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OFFICIAL DSA THEORY TEST CAR DRIVERS PDF

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The Official DSA Theory Test for Car Drivers [PDF] 16th () E_nodrm - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The OFFICIAL DSA. THEORY TEST for Car Drivers WIN A DOWNLOADABLE PDF FORMAT CAR! See pa ge 5 ä Hundreds of official revision for det 09 ails. The Official DSA Theory Test for Car Drivers [PDF] 16th () E_nodrm. Stopping Distances Driving Theory Test, Driving Test, Learning To Drive, Distance.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form without the written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd. First published Sixteenth edition Second impression Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this publication is accurate at the time of going to press. The Stationery Office cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies.

Case studies are designed to test knowledge basic recall of facts comprehension basic understanding application practical use of knowledge and understanding.

This is done by creating a set of circumstances that you may encounter in a real-life situation. Youll then be asked some questions relating to the scenario, and youll have to decide how you would react or behave in each case. For an example of a case study, see page The case studies at the end of each section in this book set out scenarios and then ask you relevant questions. This is to help you test your knowledge in a format similar to the case studies in the theory test.

However, the layout isnt the same as the theory test screens. Hazard perception After youve finished the multiple choice part, theres a break of up to three minutes before you start the hazard perception part of the test. You cant leave your seat during this break. This part of the test is a series of film clips, shown from a drivers point of view. Youll be using a mouse for this part of the theory test. Before you start this part of the test, youll be shown a short video that explains how the test works and gives you a chance to see a sample film clip.

ISBN 13: 9780115532313

This will help you to understand what you need to do. You can play this video again if you wish. During the hazard perception part of the test, youll be shown 14 film clips. Each clip contains one or more developing hazards. You should press the mouse button as soon as you see a hazard developing that may need you, the driver, to take some action, such as changing speed or direction.

The earlier you notice a developing hazard and make a response, the higher your score. There are 15 hazards for which you can score points. Your response wont change what happens in the scene in any way. However, a red flag will appear on the bottom of the screen to show that your response has been noted. Before each clip starts, therell be a second pause to allow you to see the new road situation.

The hazard perception part of the test lasts about 20 minutes. For this part of the test no extra time is available, and you cant repeat any of the clips you dont get a second chance to see a hazard when youre driving on the road. Trial questions Were constantly checking the questions and clips to help us decide whether to use them in future tests.

After the hazard perception part of the test, you may be asked to try a few trial questions and clips. You dont have to do these if you dont want to, and if you answer them they wont count towards your final score.

Customer satisfaction survey We want to make sure our customers are completely satisfied with the service they receive.

At the end of your test youll be shown some questions designed to give us information about you and how happy you are with the service you received from us. Your answers will be treated in the strictest confidence. They arent part of the test and they wont affect your final score or be used for marketing purposes. Youll be asked if you want to complete the survey, but you dont have to. The result You should receive your result at the test centre within 10 minutes of completing the test.

Youll be given a score for each part of the test the multiple choice part and the hazard perception part. Youll need to pass both parts to pass the theory test. If you fail one of the parts, youll have to take the whole test again. Why do I have to retake both parts of the test if I only fail one? Its really only one test. The theory test has always included questions relating to hazard awareness the second part simply tests the same skills in a more effective way.

The two parts are only presented separately in the theory test because different scoring methods are used. Whats the pass mark? To pass the multiple choice part of the theory test, you must answer at least 43 out of 50 questions correctly. For learner car drivers and motorcyclists, the pass mark for the hazard perception part is 44 out of If I dont pass, when can I take the test again? If you fail your test, youve shown that youre not fully prepared. Youll have to wait at least three clear working days before you can take the theory test again.

Good preparation will save you both time and money. After the theory test When you pass your theory test, youll be given a certificate. Keep this safe as youll need it when you go for your practical test.

This certificate is valid for two years from the date of your test. This means that you have to take and pass the practical test within this two-year period.

If you dont, youll have to take and pass the theory test again before you can book your practical test. Your practical driving test Your next step is to prepare for and take your practical driving test. Both products explain the standards required to pass the practical driving test. They include information about each of the 24 key skills examined within the test, with tips from the experts, and they explain what the examiner is looking for during the test.

The DVD also shows a test in action so that you can see what happens. Pass Plus not applicable in Northern Ireland After passing the practical driving test, youre at greater risk of being involved in a road traffic incident than older, more experienced drivers.

That risk is reflected in car insurance premiums. There are likely to be many driving situations that you havent experienced during your lessons. The Pass Plus scheme can help by showing you how to deal with these situations so that you can drive with confidence. Pass Plus is aimed at improving your driving skills and making you a safer driver.

It can also lead to insurance discounts. Pass Plus will take you through driving in town on rural roads in all weathers on dual carriageways and motorways in the dark.

The structured syllabus gives you the extra experience you need at a time when youre most likely to be involved in a collision. It builds on your existing skills and theres no test to take at the end. The amount of money you save on insurance could cover the cost of the course. Many car insurers recognise the benefits of the scheme and will give you substantial discounts when you insure your car.

