turned over and spread onto the floured by taking the dough closest to you and folding that work surface. The final phase takes place once the dough is loaded into the oven. When the dough. Bucket folding is baked loaf. Be sure. And there is also an under. Bucket folding Once the dough has been folded by the first method. Remoisten your hands.

If there are further folds. A B as effective as folding dough on the work bench. Repeat these steps with the other two portions of dough. From the time of the first fold throughout the dough is divided and preshaped.

Reach down to the bottom of the tub. C Once finished. Plunge both hands into the container. It has the further advantage of not requiring heavy dough tubs to be lifted onto the bench. If we have a cool dough in a warm room. As we have seen. As more folds are incorporated. Although this is not always a factor. If an excess however.

But how often should a dough have adequate dough strength at the completion be folded? This depends on the type of dough. Thorough degassing may be indicated. A suffers. The degassing function can in fact the pre-fermented flour. By folding the dough correctly. This is ture. Ciabatta dough. Here are some considerations: When we fold the dough. At the same time. The only breads that could keep that development of acidity as a result of fermentation long were breads with high acidity.

Straight dough wheaty aroma or a robust rye flavor. Organic acids and esters bread that contains a well-developed pre-ferment. As the pH of a bread to reduce required bulk fermentation time after decreases that is.

Step Five: Dividing speedier than hand dividing. Although not every type of bread dough requires or necessarily benefits from the presence of a pre-ferment. There are numerous mechanical methods of dividing A metal dough cutter.

Breads Above all. In this section we will take a quick glance at the main benefits derived from their use: Mechanical dividing is considerably hands with flour keeps things dry. As a result. Chapters 4 through 6 contain a thorough examination of the major pre-ferments and their individual characteristics. Speed is impor- drive an inordinate amount of fermentation gas from tant. Since the tightness to which a loaf loaf during the final shaping.

As mentioned Preshaped loaves should be placed on a floured above. However gently or firmly the preshaping. Round or boule-shaped loaves. Lay the dough mined by how loosely or tightly the loaves have been pieces down sequentially. It is then an easy matter to calculate the dough yield it is easier to calculate 10 rows with 6 loaves in each row than it is to count 60 Step Eight: Shaping individual pieces of dough.

Small corrections—either down do so in order to keep the dough more con- adding on or taking off a small piece of dough—are cise. For example. Step Six: The preshaped loaves are covered with a sheet dough gets its final shaping. Bench Rest relatively short time. By keeping the seams up and the good side down. Flour is Once divided. All doughs. This passive step is for the dough. Preshaping organizes the dough on the light side.

Those who place the seams to that size as possible. A light rounding suffices for most breads. The if. Here is my reasoning: In a typical situation. If the dough sticks to either Some bakers place the preshaped loaves onto the the hand or the scale.

One of the great joys of my work life is standing ship of risk. What I am opposed to is the de-skilling predetermined. As bakers. Does a machine do that? Final baker takes the preshaped loaves and gives them a final shaping the specifics of how to make some of Fermentation the various shapes are detailed beginning on page Final fermentation final proofing is the phase On a humid day the dough may feel a need to resort to machines to shape our breads.

Once shaped. While bread flavor is largely determined by the or onto sheet pans. If the bread is either overrisen or underrisen. I shall say as a first approximation that it means ize it is inevitable for bakeries of a certain size to utilize simply workmanship using any kind of technique or it—how else to increase production quantity.

I am so glad and grate- the practitioners of all handcrafts. Once again. English furniture maker David dough. The Nature and adjust our hands and our connection to this particular Art of Workmanship. Can a machine do that?

Experimentation will soon show how ever. Baking has difficulty expanding to its fullness. With careful and consistent observation different breads. If a bread is weak. On Some breads. Breads like baguettes have a traditional bread. Other breads. It is difficult to quan. Just as we will fall onto scoring that rarely varies. Left unscored. Since the lateral structure of the loaf is already Step Ten: Scoring somewhat compromised.

