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Neither Novell, Inc., SUSE LINUX Products GmbH, the authors, nor the translators shall .. This manual gives you a general understanding of openSUSE®. download PDF or HTML versions of the manuals for your product . Automatic Installation and Configuration of SuSE Linux. TipsandTricks. The following were involved in the production of the previous manual texts: Bodo Bauer output (for gv) or convert them to PDF format. Ghostscript is a. Minimum System Requirements 2 • Installing openSUSE Leap 2 . various parts of this manual to learn how to install, use and enjoy your system. Get to know the most commonly used Linux commands and understand basic . The final PDF is formatted through FOP from Apache Software Foundation.


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SLP Front-Ends in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server . .. We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different languages. The fol- share/doc/manual or in the help centers of your desktop. Find the. Implementation on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server • MOK (Machine .. manual guides you through the basic steps of auto-installation. Implementation on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop • MOK .. your comments about and suggestions for this manual and the other doc-.

All rights reserved. A copy of the license version 1. All other third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, its affiliates, the authors nor the translators shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof. About This Guide 1.

Actions required by Security and Recommended patches are automatically preset. In this case a check mark is displayed in front of the patch summary. Figure 1. If you install an up-to-date package from a repository other than the update repository.. Autoupdate and Autodelete. For an overview of the possible symbols and their meaning. The patches are sorted by security relevance: The Online Update window consists of four sections.

These actions are Autoinstall.. If all available patches are already installed. Click an entry in the upper right section to view details about the respective package that is included in the patch. The upper right section lists the packages included in the selected patch a patch can consist of several packages.

To filter patches according to their security relevance. Select an entry in the Summary section to view a short Patch Description at the bottom left corner of the dialog..

Optional or All patches. The box in the bottom left-hand section shows the number of both available and already installed patches and lets you toggle the view to either Available or Installed patches. Select an entry in the Package listing section to view a patch description and further details at the bottom right corner of the dialog.

They fix severe security hazards and prevent your system from exploits.. Most patches include updates for several packages. You may also revert patches that have been applied to the system. Use the respective filters and views the GTK and Qt interfaces provide. Procedure 1. Select or deselect patches according to your needs and wishes by activating or deactivating the respective check box GNOME or by right-clicking the patch and choosing the respective action from the context menu KDE.

Installing Patches The YaST Online Update dialog allows you to either install all available patches at one go or to manually select the patches that you want to apply to your system. For details.. You can also choose to Install optional patches—security and recommended patches are already preselected for installation. Click on a patch entry to open a row with detailed information about the patch in the bottom of the window.

Here you can see a detailed patch description as well as the versions available. To first modify the selection of patches that you want to apply: Always Apply Security Updates However.

To automatically apply all new patches except the optional ones that are currently available for your system. They will be applied automatically once you click Accept or Apply. Choose whether to update Daily. Activate Automatic Online Update. After the installation is complete. To confirm your selection and to apply the selected patches. Select if you want to Skip Interactive Patches in case you want the update procedure to proceed fully automatically.

Your system is now up-to-date. To use the respective module. Some patches.. After installation. Configuring the Automatic Online Update 1. Disabling deltarpms By default updates are downloaded as deltarpms. Since rebuilding rpm packages from deltarpms is a memory and CPU time consuming task. Gathering System Information for Support Contents 2. Otherwise you might miss important patches. Only patches of the selected categories will be installed. Confirm your configuration with OK.

For More Information Abstract In case of problems. This report will help Novell Technical Services to assist or locate the issue you reported. To filter the patches by category such as security or recommended. Chapter 2. Overview To automatically install all packages recommended by updated packages.

Skipping Patches If you select to skip any packages that require interaction. This tool will collect information about the system such as: The command is provided by the package supportutils which is installed by default. To automatically accept any license agreements. Others will be skipped.

Open the URL http: Start YaST. Select an option from the radio button list. After the process is finished. Review the data collection. Finish the operation with Next. If you want to upload to the Novell customer center. Proceed with Next. Use the command line utility supportconfig. Continue with Next. The YaST Support module calls supportconfig to gather system information.