To find out more about the Pass Plus scheme, insurance discounts and Pass Plus instructors in your area, ask your driving instructor visit www. You can take the Pass Plus course at any time in your driving career, but its mainly aimed at new drivers in the first year after passing their test. Using the questions and answers sections Sections 1 to 14 contain all the revision questions for the multiple choice part of the theory test. These are very similar to the questions youll be asked in the test and cover the same topics.

The questions are in the left-hand column with a choice of answers below.

For easy reference, the questions are divided into topics. Although this isnt how youll find them in your test, its helpful if you want to look at particular subjects.

At the start of each topic, before the questions, there are a few pages of useful information to help you learn more about each topic. On the right-hand side of the page theres a brief explanation to help you understand the question. Therell also be some advice on correct driving procedures and some short references to the relevant source materials.

These refer to the books listed on page Dont just learn the answers; its important that you know why theyre correct. To help you do this, theres a short scenario at the end of each question section with five questions to answer.

This will give you an idea of how the case study part of the theory test will assess your understanding of the subject covered. This knowledge will help you with your practical skills and prepare you to become a safe and confident driver. Taking exams or tests is rarely a pleasant experience, but you can make your test less stressful by being confident that you have the knowledge to answer the questions correctly. Make studying more enjoyable by involving friends and relations.

Take part in a question-and-answer game. Test those experienced drivers whove had their licence a while: Some of the questions in this book wont be relevant to Northern Ireland theory tests. These questions are marked as follows: Once youre on the road, remember what youve learnt and be prepared to keep learning. Using this book to learn and revise Were all different.

We like different foods, listen to different music and learn in different ways. This book is designed to help you learn the important information that youll need for the theory test in a variety of different formats, so you can nd a way of learning that works best for you.

Features A summary, at the start of each section, of what youll learn. All the key information presented in bitesize chunks with clear headings. Links and QR codes to online videos and interactive activities, to further increase your knowledge and skills. Scan the QR code on your smart phone youll need a QR code reader app to access the online content.

A summary, at the end of each section, of what youll need to know and be able to do to meet the National Driving Standard. The theory test is just one part of the process of learning to drive. You need to learn the facts, but its important to understand how they relate to real driving. The combination of knowing driver theory and having good practical driving skills wont only help you pass your test; it will also make you a safer driver for life.

What kind of learner are YOU? Ask yourself these questions Why are you doing this? Whats motivating you? When have you learned best in the past?

What helped you to remember what you needed to know? What are your strengths and weaknesses as a learner? Think about the way that you learn best. You could try any combination of the following ideas. I remember best when I physically do something Short study sessions Do things create models or diagrams; make lists Use props Try the interactive activities Watch and copy what your driving instructor does Mime or act out different driving moves.

Create flashcards with important facts or statistics Make diagrams and charts Use mind maps Use colour coding Watch the DSA short films Make your own notes Cross-reference information using a variety of books, eg The Official Highway Code Draw your own diagrams to show key information.

Repeat rules out loud Use a voice recorder to make recordings of key information Work with others and discuss things Watch and listen to the DSA video content. Top tips Remember your motivation Think about the reason youre learning to drive. Is it for independence? For work? To drive a dream car? Remind yourself, from time to time, of your motivation for learning. Dont give up! Relate to your personal experience Information is more memorable when its linked to what you already know.

Try to picture yourself in the position of the driver. The case studies throughout the book can help you think about how the ideas would work in real life. Use mnemonics Mnemonics are little sayings, stories or techniques that help you remember something. A classic example is Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain, which you can use to remember the colours of the rainbow red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.

You can use similar techniques to memorise statistics, facts or information for your driving career. Question format However you choose to learn the content, make certain youre familiar with the format of the test and how the questions will be presented.

Go through the selfassessment questions in each chapter and see if you can answer them. Mark any you struggle with and try them again at a later date. Plan your study Set yourself timelines and targets. Try to set aside dedicated time for study, when youre feeling awake and are unlikely to be interrupted.

The environment in which you study is important try to find an area where you can concentrate. Getting help Think about the people you can speak with to ask questions, get advice or share experiences about driving such as your driving instructor, parents, friends or colleagues at work.

Taking your test Dont rush into the theory test before youre ready. You need to be confident with the information, and have enough practical experience to give you a deep understanding of the information too.

In this section, youll learn about observing whats going on around you being seen by other road users being aware of other road users anticipating what other road users are going to do keeping your concentration on the road avoiding distractions.

Alertness Being alert to whats going on around you is vital to driving safely and will help you to avoid dangerous situations. Observation and awareness Its important to be aware of whats happening around you while youre driving, including other road users pedestrians signs and road markings weather conditions the area youre driving through. Before you move off, you should use your mirrors to check how your actions will affect traffic behind you. Getting a clear view If you cant see behind you when reversing, ask someone to guide you to make sure that you reverse safely.

If your view is blocked by parked cars when youre coming out of a junction, move forward slowly and carefully until you have a clear view. Overtaking Observation is particularly important when youre overtaking another vehicle.