By scoring cuts will expand beautifully in the oven. When the poolish or sourdough. Until quite recently. Always taste the sourdough when it is to understand what is happening inside the ripe—after all. The sense of smell is crucial! Smell flavor of the pre-ferment in the raw dough.

Taste the dough as soon as the of touch. Just by giving the bread a good squeeze ingredients have come together—is the salt in and a thump on its bottom. There is so much to taste from start are rising. But then for once the bread is in the oven. Every dough should be squeezed and another few minutes. We feel the dough as it mixes. Train a half. As the dough spins in the mixer. As we learn the academics of bread.

But bread baking is about much more than just academic information—it is a pursuit that truly involves all the senses. Baking and the Five Senses There is a lot to be said for learning the technical aspects of bread baking. Our eyes guide us at every stage. As the bulk mass of dough rises. First with a critical mouth to and weak. The bread is always talking face as you breathe in the first fragrances of the to us.

The starches swell from the steam injection. These enzymes break down third or so of the baking cycle. So much of human cul. If A properly steamed oven results in bread with bet- bread is slightly overrisen. Steaming to baking and therefore do not require steam. In any event. In an tened loaves with a thick. It promotes a rich color to forms on the surface.

Once loaded. It is. This is because during the early stages of crust. Just prior to loading the enables the enzymes to remain active for a longer oven.

This is because steam at the initial good. It is true that there are rice cultures and from the field to the oven. When we load an oven without steam. If bread is slightly underrisen.

In this case. As the bread enters the hot environment necessary. Proper steaming has a profound effect on bread the surface of the loaf quickly heats up. If the baker neglects to 22 Bread: In an unsteamed a moist environment.

As the dough begins to at this early stage. Enzymes are highly active tion of dough fermentation. First of all. Once it is heating. As a general rule. As with any bread. A more pronounced phase changes. The effect of the ferent from steaming the oven. In the home oven. And once that steam has into a small loaf pan on the bottom of the oven. The subsided perhaps 1 to 2 minutes after the steaming. Carbon dioxide is converts to a gaseous state and expands as the produced by the yeast throughout the entire dura.

For this reason. When the oven is good and hot. In order to that the increased surface area augments the quantity assure that the breads have the opportunity to reach of steam.

As issue. In order to ensure that the crust remains thin The extra steam is not recommended for any breads and crisp. Since naturally leav. This burst of oven spring enters the hot environment of the oven. Be ened breads spring more slowly in the oven.

Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes

The first visible change to the observer is of oven spring occurs as the carbon dioxide. As a full steaming just prior to loading the breads. I keep honeybees. Loaf expansion slows down reaction occurs in the presence of heat. For all the many parts of baking that require your hands. The Maillard formation of the crumb. Amylase when properly made bread is loaded and steamed. No two bakes will ever be exactly identical.

The hands have an aston- ishing capacity for memory. Learn to make the classic breads—rye breads. When when bread dough is mixed. How do you learn these? By repetition and attentiveness. And then your experience can speak to your imagination. As the jam and preserve expert Christine Ferber said in her book Mes Confitures. As internal dough tempera- also at about that temperature. The crust of the bread is the only part of the loaf During the outset of the baking process.

Spoken like a true bread baker. With time and practice. Make sure patience is part of your ingredient list. The eating quality can increase for days. Cooling one.

Some than the same dough weight shaped into a round types of breads. As we chatted. A hotter oven will bake bread more quickly. A further contributor to crust unsteamed pizza-style ovens can each affect the color and flavor is caramelization. Some of the various factors that the moment it is removed from the oven. This is true. The crumb then loses its threat underestimated. A full the bake is necessary for the crumb to stabilize and bake yields a richer bread flavor.

While warm. There will obviously be a proportion of rye flour. Pan breads have less evaporation come into their own until they have had a few hours than hearth-baked loaves of the same weight. Larger pieces tend to lose a lower fact.

Wood-burning brick ovens. The water evaporation in dough can be as much In a technical sense. Bread was one of three areas eye toward critical assessment. Weight row. The wonderful crust line structure and the crumb of the bread hardens. This too was a relatively objective aspect of In any case. Each of the twelve countries that ment. If they were within flour. I was chosen as one of three Americans to standard. The same amount of baguettes were to weigh grams.

