OPTICS BY BRIJLAL PDF
Bctitre cittadelmonte.info to study the various optical phenomena tln the basis of tiuygens .. plane light wave from a plane surface of separation of two optical media. A Textbook of Optics. Book: A Textbook of Optics Authors: N. Subrahmanyam & Brij Lal Edition: N/A Bookmark: No Format: PDF. Download. Size: MB. physics optics by brijlal and cittadelmonte.info FREE PDF DOWNLOAD NOW!!! Source #2:physics optics by brijlal and cittadelmonte.infoE.
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zo, 10 mrt GMT optics by brijlal and pdf - A Textbook of Optics All Engineering Solution. 4u EEE Eng Books 1s't. Is it legal to download PDF textbook? 2, Views · Where can I download textbooks for free? , Views · How do I download PDF file of class 11 textbooks. A Textbook of Optics by n Subrahmanyam and Brij Lal Www Euelibrary Com - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. in this waves-and-oscilations-by-brijlal-n-subrahmanyam-www-euelibrary-com. pdf.
Hamam Singh B. Two lamps ol points on the linc passing through them is the illumination ,1,,. Thebrarrchot-cpticsthatdealswiththeproductic'n'emissionand phenomena of interof light, iL nature and the stucty of the optic-s. Since the pardcles are emitted travel in straight lines according body, they, in the absence of other fu!:: The velocity u of the corpuscre at M can be resorved into two c.
Derive of light' ttreory the of basis vave for a thin lens on the Write a short note on the wave theory of light. Agra Rajasthun l99l 9.
physics optics by brijlal and subramanyam
Nanre of Light particle concept. It is very interesting to note. Show how thc wave theory and the corpuscular thmry of light account for a refraction and b total intcmal reflection of light. TVo wave trains cf equal frequency and arnplitude and differing in phase can annul one ar! State Huygens principle for the propagation of light' Using the samc' deduce the formula connecting object and image distances with the constants of a thin lens.
Mysore Puniab [Delhi Ilons. Rajasthhn The next ifiportant advance in the nahrre of light was due to the work of Clerk Maxwell. Derive the refraction formula for a thin lens 6gru on the basii of wave theory. But in the case of longitudinal waves. Deduce of lenglh focal for the expression an tight. Maxwell's electromagretic theory of light lends support to Huygens wave theuy whereas quantum theory strengthens the The unsymrnetrical behaviour of light about.
The controversy betwen the corpuscular theory and wave ttr theory existed till about the end of the eighteenth century. The phenomenon of intcrference can also be understood consideiing that light energy is propagated in the form of waves.
Applying the principle of secondary wave points. Double refraction can also be explained on the basis of wave theory. Apply Huygens principle to derive the relation Te. Deduce the laws of reflection with the help fDelhi B.
Discuss some typicat Thomas Young successfully ference g. What is Huygens principle? How would you explain the phenomenon of reflection and refrrction of plane waves at plani surfaces on the basis of wave nature of light? Sate and explain Huygens principle of secondary waves. Delhi Hons. Each wave train retains in '. State and explain Huygens principle of secondary waves. Give the mathematicar theory of interference between two waves of amplitude ar and az with phase dif- case.
Delhi Apply this principle for explaining the simultaneous reflection and refraciion of a plane light wave from a plane surface of separation of two optical media. Rajasthan l9g5 t9. This principle was explained by Huygens as t if they have not interfered at all.
Each wave train behaves as if others are absent. The points shown by circles in the diagram will have minimum displacement because the crest of one wave falls on the trough of the other and the resuttant displacement is zero. He allowed sunlight to fall on a pinhole s and then at some distance away on two pinholas A and B Frg.
At any instant. L spherical waves also spread out tiom y'. The points shown by crosses in the diagram will have maximum displacement because. In such a case. These waves are of the same amplitude antl wavelength.
Suppose For a path difference for a path difference x. Young demonstrated the experiment on the interference of light. The two sources may emit light waves of largely different amplitude and wavelengtly2il the phase difference [etween rhe two may change with time.