Make sure you can see the road ahead clearly, looking out for vehicles coming towards you whether youre near a junction vehicles could come out of the junction while youre overtaking whether the road gets narrower there may not be enough space for you to overtake bends or dips in the road, which will make it difficult for you to see traffic coming towards you road signs that mean you MUST NOT overtake. Before you overtake, check that its safe, legal and necessary you have enough time to complete the overtaking manoeuvre.

Being seen by others Its important for other road users to know youre there. Switch on your lights when it starts to get dark, even if the street lights arent on. Where you cant be seen, such as at a hump bridge, you may need to use your horn.

HC r If youre following a large vehicle, stay well back. This will help the driver to see you in their mirrors. Staying back will also help you see the road ahead much more clearly.

This is especially important if youre planning to overtake the vehicle. Anticipation Anticipation can help you to avoid problems and incidents so that you can drive more safely. For example, a give way sign warns you that a junction is ahead, so you can slow down in good time. Look at the road signs and markings: You should follow their advice slow down if necessary.

When turning right onto a dual carriageway, check that the central reservation is wide enough for your vehicle to stop in, especially if youre towing a trailer. Do this in case you have to wait before joining the traffic. If theres not enough space for your vehicle, only emerge when its clear both to the right and left. Road conditions will affect how easy it is to anticipate what might happen.

Its more difficult when the weather is very wet or windy the light is poor the traffic volume is heavy the route youre driving is new to you. In these conditions, you need to be particularly aware of whats happening around you.

DES s7. Anticipating what other road users might do Watch other road users. Try to anticipate their actions so that youre ready if you need to slow down or change direction. Be aware of more vulnerable road users.

Watch out for pedestrians approaching a crossing, especially young, older or disabled people who may need more time to cross the road. Always be ready to stop However well prepared you are, you may still have to stop quickly in an emergency.

Keep both hands on the wheel as you brake to help you to keep control of your vehicle. DES s5, Staying focused Driving safely takes a lot of concentration as well as controlling the car, you need to be aware of whats happening on the road and what could happen next.

Stay focused on driving and try not to get distracted. Always plan your journey so that you know which route you need to take have regular rest stops. Avoiding tiredness You wont be able to concentrate properly if youre tired. Its particularly easy to feel sleepy when driving on a motorway, especially at night, so dont drive continuously for more than two hours keep fresh air circulating in the car if you start to feel drowsy, leave at the next exit. Find a safe and legal place to stop and take a break.

Stop in a safe place and have a cup of coffee or another caffeinated drink.

The Official DSA Theory Test for Car Drivers [PDF] 16th (2013) E_nodrm

Remember that this is only a shortterm solution: If possible, take a short nap. HC r91, DES s1, See the Think! Distraction Its easy to be distracted by whats happening in your car. Devices such as phones, music players and navigation systems can divide your concentration between the road ahead and what youre hearing. Losing your concentration, or just taking your eyes off the road for a second, could be disastrous.

At 60 mph, your vehicle will travel 27 metres in one second. HC r DES s1. Joking about or having an argument can pull your attention away from the road for vital seconds. DES s1. Using a mobile phone while youre driving is illegal; it also drastically increases the chance of being involved in a collision. Even using a hands-free phone isnt safe because you can still be distracted from driving by making a call.

Be safe: Wait until youre parked legally in a safe place before you use your mobile phone to retrieve any messages make any calls send or receive texts go online. If youre driving on a motorway, you should leave the motorway and stop in a safe place before using your phone. DES s You could also be distracted by something that has happened on the road, such as an incident on the other side of a motorway.

Dont slow down or try to see whats happening; continue with your journey and keep your concentration on your driving. Meeting the standards The National Driving Standard sets out the skills, knowledge and understanding that DSA believes are required to be a safe and responsible driver. If you know, understand and are able to do the things described in the standard then youll be not only in a great position to pass your test but well on your way to becoming a safe driver for life.

You can view the National Driving Standard at www. You must be able to decide if youre fit to drive. You shouldnt be too tired too ill too emotional under the influence of drugs or alcohol. You must know and understand how a poor seating position and bad posture can make you tired how to deal with passengers if they make it hard for you to concentrate on the road that some cars have large pillars that block your view, and how to deal with this how to read the road ahead and be prepared for the unexpected.

Notes You can use this page to make your own notes or diagrams about the key points you need to remember. Think about Which clues can you use to help you anticipate what other road users might do? For example, a filling station at the side of the road could mean traffic slowing down to pull in, or vehicles pulling out. Why is it important to keep well back from large vehicles?

What might you use to plan a long journey, and how would you make sure you took breaks at suitable points? Can you find a way to remind yourself to switch off your phone or put it to voicemail before you begin driving?

Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor. Read more about alertness to come up with your own ideas. Discuss with your instructor what you need to take into account before overtaking, eg road markings, bends, etc what could distract you while driving, eg friends, loud music, etc how to avoid getting bored while driving long distances.

Practise with your instructor your observation when making a turn in the road your alertness to other road users on narrow country lanes your ability to ignore your mobile phone. Arrange for someone to call you during your lesson so that you can practise your reaction.

Although The Official Highway Code advises you to turn your phone off while driving, sometimes you may forget. Make sure that the road is wide enough to carry out the manoeuvre safely.

