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The goal is to convince critical listeners that what are offered as reasons for a claim do count as reasons, making the claim more acceptable. Although the specific focus is on rhetorical criticism, the essay applies to critical claims more generally. This essay originally was published in the Journal of Communication, 58 December, , —, as part of a symposium about how different methods of inquiry can enrich and benefit from one another.

Reasoning from Classifications and Definitions. Jan Argumentation.

In this paper we analyze the uses and misuses of argumentation schemes from verbal classification, and show how argument from definition supports argumentation based on argument from verbal classification. The inquiry has inevitably included the broader study of the concept of definition. The paper presents the schemes for argument from classification and for argument from definition, and shows how the latter type of argument so typically supports the former.

The problem of analyzing arguments based on classification is framed in a structure that reveals the crucial role it plays in the persuasion process. The survey of the literature includes the work of Hastings, Perelman, Kienpointner and Schiappa, but still finds much of value in Aristotle. Brett Jacob Bricker. Environmental policy was a core component of the first 17 months of the Obama administration. From global warming legislation to the BP oil crisis, Obama responded to a range of environmental concerns with a variety of rhetorical strategies.

This article examines the first 40 environmental speeches delivered by President Barack Obama. I find that Obama primarily used economic and national security arguments to justify his environmental policy. Scholars' work on definitional argument provides an analytic framework that supports my claim that although the approach of privileging economic and national security benefits is politically salient in the short-term, it undercuts long-term public support for environmentalism.

Les querelles de mots dans le discours politique: Apr Feigning Environmentalism: Oct West J Comm. Global warming poses a significant threat to the livelihoods of future generations. Although there is a consensus of qualified climate scientists who believe that scientific evidence supports Anthropogenic Climate Change theories, this has not translated into public understanding of or trust in these theories. In this essay, I argue that antienvironmental think tanks with strong industrial ties are a major factor undercutting public perception of climate science.

Based on a tradition of scholarship devoted to the importance of naming and definition, I argue that environmental advocates must call into question the validity of names and definitions in order to reshape public perception of climate science and overcome disbelief in Anthropogenic Climate Change theories. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes.

Sep The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of condensed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed using argumentation schemes.

In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of " marriage " in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti-cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts.

The dispute about the same-sex couples' right to marry hides a much deeper disagreement not only about what marriage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it. Next to pragma-dialectics various other approaches to argumentation have developed during the past decades.

First, the neo-classical views of Toulmin and Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca are discussed, which are still influential. Second, attention is paid to the formal dialectical approaches, developed by researchers with a background in logic and stimulated by the writings of Naess, Crawshay-Williams, Lorenzen and his Erlangen school, and Hamblin. Third, the various contributions to normatively oriented informal logic are briefly described.

Fourth, the descriptive rhetorical and linguistic approaches are given their due. In all cases it is indicated to which components of the research program of argumentation theory each of these approaches contributes and how it relates to the pragma-dialectical approach to argumentation that has been expounded in this volume.

In conclusion some future prospects are highlighted, especially for further development of the pragma-dialectical approach. Hiroko Okuda Takeshi Suzuki. Japan has transformed itself from a militaristic, imperialist state into a pacifist, democratic country as well as a reliable U. However, postwar Japan has had two responses to the lost war.

On the one hand, conservatives often found it difficult to reconcile themselves with the reality of losing the last war. Taking into account the tension intrinsic to Japanese interpretations of the postwar Constitution, this study will explore the way in which Prime Minister Abe made confrontational strategic maneuvering in political argumentation. By doing so, it will explicate how Abe sought to identify the context in the way that one should view a reality.

Definitional argument: Nevada's commercial UAV debate and the case of threatened prosperity.

Michael Eisenstadt. Nevada was granted a Certificate of Authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration in December to enter the market for commercial drone development and testing. Given safety and privacy risks of a policy authorizing commercial drone testing, it is surprising there was no organized public opposition in Nevada.

Two competing worldviews were present in this debate. One argued that regulation of commercial drone development was a public good. The other contended that regulation would function as a barrier to economic growth.

I argue that the latter worldview was ultimately more powerful because it was the product of a definitional argument, a powerful symbolic formula I call threatened prosperity.