Click on Create report tarball. Enter your contact information. Use your service request number from Step 1 and enter it into the text field labeled Novell 11 digit service request number. Open the Support module. Use the YaST Support module. It is a tool that gathers system information and allows you to upload the collected data to another server for further analysis. The information gathering begins. If you want to test it first.

There are two ways to use Novell Support Link: Save your tarball. The following would gather the minimum supportconfig information and LVM only. This gathers the default system information. This is especially useful in high logging environments or after a kernel crash when syslog rotates the logs after a reboot.

Both options. Display a list of all options with supportconfig --help or refer to the man page. While troubleshooting a problem.. Using Supportconfig Directly To use supportconfig from the command line.

For example. Common Supportconfig Options The supportconfig utility is usually called without any options.. Open a shell and become root. Wait for the tool to complete the operation. Collect already rotated log files. The following list gives a brief overview of the more common cases: Use the minimal option -m to reduce the size of the information being gathered: After making changes.

Run supportconfig without any options. Finish with Next. Procedure 2. For the normal FTP upload target. The following examples will assume the service request number is Privacy Statement Novell treats system reports as confidental data. Review the data collection and use Remove from Data to remove any files you want excluded from the tarball uploaded to Novell.

Confirm you are using one of the Novell upload targets described above and the Upload log files tarball into URL is activated. Please see our privacy commitment for details at http: Select the Use custom radio button. Click Finish. When you experience a server issue and would like Novell's assistance. Information gathering starts. For the secure upload target. Both YaST and command line methods are described. Write down your 11 digit service request number.

Once the tarball is in the incoming directory of our FTP server.. For More Information Find more information about gathering system information in the following documents: Submitting Information to Novell with supportconfig 1.

To use the default upload target. Run the following: Servers without Internet connectivity a. You can also attach the tarball to your service request using the service request URL: Servers with Internet connectivity: The minimum supported size of the terminal emulator in which to run YaST is 80x25 characters.

The left frame features the categories to which the various modules belong. Navigation in Modules The main window consists of three areas. Figure 3. YaST Command Line Options This section is intended for system administrators and experts who do not run an X server on their systems and depend on the text-based installation tool.

The ncurses library is installed by default. It provides basic information about starting and operating YaST in text mode. YaST in text mode uses the ncurses library to provide an easy pseudo-graphical user interface.. Chapter 3. If individual entries within a frame exceed its width. Q or by selecting Quit and pressing Enter. Navigation among Buttons and Selection Lists Use Tab to navigate among the buttons and frames containing selection lists.. To navigate in reverse order.

The active category is highlighted. Radio Buttons. Tab or Shift. Press Enter to start the active module. Various buttons or selection fields in the module contain a highlighted letter yellow by default. Tab combinations. Navigation in Modules The following description of the control elements in the YaST modules assumes that all function keys and Alt key combinations work and are not assigned to different global functions. Use Alt. The right frame provides an overview of the modules available in the active category.

L to refresh and restore its contents. To select a module from the category. Keep the arrow keys pressed to scroll through the list of available modules.

E or Ctrl. The bottom frame contains the buttons for Help and Quit. Read Section 3. The selected module is highlighted. Figure Available F key shortcuts are shown in the bottom line of the YaST screen. If you navigate to an item with Tab. Which function keys are actually mapped to which buttons depend on the active YaST module. Use F10 for Accept. Enter must be pressed after a selection in the navigation tree in order to show the selected dialog.

In this case. Use Space to open or close tree items. Using Navigation Tree in ncurses Mode Some YaST modules use a navigation tree in the left part of the window to select configuration dialogs.

In ncurses mode. This is an intentional behavior to save time consuming redraws when browsing through the navigation tree. Press F1 to access the YaST help. First press Esc.

Installing Packages from the Command Line If you know a package name and the package is provided by any of your active installation repositories.

To get a list of YaST command line options. Starting the Individual Modules To save time.. Backward and Forward Navigation with Ctrl. F forward and Ctrl. B backward instead. Certain function keys might be occupied by the terminal and may not be available for YaST..