Before you make a U-turn in the road, you should give an arm signal as well as using your indicators for you signal so that other drivers can slow down look over your shoulder for a final check select a higher gear than normal. The brow of the hill prevents you seeing oncoming traffic so you must be cautious.

The bridge is narrow and there may not be enough room for you to pass an oncoming vehicle at this point.

There is no footpath, so pedestrians may be walking in the road. Consider the hidden hazards and be ready to react if necessary.

If you cant see well ahead stay back and wait for a safer place to pull out. In which of these situations should you avoid overtaking? Just after a bend In a one-way street On a 30 mph road Approaching a dip in the road.

In this picture the marking indicates that you are approaching a junction. You will not have time to overtake and move back into the left safely.

DES s1, HC r, The safest option is to switch off your mobile phone before you set off, and use a message service. Even hands-free systems are likely to distract your attention. Dont endanger other road users. If you need to make a call, pull up in a safe place when you can, you may need to go some distance before you can find one. Its illegal to use a hand-held mobile or similar device when driving or riding, except in a genuine emergency.

Your mobile phone rings while you are travelling. You should stop immediately answer it immediately pull up in a suitable place pull up at the nearest kerb. They give you extra warning to adjust your speed. Look well ahead and do this in good time. To help you choose the correct lane To help you keep the correct separation distance To make you aware of your speed To tell you the distance to the roundabout. DES s6, HC r The longer traffic lights have been on green, the greater the chance of them changing.

Always allow for this on approach and be prepared to stop. You are approaching traffic lights that have been on green for some time. You should accelerate hard maintain your speed be ready to stop brake hard. DES s4 Before pulling up check the mirrors to see what is happening behind you. Also assess what is ahead and make sure you give the correct signal if it helps other road users.

Which of the following should you do before stopping? Sound the horn Use the mirrors Select a higher gear Flash your headlights. DES s6, HC r If youre following a large vehicle but are so close to it that you cant see the exterior mirrors, the driver cant see you. Keeping well back will also allow you to see the road ahead by looking past either side of the large vehicle. DES s4, 10, HC r You should be constantly scanning the road for clues about what is going to happen next.

Check your mirrors regularly, particularly as soon as you spot a hazard. What is happening behind may affect your response to hazards ahead. When following a large vehicle you should keep well back because this allows you to corner more quickly helps the large vehicle to stop more easily allows the driver to see you in the mirrors helps you to keep out of the wind.

When you see a hazard ahead you should use the mirrors. Why is this? Because you will need to accelerate out of danger To assess how your actions will affect following traffic a stop ahead Because you will need to brake sharply to To check what is happening on the road.

DES s10 At junctions your view is often restricted by buildings, trees or parked cars. You need to be able to see in order to judge a safe gap. Edge forward slowly and keep looking all the time. Dont cause other road users to change speed or direction as you emerge. You are waiting to turn right at the end of a road. Your view is obstructed by parked vehicles.

What should you do? Stop and then move forward slowly and carefully for a proper view Move quickly to where you can see so you only block traffic from one direction it is safe for you to emerge Wait for a pedestrian to let you know when Turn your vehicle around immediately and find another junction to use. Stickers or hanging objects could affect your field of vision or draw your eyes away from the road. Objects hanging from your interior mirror may restrict your view improve your driving distract your attention help your concentration.

You should take all possible precautions against feeling sleepy while driving. Any lapse of concentration could have serious consequences. On a long motorway journey boredom can cause you to feel sleepy. You should leave the motorway and find a safe place to stop keep looking around at the surrounding landscape sooner drive faster to complete your journey ensure a supply of fresh air into your vehicle stop on the hard shoulder for a rest. It may be necessary to turn on your lights during the day if visibility is reduced, for example due to heavy rain.

In these conditions the light might fade before the street lights are timed to switch on. Be seen to be safe. You are driving at dusk. You should switch your lights on even when street lights are not lit so others can see you only when others have done so only when street lights are lit.

Planning your journey before you set off is important. A few sensible precautions are to tune your radio to stations in your area of travel, take planned breaks, and plan your route. Except for emergencies it is illegal to use a hand-held mobile phone while driving. Even using a hands-free kit can distract your attention. DES s1, HC r It is illegal to use a hand-held mobile phone while driving, except in a genuine emergency.

Park in a safe and convenient place before receiving or making a call or using text messaging. Then you will also be free to take notes or refer to papers. DES s5 As you drive, look well ahead and all around so that youre ready for any hazards that might occur. There may be occasions when you have to stop in an emergency.

React as soon as you can whilst keeping control of the vehicle. Which FOUR are most likely to cause you to lose concentration while you are driving? Using a mobile phone Talking into a microphone Tuning your car radio Looking at a map Checking the mirrors Using the demisters.

You should ONLY use a mobile phone when receiving a call suitably parked driving at less than 30 mph driving an automatic vehicle. You are driving on a wet road. You have to stop your vehicle in an emergency. You should apply the handbrake and footbrake together keep both hands on the wheel select reverse gear give an arm signal.

DES s4, 5, HC r Before moving off you should use all the mirrors to check if the road is clear. Look round to check the blind spots and give a signal if it is necessary to warn other road users of your intentions.