In all such cases. For minimum intensity at a point. Since the wavelength of light waves is extremely smajl of the order of l cm. The poins such as F are clark because the crest of one falls on the trough of the other and they neutralize the effect of each other. It means that the two sources must emit radiationioFttre same fectly similar in all respects. The energy is onry t anffi. A 'l'extbook o..
Spherical waves spread out from. I-et us consider the waves produced on the surface of water. The points such as E are bright because the crest due to one wave coincides rvith the crest due to the other and therefore they reinforce rvith each other. But for experimental purposes. From equation iv. Let a be the amplitude of the waves.. The phase difference between the trvo waves reaching the point P.. Here also the energy is not destroyed but only transferred from the points of minimum intensity to the points of maximum intensity.
According to. If the path difference is a whole number multiple of wavelength ir.. As shown in Fig. It is equal to the uniform intensity? Lrt a screen.. Ttre point C on the screen is equidistant from the path diffeience berween the two wai. A and B. A and coherent the from D placed a distance at be a distance d. Interference A Textbook of OPtics points. If the path difference it of half Wavelength.
All the fringes are equal in width and are independent of the order of the fringe. The breadth of a bright to half the fringe width and is equal or a dark tringe is. If the overall separation of l0 fringes on a screen crn awa. It is found that '.. Glieen light of wavelength Afrom a narmw slit is incident on.
OPtics lnterference Herc. Calculate tLw wut'e-len. IDelhi B. Two coherent sources are 0. Example 8. The fringes are formed on both sides of C. Two coherent sources of monochromatic liSht of wavelength A. A Youngb double slit experiment is arranged sttch that slit. D "i'. Find the distance between the two co' For source A. The distance between two consecutive. The distance between the sources and the screen js. Calculate the separation between the third order bright fringes due to these two wcvelengths.
If now the source ilit is gradually opened up. The screen is at a distance D from the virtual sources. The overall separation of 5 fringes an a screen b the fringe cm away is I cm. For the fringes to be formed. The pencil of light from two. The two reflected beams from the mirrors Mrand Mroverlap between E and F shown as shaded in the diagram and interference fringes are formed' Sor complete theory read Article The two minors M.
A point on the screen will be at the centre of a bright fringe. Light of wavelength A'fiom Q twrrow slit is incident on a double slit. A and B are two coherent sources at a distance d apart. These fringes are of equal width and are alternately dark and bright. No ref. CEl o: They are adjusted on an optical bench' -A microneter i.: I i']1T.
To observe the. The point C is equiTheory. For complete theory refer to Article 8'6' distantfromAandB. Therefore distance between-A: I' l'icld of view. Measure the distance between the images of A and B as seen in the eyepiece.
A Textbook of Optics by n Subrahmanyam and Brij Lal Www Euelibrary Com
In a biprism. For this purpose.. The distance of the n th fringe from the centre with monochromatic light sF-B. Suppose the lens is in the position t. Let it be equal to d.. Substituting the value of d.. Measure the distance between the two imin this case also. If the distance between the prism and the slit S is. As the angle is small.
The second method to find d is to measure accurately the refracting u. Therefore d can be calculated. From equations. A convex lens is placed between the biprism and the eyepiece in such a position. What is the distance between the two coherent sources? Calculatethewavelength lRajastlaa l9t 51 of sodium light. Find the fringe width obsented at a distance of I m from the biprismlDelhi B. Interference fringes are obserted. In a biprism experiment with sodiwn light.
Here Mysire t98I? In a biprism experiment the eyepiece was pracecl at a distance of 'cm from the source. The prism is made of glass of refractive index 1. D d x l x 80 0. The distance between the two virrual sources was found to be 0.
I ar'. A biprism is placed at a distance of 5 cm in front of a narrow slit. Find the wavelength of light of the source if the eyepiece has to be moved through a distance l. The distance between the virual sources was found to be 7. Cabulate the separation between the coherent sources formed by a biprism whose inclined faces malce angles of 2" with irs base. Find the wavelength of light. The inclined faces of a biprism of refractiue monochrcmatic by ct 1. Newton was able to show the interference rings yhen a convex lens was placecl on a plane glass-plate.