YaST provides a pure command line interface. F and Ctrl. Restriction of Key Combinations If your window manager uses global Alt combinations. Esc H replaces Alt. To start a module. Start the network module.

Keys like Alt or Shift can also be occupied by the settings of the terminal. Restriction of Function Keys The F keys are also used for functions. B If the Alt and Shift combinations are occupied by the window manager or the terminal. The basic usage of Zypper is covered in Section 6. Limitations This new utility uses the same software management library that is also the foundation for the YaST package manager.

To display the available options of a module. If you need a command-line based software management utility with functionality beyond what YaST provides. Not all modules have command line support. YaST provides command line support for individual modules.. Chapter 4. This YaST module does not support the command line interface. Snapper comes with a command line and a YaST interface. Snapper lets you manage these snapshots. Before and after running a YaST module or zypper. Snapper lets you compare the two snapshots and provides means to revert the differences between the two snapshots.

As a consequence. Abstract Being able to do file system snapshots providing the ability to do rollbacks on Linux is a feature that was often requested in the past. Snapshots and Disk Space When a snapshot is created. The tools also provide system backups by creating hourly snapshots of the system subvolumes.

If data in the original file system is modified. Older snapshots occupy more space than recent ones. The exact amount strongly depends on the number of snapshots you keep and the amount of data modifications.

As a rule of thumb you should consider using twice the size than you normally would. Snapper is configured to create a pair of snapshots before and after each run of zypper and YaST. For this purpose.. As a result. Doing an upgrade from one service pack to another results in snapshots occupying a lot of disk space on the system subvolumes.

Hourly backups are created for this purpose. Snapper also lets you restore system files that have been accidentally deleted or modified. Manually deleting these snapshots once they are no longer needed is recommended. Displaying the amount of disk space a snapshot allocates is currently not supported by the Btrfs tools.

Since the df does not show the correct disk usage on Btrfs file systems. Procedure 4. See Section 4. Every time you start a YaST module or a Zypper transaction. If this is the case. Limitations Make sure you know about Snapper's limitations before attempting to use its rollback mechanism. Comparing two snapshots the tools also allow you to see which files have been changed.

Undoing changes using the YaST Snapper module 1. In most cases this would be unwanted—therefore it is strongly recommended to closely review the changes between two snapshots before starting the rollback. Snapper —pre-configured for doing rollbacks of YaST or Zypper changes—will automatically be installed.

Make sure Current Configuration is set to root. Since Linux is a multitasking system. Storage Time of Snapshots By default. Choose a pair of pre. If this number is exceeded.

Using the YaST Snapper module or the snapper command line tool. This is always the case unless you have manually added own Snapper configurations. You can also display the differences between two versions of a file diff. If there are changes from other processes you want to keep.

The following image shows a list of files that have changed after having added the user tester. Zypper snapshots are labeled zypp zypper. Review the list of files. Click Show Changes to open the list of files that differ between the two snapshots. Click Restore Selected and confirm the action by clicking Yes. To restore a set of files. To restore a single file. Click Restore From First and confirm your choice with Yes.. Files with content changes are marked with c The following example shows a snapshot pair for the installation of the package ncftp Get a list of YaST and Zypper snapshots by running snapper list -t pre-post Get a list of changed files for a snapshot pair with snapper status PRE SoftLocksFile generated Thu Jan 12 SoftLocksFile generated Fri Jan 13 To display the diff for a certain file..

To restore one or more files run snapper -v undochange PRE. Hourly backup snapshots are of the type Single and are marked with the description timeline. In the following example we will set up a Snapper configuration for backing up the Web server data residing on a separate. To create a new Snapper configuration. You may create your own configurations for other partitions formatted with Btrfs or existing subvolumes on a Btrfs partition.. You can use these backup snapshots to restore files that have accidentally been deleted or modified beyond recovery.

By making use of Snapper's diff feature you can also find out which modifications have been made at a certain point of time.

To restore files from these snapshots proceed as described in Procedure 4. You can use either snapper itself or the YaST Snapper module to restore files from these snapshots. Creating and Modifying Snapper Configurations The way Snapper behaves is defined in a config file that is specific for each partition or Btrfs subvolume.