Were it not for this symbolic formula, significant protest might have emerged. Sep Argumentation. These expressions are instantiations of the grammatical pattern that says Q, in which Q is an indefinite quantifying expression. Furthermore, an analysis of these expressions as presentational devices shows that an arguer can use them for strategic reasons, i.

Using these devices derails into fallaciousness when the context offers insufficient clues to reconstruct the standpoint or when the argument does not offer the kind of support that would be required by the specific instantiation of Q.

Questioning the Virtual Friendship Debate: Fuzzy Analogical Arguments from Classification and Definition. Oliver Laas. Arguments from analogy are pervasive in everyday reasoning, mathematics, philosophy, and science. Informal logic studies everyday argumentation in ordinary language.

Strategic Maneuvering Through Persuasive Definitions: Implications for Dialectic and Rhetoric

A branch of fuzzy logic, approximate reasoning, seeks to model facets of everyday reasoning with vague concepts in ill-defined situations. Ways of combining the results from these fields will be suggested by introducing a new argumentation scheme—a fuzzy analogical argument from classification—with the associated critical questions.

This will be motivated by a case study of analogical reasoning in the virtual friendship debate within information ethics. The virtual friendship debate is a disagreement over whether virtual friendships are genuine friendships.

It will be argued that the debate could move away from its current impasse, caused by unproductive metaphysical and logical assumptions, if extant arguments are reinterpreted as fuzzy analogical arguments from classification, and subjected to a new set of critical questions which would replace the quest for facts of essence about friendship with an emphasis on empirical data, persuasion, and definitional power.

A Contextual Analysis. May Lect Notes Comput Sci. Robert Ian Anderson. In what sense do modern argumentation theories relate to Aristotle? The case of pragma-dialectics. This study aims at identifying the most prevalent pragmatic aspects utilized in the manufacturing of entertainment and celebrity news reports and finding out the inte-rdifferences between British and American news reports of this kind.

Pragmatic Analysis of Political Data. This book tackles various pragmatic issues which are manipulated by politicians in diverse contexts where the principle of being honest is less important than fulfilling their goals. These issues range from irony to impoliteness, deception, diplomacy, fallacy, political accusations.

Rhetorical Style: The Uses of Language in Persuasion. Rhetorical Style promotes a renewed appreciation of the persuasive potential of the English language by demonstrating how language choices argue. It combines advice about effective style from the rhetorical tradition with insights from stylistics and discourse analysis to provide a full spectrum of methods for text analysis. Using examples from political speeches, nonfiction works, and newspaper reports, it emphasizes the continuing relevance of rhetorical principles of stylistic analysis and their usefulness in understanding effective arguments.

Rhetorical Style is comprehensive in its coverage.

(PDF) Word order in French, Spanish and Italian: A grammaticalization account

Part I reviews the historical layers of English, its methods of word formation, its registers and varieties. Part II covers sentence basics in a brief and accessible way, noting how sentence forms serve persuasion, especially those optimal "iconic" forms that epitomize their content. The interactive dimension of texts is covered in part III in accounts of how speakers, audiences, other voices, and even situations and occasions can be selectively presented to serve an arguer's purposes.

Finally, part IV goes beyond the sentence level to passage construction, explaining how a coherent string of sentences can build into a sustained argument.

The final chapter explains Amplification, the tour de force rhetorical performance that draws on features from all the levels. Throughout, the explanations and the examples from actual texts provide evidence linking language choices to argument forms and persuasive purposes. Rhetorical insights into how language argues have survived for centuries. Rhetorical Style was written to give these enduring principles wider circulation.

David Zarefsky Political Argumentation in the United States. Strategic Maneuvering: Examining Argumentation in Context. The pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation developed by van Eemeren and Grootendorst Speech acts in argumentative discussions: A theoretical model for the analysis of discussions directed towards solving conflicts of opinion.

A pragma-dialectical perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, , A systematic theory of argumentation. The pragma-dialectical approach. Argumentation uses language to justify or refute a standpoint, with the aim of securing agreement in views. The study of argumentation typically centers on one of two objects: State of the marital union: Rhetoric, identity, and nineteenth-century marriage controversies.

State of the Marital Union documents the transformations of public identity occurring in American society through a close examination of the rhetoric used in nineteenth-century marriage controversies. Leslie J. Harris argues that American citizenship is, in part, rhetorically constituted through marriage.