At B part of it is reflected along BC qlM ind finally r. The white and dark fringes are seen through the eyepiece or can be produced on the screen. Plt'l 8. In the A.. Instead of a diffraction grating. It has been. Here rr is an integer only. The difference in path tween the two rays Ar and Qp -to BC.
Fig"8' 2prcos. Hooke observed such colours in thin films of mica and similar Stin tr: Young was able "t'ir explain the phenomenon on the basis of interference betw. Therefore the mininta of the amplirude of.. A 2 pt cos where Textbook of OPtics Interference nlt.
A ray SA after refraction goes along AB.. In the LBPM. Here at B and C reflection takes Place at the rarer medium medium-air interface. In the case of transmitted light. Thus the fringes are more sharp in reflected light.
In the case Of oil on watbr. If r and. Reflectance of 47o I '. It means the visibility of the fringes is rnuch higher in the reflected system than in the transmitted system. This is clear from the following solved example' ' Example 8. Applying the relation for a bright fringe.. The effect is best observed rvhen the angle of incidence is small. The used is narrow.. With a broad source of light. Due to this reason. Consider source a thin film and a narrow of light at S Fig.
The interfering rays do no enter the eye parallel to each other but they appear to diverge from a point near the film. OA Fig. In the case of interference in thin films. I PnQ. The ray I produces interference fringes because 3 Fig.
If an extended source of light is used Fig. When the air filnr is viewed with reflected monochromatic light. Subtracting 2 P.
Each such ray of light lias its origin at a differerrt point on the source. As the angle of incidence is small. Similarly we can take other rays incident at diff'erent angles on the film surface which do not reach the eye. These fringes can the visibility of the filrn. Also ray 2 from sorrE other point of the source after reflection from the upper and the lower surfaces of the film emerges as 5 and 6 which also reach the eye. Example Find the angle of the wedge.. A glass wedge of angle 0.
At what distance from the edge of the wedge.. Light of wavelength L fath normally on 4 thin film of rcfractive index 1.
The tiinge width P. Two glass plates encbse a wedge shaped air film. When the fringes observed are of equal width. The fringes are of equal thickness because each fringe is the locus of the poinS at which the thickness of the film has a constant value Fig.. The standard methd is to take an optically plane surface OA and the surface to be tested OB.
Find the angle in seconds.
A beam of monochromatic light of wavelength 5. Thc 1'ringcs produced rvith lnonochromatic. This is due to the interference bctwcen the light reflected lrom the ltrwer surfac'e of the lens and the upper surface of the glass plate G.
Interfcrence takes place and dark and hiight circular fringes are produced. A horizontal beant of light lalls on the glass plate B at 45". With rtronochronlatic light. Fringe width. When vierved with white light. The reflected beirm from the air filnr is viervecl rvith a microscope.. Similarly the radius of the brighi ring is proportional to i 2n R When the bright ring is..
The radius of ttie dark ring is proportional to. For the dark rings. Alternately dark and bright rings are produced Fig. While counting the order of the dark rings l. In the case of light Fig. Textbook rf Ontic. R The difference in diameters between the 16 th and the 9 th rings. A For the second dark ring. Xv Do.. Newtrntls rllgs are t"icwed normallt'l. For bright rings. What i.. R ton's rings due to transmitted light.
Thc dirrncter of the l th hright ring is given by llere t. With the help of a travelling microscope. A plano-convex lens of radius cm is placed on ttn optically' flat gkt. Find thi radius of curvature of the pLrno-convex lens. Hence the wavelength of a given monochrorrntic source of light can be determined.
Newton's rings are viewed through B by the travelling microscope M focussed on the air film. Circular bright and dark rings are seen with the centre dark. The tliamcter oJ the 8 th dark ring in the trarcmitted system is 0. A parallel beam of light from the lens L.