For details see Example 4. Do not change. To use it. To use your own set of defaults. Mount point of the partition or Btrfs subvolume to snapshot. You may only change the value. Snapshots are only deleted when both conditions are met. If you always want to keep a certain number of snapshots regardless of their age.

Valid values: Adjusting the Config File To adjust the config file. On the other hand. This is currently the only way to automatically create snapshots. Example 4.

If not existing. The first snapshot made on the last day of the month is kept for the last ten months. Adjust it according to your needs. Multiple entries need to be separated by Space. This example configuration enables hourly snapshots which are automatically cleaned up.

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In this example. Since we create hourly snapshots. In addition to this configuration change. Snapshots to be Kept Hourly: The last ten snapshots that have been made. The first snapshot made on the last day of the year is kept for the last ten years. The first daily snapshot that has been made is kept for the last ten days. Refer to Section 4. You can test it with the list command. All Snapper operations are carried out for an existing configuration see Section 4. PATH is to be replaced by the subvolume you specified in the first step of this procedure.

Disabling Automatic Snapshots If you have set up the root partition with Btrfs during the installation. Each of these tasks can be disabled as follows: Snapper automatically creates hourly snapshots of the system..

Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots Snapper is not restricted to creating and managing snapshots automatically by configuration. Snapshot Types Snapper knows three different types of snapshots: Used e.

This data cannot be changed. For snapshots of type post only. Modifying a snapshot means changing its metadata—you cannot modify its content. This is the default type when creating snapshots. If you want to create or manage snapshots for your own configuration you need to explicitly choose it.

Cleanup-algorithm for the snapshot. The following metadata is available for each snapshot: Snapshot type. Each post snapshot has got a corresponding pre snapshot. When creating a snapshot you also need to specify the metadata. A description of the snapshot. Pre Number: Specifies the number of the corresponding pre snapshot. By default the system configuration root is used. Each pre snapshot has got a corresponding post snapshot. Unique number of the snapshot.

Snapshot Metadata Each snapshot consists of the snapshot itself and some metadata. Physically they do not differ. The algorithms are executed in a daily cron-job. The following examples explain how to create snapshots from the command line.

Because no cleanup-algorithm is specified. Cleanup-algorithms Snapper provides three algorithms to clean up old snapshots. The cleanup-frequency itself is defined in the Snapper configuration for the partition or subvolume see Section 4.

Snapshot Description You should always specify a meaningful description in order to later be able to identify its purpose.

It should be easy to adopt them when using the YaST interface. Even more information can be specified via the user data option. Use snapper list to display all snapshots and their numbers. The YaST Snapper module already lists all snapshots. To modify a snapshot on the command line. The file will automatically be deleted when it meets the criteria specified for the time line cleanup-algorithm in the configuration.

This option is only available when using snapper on the command line. The cleanup algorithm is set to timeline. Modifying Snapshot Metadata Snapper allows you to modify the description. The following examples explain how to modify snapshots from the command line.

All other metadata cannot be changed. Choose one from the list and click Modify. Get it by running snapper list. A new description is set and the cleanup algorithm is unset..

Limitations Although being ready for production. To delete a snapshot. The older a snapshot is. Modifies the metadata of snapshot for a custom configuration named home. Btrfs as well as Snapper are constantly developed further. To delete a snapshot with the command line tool.. Snapshots are also automatically deleted by a daily cron-job.

The following limitations exist at the moment.

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Deleting Snapshot Pairs When deleting a pre snapshot. Only restore files that really need to belonging to the action you want to roll back. Whenever a file is written e.

Data Consistency There is no mechanism to ensure data consistency when creating snapshot. Therefore the user's home partition will not be deleted when reverting a user addition using Snapper.

Restoring such a file will cause problems. So whenever you do a rollback that involves undoing a Kernel installation. Therefore it is strongly recommended to always closely review the list of changed files and their diffs. Such a separate partition is not part of the default configuration for doing YaST rollbacks.