The public debates over seemingly distinct marriage controversies, such as domestic violence, divorce, polygamy, free love, and interracial marriage, functioned as ways of both challenging and solidifying norms of gender, race, class, and ethnicity. Harris demonstrates how the private wife became the public woman by contesting legal standing in both the court of law and the court of public opinion. State of the Marital Union makes the case that marriage is a critical site for constituting and performing ways of being in the American public, which has significant implications for understanding both female roles and the body politic.

Definition as an argumentative strategy in parliamentary discourse: A cross-cultural and comparative approach. The present paper aims to investigate the main argumentative uses of definitions in various communicative contexts of the parliamentary discourse, on the basis of two sets of data, selected from the British and the Romanian Parliaments. Relevant categories of argumentative definitions are identified and described, by taking into consideration their linguistic structure and rhetorical features, as well as their current association with other types of arguments and pragmatic strategies.

The cross-cultural and comparative perspective allows us to grasp to what extent the institutional forms, procedural rules and cultural models can actually influence the argumentative choices and reasoning patterns in the specific cases of the British and the Romanian Parliamentary discourse.

In exposing news media coverage to such scrutiny, she finds that cases of American personnel engaging in torture achieved notoriety chiefly because of the fact that women were perpetrators. The language of commentators suggests at least as much social outrage over the gender performance of the women as over the fact of torture being committed by Americans.

At the same time, political and social discourses sketch a portrait of an intractable enemy in the form of the Muslim "Other" and betray a longing for a savior warrior hero who is capable of prevailing over this perceived "evil. This finding provides a transition into an examination of popular entertainment television programs that feature male and female heroes as government agents engaged in fighting the war on terrorism. Ultimately, Gronnvoll's analysis suggests that a Western cultural longing for a savior is partially fulfilled through fictional programming portrayals of masculine warriors who engage in torture and remain heroic.

Strategic Maneuvering in Political Argumentation. Although political argumentation is not institutionalized in a formal sense, it does have recurrent patterns and characteristics.

Its constraints include the absence of time limits, the lack of a clear terminus, heterogeneous audiences, and the assumption that access is open to all. These constraints make creative strategic maneuvering both possible and necessary. Among the common types of strategic maneuvering are changing the subject, modifying the relevant audience, appealing to liberal and conservative presumptions, reframing the argument, using condensation symbols, employing the locus of the irreparable, and argumentative use of figures and tropes.

It is difficult to evaluate strategic maneuvering in political argumentation, however, because the activity types dictate wide latitude for the arguers, so there are few cases of unquestionable derailment.

Show more. Sophist and Artist. S Consigny. Strategic maneuvering: Maintaining a delicate balance Dialectic and Rhetoric: The Warp and Woof of Argumentation Analysis. Rhetorical depiction. M Osborn. Real battles and empty metaphors. Information structure a nd grammaticalization. Loengarov , Alexander.

Le fait qu e. U niversity. Marchello-Nizia, Christiane. Arman d Collin. Gr ammaticalization et changement lingui s -. Meillet, Antoine. Meulleman, Macht eld.

Les localisateurs dans les constructions existen tielles:. Max Niemeyer V erlag. Clausal structure s of Spanish: Edition s du CNRS.

Pinto, M anuela. Licensing and int erpretation o f inverted subje cts in Ital ian. U trecht I nstitute of Linguistics. Grande gramma tica. Italiana di consultazione.

Il Mulino. Rizzi, Luigi. Issues in Italian syntax , Dordrech t: Residual V -second and the wh-criterion. Luigi Rizzi, eds. Parameters and functional heads. Oxfo rd Univer sity. Micro-syntaxe et macro-syntaxe: On word-order va riability: T ouratier , Christian. Grammaire latine.

Word order in French, Spanish and Italian: A grammaticalization account

Editions Sedes. T rousdale, Graeme. W ords and cons tructions in grammaticalization: Minkova, eds. Studies i n the history of th e English Langua ge. Mo uton. Iss ues in constructional approaches to gra mmatical-. Grammat -. Current views and iss ues. John Benja-. V an Peteghem, M arleen. Les phrases c opulati ves dans les langue s romanes.