When you are moving off from behind a parked car you should look round before you move off use all the mirrors on the vehicle look round after moving off use the exterior mirrors only give a signal if necessary give a signal after moving off.

You will need to use all of the road to pass the cyclist, so be extra-cautious. Look out for entrances to fields where tractors or other farm machinery could be waiting to pull out. Except in a genuine emergency never attempt to use a hand-held phone while on the move. Its illegal and very dangerous.

Your eyes could wander from the road and at 60 mph your vehicle will travel about 27 metres 89 feet every second. Your vehicle is fitted with a hand-held telephone.

To use the telephone you should reduce your speed find a safe place to stop steer the vehicle with one hand be particularly careful at junctions. DES s1, 18 Its easy to lose your way in an unfamiliar area.

If you need to check a map or ask for directions, first find a safe place to stop. You lose your way on a busy road. What is the best action to take? DES s5, 10 Windscreen pillars can obstruct your view, particularly at bends and junctions. Look out for other road users, particularly cyclists and pedestrians, as they can be hard to see. Windscreen pillars can obstruct your view.

You should take particular care when driving on a motorway driving on a dual carriageway approaching a one-way street approaching bends and junctions. DES s9, HC r If you want to turn your car around try to find a place where you have good all-round vision.

If this isnt possible and youre unable to see clearly, then get someone to guide you. You cannot see clearly behind when reversing. Open your window to look behind Open the door and look behind Look in the nearside mirror Ask someone to guide you. DES s4, HC r Modern vehicles provide the driver with well-positioned mirrors which are essential to safe driving. However, they cannot see every angle of the scene behind and to the sides of the vehicle. This is why it is essential that you check over your shoulder, so that you are aware of any hazards not reflected in your mirrors.

What does the term blind spot mean for a driver? An area covered by your right-hand mirror An area not covered by your headlights An area covered by your left-hand mirror An area not covered by your mirrors. DES s1, HC r Unlike someone in the car with you, the person on the other end of the line is unable to see the traffic situations you are dealing with.

They will not stop speaking to you even if you are approaching a hazardous situation.

The official DSA theory test for car drivers [PDF]

You need to be concentrating on your driving all of the time, but especially so when dealing with a hazard. DES s8, HC r Before emerging right onto a dual carriageway make sure that the central reserve is deep enough to protect your vehicle. If its not, you should treat it as one road and check that its clear in both directions before pulling out. Neglecting to do this could place part or all of your vehicle in the path of approaching traffic and cause a collision.

Using a hands-free phone is likely to improve your safety increase your concentration reduce your view divert your attention. You are turning right onto a dual carriageway.

What should you do before emerging? DES s10 Windscreen pillars can completely block your view of pedestrians, motorcyclists and pedal cyclists. You should particularly watch out for these road users; dont just rely on a quick glance.

Where possible make eye contact with them so you can be sure they have seen you too. You are waiting to emerge from a junction. The windscreen pillar is restricting your view. What should you be particularly aware of? However they can also distract you and cause you to lose control if you look at or adjust them while driving. Pull up in a convenient and safe place before adjusting them.

Your vehicle is fitted with a navigation system. How should you avoid letting this distract you while driving? Keep going and input your destination into the system your route system system Keep going as the system will adjust to Stop immediately to view and use the Stop in a safe place before using the.

Case study practice 1 Alertness James has a two-hour drive to make on a motorway. He has a cold and his nose is also slightly blocked. HC r Using a hands-free phone is likely to Unlike someone in the car with you. Windscreen pillars can completely The windscreen pillar is restricting your block your view of pedestrians.

Where possible make eye contact with them so you can be sure they have seen you too. What should you be particularly motorcyclists and pedal cyclists. What should you do before carriageway make sure that the emerging?

HC r You are turning right onto a dual Before emerging right onto a dual carriageway. You should particularly watch out for these road users. HC r Section one Questions Your vehicle is fitted with a navigation Vehicle navigation systems can be system. How should you avoid letting this useful when driving on unfamiliar distract you while driving?

An hour into the boring journey. James also turns on his dipped headlights. James begins to feel drowsy. He takes an off-the-shelf cold remedy to help reduce the symptoms. He has a cold and his nose is also slightly blocked. Case study practice — 1 Alertness James has a two-hour drive to make on a motorway.

Section two Attitude In this section. If you drive in a competitive way. HC r DES s7. Try to be calm and tolerant. However modern. Other drivers. Good manners on the road Be considerate to other road users. A badly positioned vehicle could obstruct traffic behind it.

For instance. Attitude Section two Attitude Safe driving is all about developing the correct attitude and approach to road safety. HC r DES s5—8. Think how you would feel if you were one of the drivers following behind you. It will need more time to pass you than a car would. They may not be as patient as you are.

DES s10 Travelling too closely to another vehicle also means that you can see less of the road ahead. If the road is blocked by animals. HC r— DES s5. DES s7. This will give you a greater safety margin. Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front.

Safety margins. If the road user behind is following too closely. If another road user cuts in front of you. See section 4. Pull over to let them through as soon as you can do so safely. Emergency vehicles Always give priority to emergency vehicles. Watch the Blue Light Aware video to find out more about how to help emergency vehicles get through traffic.

