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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PDF

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HRM in Action: Employee Engagement as a Strategic. HR Tool. Employee engagement refers to the level of commitment workers make to their employer, seen. Performance appraisal measures the effectiveness of the personnel. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work. PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS. Performers Appraisal Learning Objectives. Explain Purposes of Performance Management; Identify Success Factors in Good .


Performance Appraisal Pdf

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PDF | Performance appraisal (PA) refers to the methods and processes used by organizations to assess the level of performance of their. Performance appraisal provides a periodic review and evaluation of an individual's job performance. Although the appraisal forms may only be completed once. The State's performance appraisal system shall be used to evaluate whether The Performance Appraisal System (PAS) provides supervisors with an effective .

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Performance appraisal of employees: Sanjay Karak. Organization are run and steered by people and their labors. It is through people that goals are set and objectives realized depend on the performance of the employees. The performance of an organization is thus dependent upon the sum total of the performance of its members.

Through performance appraisal, the employers can understand and accept skills of subordinates. The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in superiors. It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labour management relationship. It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees. Performance appraisal serves as a motivation tool. This very well motivates a person for better job and helps him to improve his performance in the future.

Performance Appraisals and Job Analysis Relationship Job Analysis Performance Standards Performance Appraisals Describe the work and Translate job requirements Describe the job relevant personnel requirement of a into levels of acceptable or strengths and weaknesses of particular job.

Objectives definition of appraisal 2. Job expectations establishment 3. Design an appraisal program 4. Appraise the performance 5. Performance Interviews 6. Use data for appropriate purposes 7. Identify opportunities variables 8.

Using social processes, physical processes, human and computer assistance International Research Journal of Commerce Arts and Science http: Each of the methods is effective for some purposes for some organizations only.

None should be dismissed or accepted as appropriate except as they relate to the particular needs of the organization or an employee. Broadly all methods of appraisals can be divided into two different categories. Rating Scales: Rating scales consists of several numerical scales representing job related performance criterions such as dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are derived.

Advantages — Adaptability, easy to use, low cost, every type of job can be evaluated, large number of employees covered, no formal training required. Attitude of employee towards his superiors, colleagues and customers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Extremely Excellent poor Regularity in the job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Extremely outstanding poor International Research Journal of Commerce Arts and Science http: Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is prepared.

Here the rater only does the reporting or checking and HR department does the actual evaluation. Advantages — economy, ease of administration, limited training required, standardization. Disadvantages — Raters biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow rater to give relative ratings 3.

Forced Choice Method: The series of statements arranged in the blocks of two or more are given and the rater indicates which statement is true or false. The rater is forced to make a choice. HR department does actual assessment. Advantages — Absence of personal biases because of forced choice. Disadvantages — Statements may be wrongly framed. Forced Distribution Method: Rater is compelled to distribute the employees on all points on the scale.

It is assumed that the performance is conformed to normal distribution. Advantages — Eliminates Disadvantages — Assumption of normal distribution, unrealistic, errors of central tendency. Critical Incidents Method: The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of employee that makes all the difference in the performance.

Supervisors as and when they occur record such incidents. Advantages — Evaluations are based on actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases, chances of subordinate improvement are high.

Disadvantages — Negative incidents can be prioritized, forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback may be too much and may appear to be punishment. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales: They are said to be behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to say, which behavior describes the employee performance. Advantages — helps overcome rating errors. Disadvantages — Suffers from distortions inherent in most rating techniques.

Lastly, the rating scales should focus on results as much as on processes. This is consistent with the view of goal-based appraisal systems, and should be consistent with broader organizational objectives. Our recommendation that these results should be under the control of the employee in order to be evaluated is also con- sistent with the view of proponents of goal-based appraisals. Pritchard that the motivation theory underlying this article, like most expectancy theories, predicts that all the individual connections must be high for ultimate motivation to be high.

This means that if even one of the connections is low, motivation to improve performance will also be low. The major implication is all components of the performance appraisal must work well for it to have the optimal results. Our review of the academic literature suggests that much of the appraisal research has been focused on developing more reliable and valid measures of performance to serve as criterion measures for test validation. While this is certainly an important goal, valid and reliable ratings are not an end in themselves, but are a step in the process of using appraisals to improve performance.