Gottfried Egert V erlag. Zribi-Hertz, Anne. Recherches lin -. Presses du. Prosody , focus, and wor d order. Cambridge , MA: Las funciones informativas: In Igna-. Studies in Second and F oreign Language Education presents books and edited books on critical and. It provides a platform for the dissemination and discussion of. The titles in this series focus primar-. ISBN Download full-text. Citations 7. References During the period of Middle French, the last residues linked to the OV paradigm are evacuated at an accelerated rate Buridant , Combettes and Marchello-Nizia A similar observation regarding Italian occupying an intermediate position between Spanish and French holds for word order.

If there is a significant relationship between free word order and lack of nominal determiners, as we have suggested above in 4. The grammaticalization of the prepositional partitive in Romance. Full-text available. Jan Chapter 9. Adverbial cleft sentences in Italian, French and English: A comparative perspective. Nov The aim of this paper is to offer a multi-layered analysis of adverbial clefts in Italian, French, and English.

In particular, we intend to offer a corpus-based study of the syntactic category of the cleft constituent, its semantic type and, finally, the information structure of adverbial clefts. In the first part of our contribution, after defining the concept of adverbial, we discuss which categories of adverbials can or cannot be clefted.

In the second part, we cast light on the similarities and differences between the three languages. The main cross-linguistic similarities concern the semantic type of cleft adverbials, whereas the most significant differences lie in information structure. Finally, we will relate our empirical findings to the ongoing theoretical discussion on the semantics and pragmatics of adverbial clefts.

Conference Paper. The emergence of the grammatical paradigm of nominal determiners in French and in Romance: Comparative and diachronic perspectives. This paper is devoted to the emergence of a new paradigm in French and Romance, that of nominal determiners. Latin had no articles, and although possessives, demonstratives and indefinites could determine the noun, they could also be used as pronouns or adjectives, so they that the morpho-syntactic category of nominal determiners did not exist as such.

We first examine the diachronic evolution of French, where a far-reaching grammaticalization process took place. Syntagmatically, all determiners end up in the NP-initial position as only available syntactic slot, contributing to the highly configurational NP pattern characteristic of Modern French.

From a paradigmatic viewpoint, determiners no longer correspond to a syntactic function, but to a separate morpho-syntactic category. We also evaluate to what extent this evolution took place in two other Romance languages, Italian and Spanish. Through the analysis of this particular evolution, based on parallel corpora composed of a Latin text and its translations in Old, Middle, Modern French on the one hand, and in Spanish and Italian on the other, our study also provides evidence for more general mechanisms and motivations at work in the creation of new paradigms, analogy in particular.

May Singlish can be interesting to the ACL community both linguistically as a major creole based on English, and computationally for information extraction and sentiment analysis of regional social media.

We investigate dependency parsing of Singlish by constructing a dependency treebank under the Universal Dependencies scheme, and then training a neural network model by integrating English syntactic knowledge into a state-of-the-art parser trained on the Singlish treebank.

To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use neural stacking to improve cross-lingual dependency parsing on low-resource languages. We make both our annotation and parser available for further research.

Typology and Morphosyntactic Categorization: Sep This article outlines the major typological changes restructuring the grammar from Latin to French. A first parameter is the linear order of the constituents: Moreover, word order is becoming less flexible. A second parameter concerns the nature of morphological marking of syntactic relations.

We consider especially the decline of suffix morphology with respect to both nouns case, gender and number inflection and verbs, as well as the shift from a system of "dependent-marking" towards a partial "head-marking" Nichols , with clitic pronouns attached to the verb expressing the syntactic function of the verb arguments.

The third parameter is the tendency towards more hierarchical syntactic relationships and an increased degree of syntactic cohesion.

It is shown how the shift towards more specialized grammatical categories, which is the central topic of this thematic issue, is linked to these typological changes. With respect to these different typological evolutions, French is compared not only to other Romance languages, but also to languages belonging to other language families.

C'est ainsi que: Oct J Fr Lang Stud. Show more. Paradigmatic structure, word order and grammaticalization. Words and constructions in grammaticalization: The end of the English impersonal construction. Graeme Trousdale. New reflections on grammaticalization and lexicalization. Identification focus versus information focus.