Sometimes traffic going in one direction is given priority. Be careful: Giving priority to others Section two Attitude Who has priority on the road at any time can vary. Type of crossing What you need to be aware of Zebra crossing Watch out for pedestrians at or approaching a zebra crossing.

Slow down. In some areas. HC r DES s6. Priority for buses Give priority to buses pulling out from bus stops. HC r DES s7 Meeting the standards You must be able to help other road users to understand what you intend to do by signalling correctly support the signals that you make with the position of your vehicle.

Type of crossing What you need to be aware of Section two Attitude Puffin crossing Puffin crossings are electronically controlled. Sensors ensure that the red light shows until the pedestrian has safely crossed the road. Try not to get annoyed or frustrated give other road users enough time and space.

Section two Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor. Read more about attitude to come up with your own ideas.

HC r At a pelican crossing the flashing amber Pelican crossings are signal- light means you MUST controlled crossings operated by pedestrians. HC r You should never wave people across at If people are waiting to use a pedestrian crossings because pedestrian crossing. HC r Section two Questions Following this vehicle too closely is unwise Staying back will increase your because view of the road ahead.

This will help you to see any hazards that might occur and allow you more time to react. HC r A long. HC r You are following a vehicle on a wet road. HC r On a road where trams operate. HC r What type of emergency vehicle is fitted A green flashing beacon on with a green flashing beacon? HC r When being followed by an ambulance Pull over in a place where the showing a flashing blue beacon you should ambulance can pass safely.

HC r You wish to turn right ahead. To allow other drivers to pull out in front This will allow vehicles to pass of you you on the left.

Why should If you wish to turn right into a you take up the correct position in good side road take up your position in time? HC r Section two Questions What should you use your horn for?

Your horn must not be used between KYTS p At which type of crossing are cyclists A toucan crossing is designed allowed to ride across with pedestrians?

Slow down and look both ways 2. HC r You are approaching unmarked crossroads. HC r You are travelling at the legal speed limit. Be extra-cautious. HC r— You should ONLY flash your headlights to You should only flash your other road users headlights to warn others of your presence. You could To measure this. You should progress. HC r The conditions are good and dry. They could misunderstand your signal. Its right-hand indicator is flashing.

HC r Section two Questions At a puffin crossing. HC r A bus has stopped at a bus stop ahead Give way to buses whenever you of you. Look out for people leaving the bus and crossing the road. What action car behind is following you too should you take?

The driver behind It can be worrying to see that the you is following very closely. HC r You are in a line of traffic. It signals left but steers to the right.

The when you can be sure that you national speed limit applies. Be tolerant and try not to retaliate or react aggressively. There is Use the full beam headlights only a steady stream of oncoming traffic. What should drivers make incorrect or ill- you do? HC r You are driving on a clear night. HC r You are driving behind a large goods Large. The red van There are times when other cuts in close in front of you. HC r You are driving along this road.

Always consider the safety of other road users. HC r Section two Questions You are waiting in a traffic queue at night. You should to overtake safely. If necessary. HC r You are driving in traffic at the speed limit Keep a steady course to give for the road. You should consider drivers To avoid dazzling following drivers you behind as brake lights can dazzle. The driver behind is trying to the driver behind an opportunity overtake. Animals are unpredictable and startle easily.

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Allow the sheep to clear the road You should before you proceed. This can cause disruption to traffic and delays to public transport. HC r A person herding sheep asks you to stop. You especially for children and older should pedestrians. They may walk across without looking. HC r Section two Questions You are approaching a zebra crossing. Plan ahead and learn to anticipate hazards. Where you can see pedestrians waiting to cross. HC r A vehicle pulls out in front of you at a Try to be ready for the unexpected.

Pedestrians are on the crossing. Look out on the approach Pedestrians are waiting to cross. HC r You are driving at night on an unlit road If you follow another vehicle with behind another vehicle. HC r You should leave at least a two-second gap In good. You should your headlights on full beam they could dazzle the driver. If you are driving a vehicle for the first time you should take time to check all the controls. This will if spilled on a wet road.

Take care not to overfill the tank or spill fuel. Make sure you secure the filler cap as soon as you have replaced the fuel nozzle. HC p You have a loose filler cap on your diesel Diesel fuel is especially slippery fuel tank. HC p To avoid spillage after refuelling. You should traffic. HC r Section two Questions You are driving a slow-moving vehicle on a Try not to hold up a queue of narrow winding road.

The traffic is still heavy. There are people waiting to cross. It has rained. A large vehicle in front signals left but straddles both lanes. Case study practice — 2 Attitude Sam is driving in heavy traffic. Sam needs to take the first exit. A car overtakes. Section three Safety and your vehicle In this section. Steering Wipers and washers The battery may need topping up with distilled water.

Safety and your vehicle Section three Safety and your vehicle Look after your car and it will look after you. Uneven will ensure that you get an accurate this is low. This fluid: Speedometer The windscreen should be free of Lights Seat belts Horn cracks and chips. HC p— DES s Looking after your car Regular maintenance should ensure that your car is safe and fit to be on the road. Exhaust Brakes system Tyre condition: Remember that an efficient engine is kinder to the environment.