We also reviewed more recent lit- erature, from both the academic and practice communities, that have moved us closer to the goal of improving performance. We concluded that adopting a moti- vational framework was the best way to integrate the various bits and pieces that had been accumulating, and suggest a research agenda focused upon performance improvement. We adopted an expectancy-based motivational framework, and used it to develop a series of research propositions concerning contextual and system factors that would support the appraisals and performance management process result- ing in improved individual performance.

We drew upon various literatures in acad- emia as well as in practice, and it is not surprising that there already exists considerable support for most of these propositions. But, in the past, most of these propositions have been proposed and tested in isolation. Our framework brings together different streams of literature to address the problem of how to improve performance. We hope that such an integrated approach will help organizations to improve employee performance through appraisals and performance manage- ment, and to facilitate future research.

The framework suggests that motivation will only be high when all the motiva- tion connections are high. One low connection can produce low motivation even if the rest are high.

This proposition on the multiplicative effect of the motiva- tional connections should be tested in future research. This will involve a rather complex research design, but such research is necessary to assure the empirical validity of our theoretical proposals. Future research also should address how appraisals and performance manage- ment impact other outcomes beyond individual performance. Though the present proposals deal only with individual performance, research should ascertain whether improvements in indi- vidual performance can somehow translate into improvements in firm perfor- mance and profitability.

Last, but not least, we need to consider the transferability of this framework to other cultural contexts such as China, given the focus of Management and Organiza- tion Review. The expectancy model of motivation is grounded on the assumption that individuals seek to satisfy their needs.

It is a hedonistic view of human nature, which may or may not be true of people in other cultures. Also, the model assumes an autonomous individual who can act independently given the presence of appro- priate task conditions as outlined in Figure 1. In some cultures, individual actions are highly constrained in relationships.

It further assumes that individuals will respond similarly to evaluations and feedback given by any other individual super- visor, peers, and subordinates, or even customers.

There might be cultural differ- ences in receptivity to feedback and willingness to give feedback. Organizations operate in an increasingly global environment with employees from different nations and cultures working on the same job and under the same structure. Sen- sitivity to cultural differences in giving and receiving appraisal, in managing and being managed, will be critical in developing a performance management system for improving employee performance.

We invite international scholars to critique, evaluate, and test our framework in China or beyond. Psychological Reports, 75, — Banks, C. Personnel Psychology, 38, — Bartol, K. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 19, 1—8. Beehr, M. Personnel Psychology, 31, — Bernardin, H. Performance Appraisal: Assessing Human Behavior at Work. Kent Publishing.

Academy of Management Review, 6, — Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 75— Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 60— Bies, R. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 1, 43— Bladen, A. A White Paper. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Bobko, P.

Personnel Psychology, 47, 1— Boswell, W. Management Decision, 39, — Pritchard Bracken, D. Training and Development, 48, 44— Breaugh, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, — Brockner, J. Psychological Bulletin, , — Campbell, J. Productivity in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. In Schmitt, N.

Jossey Bass, pp. In Dunnette, M. Rand McNally, pp. Cleveland, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, — Coens, T. Abolishing Performance Appraisals: San Francisco, CA: Colquitt, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, — Conway, J.

Human Performance, 10, — Cropanzano, R. In Cooper, C. New York: Dalessio, A. In Smither, J. State of the Art in Practice. Jossey- Bass, pp. Day, D. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, — DeNisi, A. A Cognitive Approach to Performance Appraisal: A Program of Research. Can degreee appraisals be improved? Drucker, P. The Practice of Management. Dunnette, M. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, — Earley, P.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, — Academy of Management Journal, 33, 87— In Ferris, G. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc.

Folger, R.

In Staw, B. JAI Press, pp. Hackman, J. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, — Harris, M. Journal of Management, 20, — Ilgen, D. An illusive or sometimes misguided goal? Individual and Orga- nizational Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp.

What has it contributed to appraisals in use? Kaplan, R. Harvard Business Review, January—February, 75— Kanfer, R. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, pp. Kluger, A. Landy, F.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL.pdf

Psychological Bulletin, 87, 72— Lawler, E. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51, — Rewarding Excellence. Levy, P. Journal of Management, 30, — Locke, E. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. London, M. Human Resource Management, 32, — Meyer, H. Harvard Business Review, 43, — Mitchell, T. Psychological Bulletin, 81, — In Borman, W. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Murphy, K. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 45— Journal of Applied Psy- chology, 74, — Understanding Performance Appraisal: Social, Organizational, and Goal-based Perspectives.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Naylor, J. A Theory of Behavior in Organizations. Academic Press.