This is currently not possible. In order to use Snapper on a thin-provisioned LVM volume you need to create a Snapper configuration for it.. To date ext3 and XFS are supported. Now you can use Snapper to create and manage snapshots. Advanced Disk Setup. For more information and setup instructions. Chapter 5. Once you terminate the client connection to such a VNC session.

If necessary. Procedure 5. VNC is platform-independent and lets you access the remote machine from any operating system. If you have more than one network interface. One-time VNC sessions cannot be shared. This way you can choose the user which starts the session and. Session Types A machine can offer both kinds of sessions simultaneously on different ports. Confirm your settings with Finish. Abstract Virtual Network Computing VNC enables you to control a remote computer via a graphical desktop as opposed to a remote shell access.

It starts a graphical login screen on the server. In case not all needed packages are available yet. Check Allow Remote Administration. Whenever a VNC session is initiated with one of the configurations. A VNC display number is manually assigned to every configuration that the server supports: VNC display numbers and X display numbers are independent in one-time sessions.

Other configurations can be made available on different ports. By default it offers six configuration blocks: By default only vnc1 and vnchttpd1 are active. One-time VNC sessions are started via the xinetd daemon.

To start your VNC viewer and initiate a session with the server's default configuration. If the network interface serving the VNC sessions is protected by a firewall. Another usecase are trainings where the trainer might need access to the trainee's desktop. This is ideal for demonstration purposes where one client has full access and all other clients have view-only access.

Activate configuration changes by entering the following command: In contrast to one-time sessions that start a display manager.. To deactivate a configuration uncomment or add that line. The session and all applications started in this session run regardless of client connections until the session is terminated. Access to persistent sessions is protected by two possible types of passwords: A persistent session can be accessed from multiple clients simultaneously.

See Chapter When adding custom configurations. To activate a configuration. Security Considerations Make sure to use strong passwords of significant length eight or more characters. If starting multiple sessions you may alternatively open a range of ports. The password s you are providing here are also used for future sessions started by the same user.

For persistent sessions. They can be changed with the vncpasswd command. To start a session with a resolution of x pixel and with a color depth of bit.

Open a shell and make sure you are logged in as the user that should own the VNC session. If needed. See man 1 vncserver for more options. Do not share these passwords.. When running vncviewer for the first time. To terminate the session shut down the desktop environment that runs inside the VNC session from the VNC viewer as you would shut it down if it was a regular local X session. A session can have multiple client connections of both kinds at once. VNC connections are unencrypted..

By default this shell script starts an xterm and the twm Window Manager. To start your VNC viewer and connect to display: If you prefer to manually terminate a session.. Run the following command to terminate the session that runs on display: Multiple sessions started by a user will all use the same start-up and password files. Chapter 6. For a definition of the terminology used in this context for example.

The simplest way to execute Zypper is to type its name. The components enclosed in brackets are not required. General Usage The general syntax of Zypper is: It is especially useful for accomplishing remote software management tasks or managing software from shell scripts. Using Zypper Zypper is a command line package manager for installing. Zypper does not require the zmd daemon to run behind the scenes.

In contrast to rug. For more information about rug compatibility.. Zypper's syntax is similar to that of rug. Most Zypper commands have a dry-run option that does a simulation of the given command.

For example.. The following command will list all known patterns: When using the install command. Installing and Removing Software with Zypper To install or remove packages use the following commands: It can be used for test purposes.

Use with care.

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The version must be preceded by an operator: MozillaFirefox Where mozilla is the alias of the repository from which to install. To install emacs and remove vim simultaneously. This option must be given before the actual command install. If this is not possible. These packages are mandatory for the system and. You can override this behavior using the --noninteractive option.

Zypper asks for a confirmation before installing or removing a selected package. You can change it using the --directory option. These recommended packages are only installed if actually available and installable. To disable deleting. In case recommended packages were made available after the recommending package has been installed by adding additional packages or hardware.

See Section 6. To install only the build dependencies use -d. If you do not want this. To delete extraneous source packages. A list of all source packages available in your repositories can be obtained with: If you want to install the corresponding source package of a package. Utilities To verify whether all dependencies are still fulfilled and to repair missing dependencies.