It will also help to make sure that your car uses fuel as efficiently as possible and keep its exhaust emissions to a minimum. Push down hard over each wheel: It can cause unnecessary wear to the tyres and steering mechanism. DES s3 To check the condition of the shock absorbers. The tread on car and trailer Tread must be at least … all the way around the tyre 1.

Warning lights on the dashboard tell you about the performance of the engine and warn you of any faults. It may happen if you use them continuously.

HC p DES s3. In this situation. Safety equipment Modern cars are fitted with equipment designed to keep you as safe as possible. The airbag MUST be deactivated first. MUST use a suitable child restraint.

Seat belts and restraints Always wear your seat belt and make sure your passengers wear theirs unless exempt. MUST wear a seat belt unless exempt.

Never fit a rear-facing baby seat in a seat protected by an active airbag. The driver is responsible for making sure that children under 14 wear a suitable restraint. Children aged from 3 to 12 years. Children under 3 years of age MUST use a suitable child seat. When you get into the car adjust the seat so that you can reach all the controls comfortably adjust the head restraint to help prevent neck injury in a collision wear suitable shoes so that you can keep control of the pedals adjust the mirrors so that you can see as clearly as possible all around.

HC r97 DES s3. Convex mirrors give a wider view but can make vehicles look further away than they are. Use a steering lock. Make it as difficult as you can for a thief to either break into your car or steal it. DES s12 Hazard warning lights are fitted so that you can warn road users of a hazard ahead. Remove the car keys and lock your car. Stereos and other forms of in-car entertainment are prime targets for thieves. Always lock away valuable items. Install a security-coded stereo to deter thieves.

At night. Lock any contents. Make it as difficult as you can for a thief to either break into your Section three Safety and your vehicle car or steal it. Contact the crime prevention officer at your local police station to find out more. Avoid parking where your car would block access or visibility for others. Use this link to find out more about thefts from vehicles. HC r Always switch off the engine and lock your car before leaving it.

This would block the view of pedestrians and road users. Use selective gear changing: You can help the environment by driving in an ecosafe way: DES s17 Ecosafe driving Follow these guidelines to make your driving ecosafe. Have your vehicle regularly serviced and tuned properly. Burning these fuels causes air pollution and damages the environment.

Being aware of the environment Section three Safety and your vehicle Most cars burn petrol or diesel. Reduce your speed. Plan well ahead so that you can drive smoothly. DES s22 Keeping your car in good condition Having your car serviced regularly will help you to maintain the fuel economy of your car. Using public transport or sharing a car can reduce the volume of traffic and vehicle emissions.

Follow these guidelines to make your driving ecosafe. If your vehicle is over three years old over four years old in Northern Ireland.

Excessive use of this will burn more fuel. DES s17 In an automatic car. Make sure your tyres are correctly inflated. Use this website to calculate vehicle tax rates.

Make sure your fuel filler cap is securely fastened. In built-up areas. Spilt diesel fuel makes the road slippery for other road users. Take them to a local authority site or a garage. If you can avoid travelling at busy times. In some towns and cities you may see red lines on the side of the road. They help the traffic flow by restricting stopping on these routes. DES s18 Find out more about congestion charging in London using this website.

In London. Section three Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor. Do this with your lesson route and see how you can avoid busy times and places. Prepare an alternative route as well. Read more about safety and your vehicle to come up with your own ideas. They are also much quieter than petrol or diesel engined vehicles and can carry a large number of passengers. It is illegal to sound your horn in a built-up area between HC p It is essential that tyre pressures are When you check the tyre checked regularly.

This will give you a more accurate reading. When should this pressures do so when the tyres be done? HC r Road humps. What Some modern batteries are should you top it up with? Check your vehicle handbook and. HC r What is most likely to cause high fuel Accelerating and braking gently consumption? HC p Excessive or uneven tyre wear can be Regular servicing will help to caused by faults in which THREE of the detect faults at an early stage and following?

Where When parking at night. Exhaust emissions are harmful This has resulted in to health. What level Top up the battery with distilled should you fill to? How can you do this? This is because you are not adding needlessly to traffic congestion. Printing or writing out the route can also help. Always carry a map with you just in case you need to refer to it. Contact your local garage Look at a map to help you to do this.

Why should you also plan to find your planned route an alternative route? You should your journey in case of unforeseen problems.

Anything can happen: HC p While driving. HC p Excessive or uneven tyre wear can be Uneven wear on your tyres can caused by faults in the be caused by the condition of your vehicle. It means fault in your braking system could have dangerous consequences.

You should garage before driving the vehicle. A dashboard comes on. What does corner or bend in the road. A properly adjusted head restraint 3. HC p You are testing your suspension. To enable you to walk for assistance if you break down 3. You notice If you find that your vehicle that your vehicle keeps bouncing when you bounces as you drive around a press down on the front wing. HC p The legal minimum depth of tread for car Tyres must have sufficient depth tyres over three quarters of the breadth is of tread to give them a good grip on the road surface.