In a Navton's rings experiment. Suppose the diameters ard the 15 th ring are detemined. In a Newton's rings experiment the diameter of the 15 th ring v. L is a plano-convex lens of large focal length.. For dark rings passe.
In a Newton'.. A 0r I'-or dr. The light is falling at such an angle that it film at an angle of zero degree to the normal. For the liquid. The diameters of the dark rings are determined for various orders. R The liquid is poured in the container C without disturbing the arrangement. These are kept in a metal container C. The air filnr between the lorver surface of the lens and the upprcr surface of the plate is repla.. Obtain thc raditrs of cunature o. Dividing rr by r.
The ratio of the slopes of the two lines air and liquid. If of the 5 th bright ing k 3 mm and theradius of 'curvature Gorakhpur rings are formed b1. Calculate the refr"active indcx of rhe liquid. In a Newton's rings arrangement. The wavelength of light used is 60U ir. Nagpur AB 'the diameter of the curveil surface is cm. In a Newtor s rings experiment the diameter of the 15 th ring wa.. If the radius of the plano-convex lens is cm.
The diameter of the l0 th dark ring is 0'5 cm' Find the radius of curuature of the lens and the thickness of the air film. The dark ancl bright rings are formed and can be viewed with a travelling microscope. Here' for air.. For n th bright ring. A thin air film is enclosed between the trvo surfaces Fig. Newton s rings are observed h reflected light oJ l.
For the. AB isrQe illuminated i. But it has a small circular opening U"u. Rectilinear propagation of light been observed that on the basis of Newton. S is a source of monochromatic light and MN is a. Discuss how the wavelength of monochromatic radiation can be determined in the' laboratory with the help of this interferometer. Why is it imposiibte to observe interference between light waves emitted by independent sources?
If iight "n". XI'is the screen placed in the path of light'. Give a complete description of Michelson's interferometer. To obtain the resultant effect at a point p on the screen. This property of the secondary waves eliminates one of the difficulties experienced with the simpler form of Huygens principle viz. MCN is the incitlent spherical wavefront due to rhe point source. In this direction CS.
Augustin Jean Fresner in l8ls. The luminous bader that surrounds the profile of a mountain just beforc the sun rises behind it. It is maximum in a direction radially outwards from C an it decreases in the opposite direction. Fresnel assumed til. The term diffraction is referred to such proutems in which one consiclers the resurtant effect prcxruced by a rimitei portion of x and dark diffraction bands and these overlap such that no single partern Difiraction effect will be maximum at O and decrea.
Accmding to Fresnel. S is a point souroe of monochromatic light and MN is a small lpertnre.
In the Fresnel class of diffraction. Fraunhofer diffraction pattem can be easily observed in practice.. In this case. SP is perpendicular to the screen. O is the pole of AB be a small aperture say a pin hole and S is a point source. The m. Substituting the value of u and l" in equation iii. A zone plate is made by arranging the radii of the circles which define the zones such that they are the same as the radii of newtonb rings formed between a plane surface and the surface having radius of curvature cm Find the principal focat length of the zone plate.
Fresnel class of diffraction phenomena are treated frst in this chapter. O is the centre of the aperture and r is the radius of the aperture.
For Newton' rings. For a zone plate. Ttre point p wil be of maximum or minimum intensity depending on the pif. This is so. If this path difference is equal to l.. The intensity distribution due to Fryet's criffraction at a srraighr edge is given in ril.
The screeri is perpendicurar to is a stit of width a. The intensity distribution on the screen is given in Fig. Ae and BV corne to focus at where e gives the dira: The rine are achromatic lenses.
physics optics by brijlal and subramanyam Pages 1 - 2 - Text Version | FlipHTML5
The secondary waves reinforce one another and P will be a point of maximum intensity. In this. Here n is an integer. Tbnhook A I ilfruct ion A plane wavefront is incident on the srit AB and each point on this wavefront is a source of secondary disturbance. The secondary waves frompoints equidistant from o and situated in the upper and lower halves oA and oB of the waterfront traver-rhe same disiance in reaching una the.
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