To download source packages. To only show missing or extraneous packages without downloading or deleting anything. Updating Software with Zypper There are three different ways to update software using Zypper: Drivers and related software are only installable if certain hardware dependencies are fulfilled. Reading installed packages. The latter is achieved with the zypper dist-upgrade command which is discussed in Section 6. Installing Patches To install all officially released patches applying to your system.

The above command is all you must enter in order to apply them when needed. Zypper knows three different commands to query for the availability of patches: To update all installed packages with newer available versions.

It is also possible to list and install patches relevant to specific issues. To install a patch for a specific Bugzilla or CVE issue. Installing Updates If a repository contains only new packages. To list specific patches. Differences between zypper update and zypper dist-upgrade Choose zypper update to update packages to newer versions available for your product version while maintaining system integrity. Then use the zypper dist-upgrade command with the required repositories.

Upgrading to a New Product Version To easily upgrade your installation to a new product version for example. This command ensures that all packages will be installed from the repositories currently enabled.

To restrict the distribution upgrade to packages from a certain repository while considering also the other repositories for satisfying dependencies. A list of all new available packages regardless whether installable or not can be obtained with: For details. For detailed instructions. All packages that have unfulfilled dependencies after the upgrade will be uninstalled. Most importantly. This feature is attractive for advanced users who want to run remote upgrades or upgrades on many similarly configured systems..

Enable them again after the upgrade and edit their version string to match the version number of the distribution of the upgraded now running system.

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Close as many applications and unneeded services as possible and log out all regular users. Distribution Upgrade with zypper With the zypper command line utility you can upgrade to the next version of the distribution. Disable third party repositories before starting the upgrade. Before Starting the Upgrade with zypper To avoid unexpected errors during the upgrade process using zypper. The Upgrade Procedure Warning: Check Your System Backup Before actually starting the upgrade procedure.

This rule is enforced. Remote Installation. Increase the version number of the system repositories from SP2 to SP3. The name of the repositories as used in the following steps could vary a little bit depending on your customizations. To view your current repositories enter: The program zypper supports long and short command names.

Getting this right is essential.. For more information. Configure the repositories you want to use as an update source. Disable third party repositories or other Open Build Service repositories.

Run the online update to make sure the software management stack is up-to-date. For background information. Consider to prepare or update your own installation server. In the following text. If they can be satisfied. Handling of Unresolved Dependencies zypper dup will remove all packages having unresolved dependencies. Perform basic system configuration with SuSEconfig.

Once done. Packages that are no longer available in the repositories are considered orphaned. Refresh local metadata and repository contents with zypper ref. Managing Repositories with Zypper All installation or patch commands of Zypper rely on a list of known repositories.

Reboot the system with shutdown -r now.. You are asked to confirm the license of SUSE Linux Enterprise and of some packages—depending on the set of installed packages. It does not consider the version. Run the actual distribution upgrade with zypper dup. Pull in Zypper and the package management stack from the 11 SP1 repository with zypper up zypper.

Such packages get uninstalled if their dependencies cannot be satisfied. Example 6. To list all repositories known to the system. URI or repository number from the zypper repos command output can be used. The alias will never change by itself. Command line configuration is pretty easy too and once known can be quicker than the GUI. We will step you through both configurations as we build up in this series to PXE Installation server. As with most things in life there is a price to pay for this ease: YaST only writes to the configuration files and the changes do not come into force until the service is restarted.

You may be using Linux at home or in an office environment, but often we still need to provide access to Windows desktops. In this tutorial, again using openSUSE We may have seen this already with the local-link address, however, in this tutorial will look at configuring the RAdvD on openSUSE 11 to advertise the Network Prefix and default gateway so we can work with global addresses without any configuration on the hosts.

Read more We may know that it is bits long and too difficult to type but if that is all then we do ourselves a little injustice in not knowing how easy IPv6 can make our lives. In this tutorial we will step you through, using openSUSE Home Blog Products Contact Us. More Articles Contact Us BeginLinux.

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