Orpen, C. Journal of Social Psychology, , — Peters, L. Academy of Management Review, 5, — Phillips, J. The Human Resources Scorecard: Measuring the Return on Investment. Boston, NA: Pritchard, R. An International Collaboration. Huntington, NY: Nova Science. Personnel Psychology, 42, 69— In Holman, D. People, Technology and Organisation: Wiley, pp. Pulakos, E. Alexandria, VA: SHRM Foundation. Rodgers, R. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 1, 43— Bladen, A.

A White Paper. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Bobko, P.

(PDF) Performance Appraisal Policy (Theory And Practice) | Abdijabbar Ismail - cittadelmonte.info

Personnel Psychology, 47, 1— Boswell, W. Management Decision, 39, — Pritchard Bracken, D. Training and Development, 48, 44— Breaugh, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, — Brockner, J. Psychological Bulletin, , — Campbell, J. Productivity in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. In Schmitt, N. Jossey Bass, pp. In Dunnette, M.

Rand McNally, pp. Cleveland, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, — Coens, T. Abolishing Performance Appraisals: San Francisco, CA: Colquitt, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, — Conway, J. Human Performance, 10, — Cropanzano, R. In Cooper, C. New York: Dalessio, A. In Smither, J. State of the Art in Practice.

Jossey- Bass, pp. Day, D. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, — DeNisi, A. A Cognitive Approach to Performance Appraisal: A Program of Research. Can degreee appraisals be improved? Drucker, P. The Practice of Management.

Performance Appraisal Methods - Pdf Download

Dunnette, M. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, — Earley, P. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, — Academy of Management Journal, 33, 87— In Ferris, G. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc. Folger, R. In Staw, B. JAI Press, pp. Hackman, J. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, — Harris, M. Journal of Management, 20, — Ilgen, D. An illusive or sometimes misguided goal?

Individual and Orga- nizational Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. What has it contributed to appraisals in use? Kaplan, R. Harvard Business Review, January—February, 75— Kanfer, R.

Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, pp. Kluger, A. Landy, F. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 72— Lawler, E. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51, — Rewarding Excellence. Levy, P. Journal of Management, 30, — Locke, E. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

London, M. Human Resource Management, 32, — Meyer, H. Harvard Business Review, 43, — Mitchell, T. Psychological Bulletin, 81, — In Borman, W. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Murphy, K. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 45— Journal of Applied Psy- chology, 74, — Understanding Performance Appraisal: Social, Organizational, and Goal-based Perspectives.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Naylor, J. A Theory of Behavior in Organizations. Academic Press. Orpen, C. Journal of Social Psychology, , — Peters, L. Academy of Management Review, 5, — Phillips, J. The Human Resources Scorecard: Measuring the Return on Investment. Boston, NA: Pritchard, R. An International Collaboration.

Huntington, NY: Nova Science. Personnel Psychology, 42, 69— In Holman, D. People, Technology and Organisation: Wiley, pp. Pulakos, E. Alexandria, VA: SHRM Foundation. Rodgers, R. Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph , 76, — Pritchard Rotundo, M. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 66— Rynes, S. Academy of Management Exec- utive, 16 3 , 92— Seifert, C. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, — Smither, J. Spector, P. Human Relations, 39, — Steelman, L. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, — Sulsky, L.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, — Taylor, M. Academy of Management Journal, 41, — Administrative Science Quar- terly, 40, — Thorndike, E. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4, 25— Tornow, W. Is multi-perspective measurement a means or an end? Maximizing the Effectiveness of degree Feedback: Tsui, A. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, — Academy of Management Journal, 29, — Personnel Psychology, 41, — Tubre, T.

Journal of Management, 26, — Waldman, D. Yukl, G. Training, 32, 45— Angelo S. DeNisi adenisi tulane. Freeman School of Business at Tulane University.

He received his Ph. His work has appeared in a wide variety of journals, and he serves on a number of editorial boards. Pritchard rpritcha pegasus. His research focuses on the measurement and improvement of organizational productivity and motivation. Manuscript received: September 20, Final version accepted: February 22, Accepted by: Anne S. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account?

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