HC p It is illegal to drive with tyres that When checking your tyres for cuts and bulges in the side walls. Who is reduce the risk of injury. If responsible for seeing that the children you are carrying passengers wear seat belts? HC r You are carrying two year-old children Seat belts save lives and and their parents in your car.

Driving at 70 mph uses more fuel than Your vehicle will use less fuel if driving at 50 mph by up to you avoid heavy acceleration. Your vehicle pulls to one side when braking. The brakes on your vehicle You should must be effective and properly adjusted. You have to leave valuables in your car. If you have to leave valuables in It would be safer to your car, always lock them out of sight.

Which of the following may help to deter a Having your car registration thief from stealing your car? When leaving your vehicle parked and An unlocked car is an open unattended you should invitation to thieves.

Which TWO of the following will improve Harsh braking, constant gear fuel consumption? You service your own vehicle. How should It is illegal to pour engine oil down you get rid of the old engine oil?

Oil is a pollutant and harmful to wildlife. To help protect the environment against If your vehicle is not serviced pollution regularly, it may fail the annual MOT test. To reduce the damage your vehicle causes By looking well ahead and to the environment you should recognising hazards early you can avoid last-minute harsh braking.

You enter a road where there are road The humps are there for a reason humps. Harsh braking and accelerating uses more fuel. When should you especially check the During long journeys an engine engine oil level? If not, you should refer to the vehicle handbook. Also make checks on. You space in a busy town. You can see there will be causing an obstruction is space on the zigzag lines of a zebra by obscuring the view of both crossing.

Can you park there? When leaving your vehicle where should Whenever possible leave your car you park if possible? This will help stop thieves. Think other road users? The most important reason for having a The restraint should be adjusted properly adjusted head restraint is to so that it gives maximum protection to the head and neck.

As a driver you can cause more damage to For short journeys it may be the environment by quicker to walk, or cycle, which is far better for your health. How can you reduce the chances of your When leaving your car take all car being broken into when leaving it valuables with you if you can, unattended? How can you help to prevent your car radio A security-coded radio can deter being stolen? Section three Questions How can you lessen the risk of your vehicle Having your vehicle broken into being broken into at night?

To help keep your car secure you The vehicle watch scheme helps could join a reduce the risk of having your car stolen. On a vehicle, where would you find a Although carbon dioxide is still catalytic converter? How can driving in an ecosafe manner help Ecosafe driving is all about protect the environment? What does ecosafe driving achieve?

The emphasis is on hazard awareness and planning ahead. You are checking your trailer tyres. What Trailers and caravans may be left is the legal minimum tread depth over the in storage over the winter months central three quarters of its breadth?

Section three Questions Fuel consumption is at its highest when Always try to use the accelerator you are smoothly. You are driving the children of a friend Passengers should always be home from school. They are both under secured and safe.

Children should 14 years old. Who is responsible for making be encouraged to fasten their sure they wear a seat belt or approved child seat belts or approved restraints restraint where required? You have too much oil in your engine.

What Too much oil in the engine will could this cause? They are under MUST be used. If your vehicle is stationary and is You will be waiting for some time for a likely to remain so for some time. They are under to ensure that children are secure 1. You and safe in your vehicle. HC r99 You are carrying an year-old child in It is your responsibility as a driver the back seat of your car. HC r You are parked at the side of the road.

A correct child exceptional cases if one is not restraint is NOT available. HC r99 You are carrying a five-year-old child in Usually a correct child restraint the back seat of your car. In a few 1. Make MUST make sure that sure you are familiar with the rules. HC r Section three Questions You are using a rear-facing baby seat. It is MUST you do before setting off? What or even death to the child. You If the airbag activates near a baby want to put it on the front passenger seat seat.

When may you leave the parked on a road. HC r You are leaving your vehicle parked on a When you leave your vehicle road unattended. Jeff reaches a major junction. In the city. Jeff has to park on the roadside. He leaves his camera on the back seat. At work. When parking. He picks up his laptop to take to work and locks the car. Case study practice — 3 Safety and your vehicle Jeff drives through the city centre. Section four Safety margins In this section.

Excessive braking on hills can cause your brakes to overheat and become less effective. Keep control of your car by using the correct procedures. HC r Stopping distance Leave enough room between your vehicle and the one in front so that you can pull up safely if it slows down or stops suddenly. Never take risks. Your overall stopping distance is the distance your car travels from the moment that you realise you must brake to the moment your car stops.

HC r DES s5. Use a fixed point. Typical stopping distances Look at the typical stopping. In other conditions. Keeping a safe distance from the vehicle in front will help to lower your risk of having a collision. If someone overtakes you and pulls into the gap in front. Section four Safety margins 2 secs In good. Never underestimate the dangers. Other drivers might not be able to see your indicators flashing.

You may need to dry them out by pressing lightly on the brake pedal as you drive. If this happens. HC r— Find more information about winter driving at this website. This is where the tyres lift off the road surface and skate on a film of water. The road surface can become soft and may begin to melt.

The steering becomes light. Weather conditions Weather conditions have a major effect on your safety margins. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

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CHARLOTTE from New York
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