OSTEOPOROSEa

Jan Language. This article argues that identificational focus, which expresses exhaustive identification and occupies the specifier of a functional projection, must be distinguished in language description from information focus, which conveys new information and involves no syntactic reordering.

The properties of the two types of focus are established on the basis of Hungarian and English material.

It is argued that the cleft constituent is the realization of identificational focus in English. Only-phrases are analyzed as identificational foci carrying an evaluative presupposition.

The feature specification of identificational focus is shown to be subject to parametric variation: Tema y foco. Issues in constructional approaches to grammaticalization. On explaining the rise of c'est-clefts in French. The Paradox of Grammatical Change: John Benjamins, Clefting and discourse organization: Adolescent e institucionalizado. Catia Camp aner Ferrari Bernardy. The objective of this study wa s to analyze.

Vida Nov a Halfway House, with institution-. Data w as col-. Data comp arison was performe d for analy -. Eleven f ami lies wer e s tudied. Adolescent, institutionalize d. El estudio tuvo como objetivo analiz ar el pa-.

El e studio, del tipo descrip-. Como fuen-. Fueron estudiada s 11 familias. Relaciones f amiliares. Adolescente institucionaliz ado.

Drug abuse is define d as the consumption of subst ances. These drugs may be either licit or illicit, from me di-. Drug use and abuse are a c omplex phenomenon, with. It is analyz ed as a f ami ly s ymptom, seen as a. The function of such a sympt om. Among the risk fact ors to drug use and abuse by children.

The family is implied in the he althy dev elopment, or. F ami ly rela tions, attitude. Adolescen ts f ace important situations. At the. Howev er , they are discov ering their inter ests. Drug abuse cause s damage to the adole scents, their.

The objective of this study was t o analyze the r ole of. This is a descriptiv e, cross-section study , with a case se-. The study was perf ormed in two unit s of Centro de. The f acility in Rolandia assists male youths,. The Cervin facility is classified as a semiliberty unit,. One of the principles of the entity is the fr ee-. The study subjects were the a dolescent s of both gen-.

The inclusion crit eria were the ag e. The a dolescent s and their relative s. The recor ds are store d in the Cervin fa-. The interview script s were made with both open-ende d.

The se data wer e registered in a spr eadsheet ma de by. The sec-. St age 3 was elabor ate d in order to. The form applie d to the rela tive diff ers from the f ormer. The identific ation of the respon-. Some of the inf ormation collecte d during the inter -.

A t first, the records of the institutionaliz ed adole scents. The second stage w as the interview with one of the ado-. The interviews. On that da y , the relative s tak e part with the Cervin prof es-. The re searcher int erviewed eleven a dolescent s and nine. T wo relativ es were in terviewed by so-. The se prof essionals had. The data ob tained with the int erview with the adoles-.

The study follow ed the regula ting norms for re search. The project wa s submitte d to the Re-. The 11 adole scents institutionalized a t Cervin were. They were sen t to the. The first abuse drug use d by most of them was marijuana,. All of them sta ted that the y consumed. Among the rela tives int erviewed, nine wer e female, and,. The age of the. Only one of the interviewe d. Only four a dolescent s lived within a nucle ar family , com-.

Most fami-. In ten f ami lies, a f amily member other than the ins titu-. According t o the study method, the response s of both. Reg arding the car e-giving adults in char ge of the youth. Divor ce and the constitution of an additional civil union is. The wa y their parent s divorce d and their relation aft er. Signs of negligence and abandonment w ere detect ed. The mother of a dolescent 8 w as im-. Reg arding the rela tionship of the adolescen t with the. In six f amilies, there wa s agree-.

Of these, the rela tionship was r ated. Reg arding typical in tra-f amily violence, evaluat ed by the. Reg arding the decision sharing among the f ami ly mem-. The fact ors that possibly led the adole scent to use.

The youths ha d difficulties to iden tify these. Some were unable to de scribe them; others men-. For the r elatives, the se factor s were iden tified as lack of. Knowing the main caregiver and his or her relationship. The mother is consider ed an essen tial figure in the whole. Howev er , the pre sence of the mother as an es-. I had contact with my father until I was four years old or so. I used to spend Christmas and the New Y ear with him.

That lasted for two years. Then he went to work in Lapa,. There wer e disagreemen ts in the answer about the adult. Although this ado-.

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