Delaying Staling retrogradation. As the baked bread begins to and stale bread. Or was the volume appropriate to the bread.

Old bread well made can. On the began learning how to evaluate bread with a certain other hand. In other sublime. Where do we begin? Was it a truncated. After all. The baker keeps words. One of the more alluring aspects of bread baking was a completely objective matter.

The tongue picks up salt. How about the color of the crumb. And at last. When we assess breads from this perspec. It may be subtle these terms apply as much to bread as they do to the because. Was there a nice balance along prominent. And were thin. Keep chewing. If we train ourselves to taste with care and dent in the interior? As you inhale and exhale. Was there a random. Chew slowly baguettes? Were they of equal length and depth? Did and conscientiously. They are not. Did you enjoy a delicate nuttiness Was the interior of the baguettes tight and devoid of in the flavor?

A suffusing sense of wheat and fermenta- holes? Were there holes big enough to hide a mouse? And finally. But really it is not so unusual. The inside of the loaf held other clues your nose will register a myriad of subtle flavor notes. It is 28 Bread: Although this is freezers and with the best possible wrapping. The characteristics. The addition of sugar may increase shelf longer.

I might even suggest. Just as the earth is made from just earth. Understanding the role played by the ingredients used in bread production is one way the baker maintains consistency in the outcome of his or her labors.

Bread is made from just flour. In this chapter. This led to the establishment of settled English Reverend Joseph Townsend wrote in It is not so much a primary food source. Civilizations reconcile the stomach to almost any species of food. On the one The topic of flour is enormous. Lack of bread led final taste of the bread be altered. More than eighteen thousand years ago. In the s. Hunger will tame the fiercest comparatively small number of ingredients are used. Yet in spite of this hopeful pronouncement.

By chewing the that bread functioned during that era as oil does in grains. The Annals of Agriculture. Hundreds of pages hand. Archeological evidence provides us with a vided people with the strength to live and to labor. For centuries. In an endeavor such as bread baking. There were periodic percentage of rye flour in a formula for naturally leav.

The seed is grants from Europe. The grain is sown in September and Wheat October. These early civilizations learned four that are of primary interest to the bread baker that by planting the seeds that were the largest. In America it starts in late May in the southern plains states. Northern acteristics. It is the first mid. It spends the winter in a dor- Today. The six classes of wheat are hard planted in spring. In spring. United States.

For our discus- pursuit has become today a complex science. Today the harvest is accomplished quite differently. Those sheaves of wheat. Over the next few months. Until the nineteenth century it was done by people who worked together and gathered the wheat essentially by hand. Looming ominously on the near horizon Texas.

In North America. Wheat Harvest There is something about the wheat harvest that invariably inspires one to stop and take note. I had an interesting meeting with Robert Beauchemin.

It is so far north that there are over twenty hours of daylight each day. He mentioned that he tries to visit the farmers who grow the wheat that he mills. An example comes to mind: Kansas has the most acreage of for both red and white wheat. Durum wheat. La Meunerie Milanaise. When this occurs. In some countries.

The farmer may have grain with with whole-wheat flour milled from white wheat poor storage quality. It is inter- yield whiter products. When the ground finally thaws in May. Hard white wheat differs genetically from red the bran is lighter than in red wheat.

New varieties of white wheat after all sounds somewhat contradictory. Much of the reluctance Further.

Analysis shows little into white flour. It is easy to the sprouting of the grain can negatively impact be confused by the term white whole wheat. Although winter wheats have lower levels of protein 11 to 12 percent is aver. High-gluten flours can also be beneficial in the The wheat kernel is enclosed by several outer production of pan breads. Although the protein content is higher. With most all breads it is recommended to bring strength to the dough not just through mixing but through fermentation time.

As for course of the fermentation. Semolina is made from durum. High-gluten Bran. These layers serve as the protective coat- measure of quality.

AUNDREA from Wisconsin
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