ANALISIS TAPAK EDWARD T WHITE PDF
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Fans Game of Thrones Masuk! We must havesome idea about how long a e n event or pressure ass, when it peaks, when it starts and ends, how it. For each fact we collect we should ask ourselves about the future with respectto that particularcategory.
Our building will occupy the site for a long time. We want it to effectively respond to all surrounding conditions over its life span. It is desirable to look at the next con- textual layer of issues beyondthe ones we are addressing.
Contextual analyses are theoretically open ended in that there are no inherent logical stopping points. We could continue to On the other hand there is sometimes a temptation to arbitrarily terminate our analysis before we should. The important point here is to think about the appropriate extension of the analysis for each piece of information.
How far do we go with our data collection for each information type? Examples include deciding how many blocks beyond our site to incorporate inthe analysis, whether to analyze what created existing traffic patterns, whether to infer certain things about the neighborhood by what we seeand whether to conduct house to house interviews. These judgments all involve decisions on our part about the importance and relevancy of the informa- tion to either the verification of data or to design.
In contextual analysis we are con- stantly making judgments about how deeply or accurately we must research a particular site topic. This issue is being raisednot to providean excusefor asloppy job but to recognize that the "absolutely complete" contextual analysis does not exist andthat under the pressureof time we mustbesomewhatselectiveaboutwhat we address in our site study.
The goal is a contextual analysis researched through all its contexts of contexts. The reality is al- ways something short of that.
Our contextual analysis should record what information is "hard" non- negotiable and what is "soft. Hard data involves things like site boundary, legal description, site area and utility locations. Some thin. It is helpful to classify the information according to "firmness" because it provides a sense of the required sequence of attention to data when we begin design, We generally must couewith the hard datafirst inourearlv site decisions There should be a sense of priority This is normally a result of the intensity of about the information we collect and the site conditions and whether they are record.
It is useful when we begin design to have a sense of whether something is of great value and should be saved, enhanced and reinforced or whether something is very negative and should beeliminated, avoided orscreened. A systematic approach more easily permits us to cope with information overload in complex situations.
A fine-grained approach to analysis fosters a fine-grained approach to de- sign synthesis where contextual oppor- tunities and problems have less of a chance tor1slipthrough the cracks" and thus be left behind during design synthesis.
The more individual contextual factors we uncover and document in analysis of the site, the more cues we provide for ourselves in triggering site response concepts. We are not concerned with design responsesto the site at this stage but ratherwith finding out all we can about the site.
We are interested in facts. The facts about our site will always include both hard and soft data. The hard data usually relate to physical site factors and involve no judgments about their existence or na- ture. Typical hard data would be site loca- tion, dimensions, contours, on site features and climate. Soft data may involve some value judgments on our part in conducting the contextual analysis. These deal prima- rily with the sensory and human aspects of the site that are not quantitative and which require an opinion about the existenceand positive or negative characteristics of cer- tain sitequalities.
Typical examplesinclude good and bad views from the site, best approach directions to th. This "soft data", although it initially involves judgments, tends to become "hard data" once it is documented in the contextual analysis. It is import We ways open to interpretation in design and should never expect the amount and are usually the most negotiable when de- importance of site data to be equal signing for the site in schematics.
Eachsite In attempting to organize the types of is different and the imbalance in how information that we collect about a the information is distributed among site, there are several headings that the headingsand the different Patterns of emphasis given to the information communicate a great deal to us when we begin to respond to the contextual analysis in design. The data outline presented next has no particular meaning behind its sequence other than the fact that it separatessite data from climate data and proceeds from gen- eral overview issuesto more detailed ones.
City map may also show distances and travel times to related functions in other parts of the city. This may be extended further to include an important factor or because of the scale of the project. Map may show existing and projected uses, buildings, zoning and any other conditions that may have an impact on our project.
SIZE AND ZONING Documents all the dimensional aspects of the site includ- ing boundaries, location and dimension of easements and present zoning classifica- tion with all its dimensional implications setbacks, height restrictions, parking for- mulas, allowed uses, etc.
Analysis should also document the present and projected zoning trends, plans by the city transportation department to widen roads change rights of way and any othertrend that mightaffectour project in the future. LEGAL This category presents the legal description of the property, covenants and restrictions, present ownership, present governmental jurisdiction city or county and any future projections that may influ- ence the project such as the fact that the site is in afuture city urban renewal area or within the boundaries of eventual univer- sity expansion.
Off site features may include characteristics of surrounding de- velopment such as scale, roof forms, fenestration patterns, setbacks, materials, colors, open spaces, visual axes, paving patterns, landscaping materials and pat- terns, porosity and assertiveness of wall forms and accessories and details. Dataincludes duration and peak loads for surrounding vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement, bus stops, site access edges, traffic generators, service truck access and intermittent traffic parades, fire truck routes, concerts at nearby auditorium.
Traffic analysis should include future projections insofar as they Y can be made. Typical utility types include electricity, gas, sewer, water and telephone. Where utilities are some distance from the site, those dimen- sions should be given.
Analisa Tapak by Edward T White Docx
It is useful to docu- ment the depths of utilities when they are underground as well as the pipe material and diameter. It is of behavioral and sociological aspects. This value to record the type, duration, intensity category is different from "Neighborhood and quality positive or negative of the Context" listed earlier in that the latter ad- sensory issues.
As discussed earlier, this dresses the physical while this category often involves making some judgments deals with the activities, human relation- about the relative desirability of the differ- ships and patterns of human characteris- ent sensory conditions on and around the tics. Issues here might involve population site. Also of importance are any scheduled or informal activities in the neighborhood Vandalism and crime patterns, although not pleasant, are of value to designers when conceptualizing site zoning and building design.
CLIMATE Presents all the pertinent cli- mate conditions such as rainfall, snowfall, humidity and temperature variations over the months of the year. Also included are prevailing wind directions, sun-path and vertical sun angles as they changeover the year and potential natural catastrophes such as tornados, hurricanes and earth- quakes.
It is helpful to know not only how climate conditions vary over a typical year but also what the critical conditions might be maximum daily rainfall, peak wind velocity. It involves know- ingwhat we haveto work with interms of site before we begin to work with it in site zoning. Like function, image or building envelope, it is another way of entering the problem, of making our first conceptual decisions which form the designer-made context for sub- sequent decisions.
Althoughthe facts we collect about our site may be influenced by the building images that inevitably come to mind as we do the contextual analysis, we should attempt to keep conceptualization separate from the contextual analysis. The contextual analysis should be an inventory of existing and projected conditions assumingno new building on the site so that when we begin to design for the site we do not confuse what is actually there now with what we wish was there or hope to put there.
Analisa Tapak by Edward T White.docx
It is useful in discussing the influence of contextual analysis on design to dif- ferentiate between function and con- text as forces which locate building spaces and activities on the site. Func- tion tends to locate building spaces in an introverted way in that they are primarily looking inward to each other for the rationale behindtheir positions in the scheme. Context, on the other hand, wants the spaces to migrate to different positions on the site in re- sponse to conditions outsidethe build- ing.
In function, the attraction is be- tween spaces. In context, the attrac- tion is between spaces and external site conditions. Usually in a design problem these two and all the other project issues pull and push the spaces to determine their final placement in the scheme. They are in a very real sense competing with each other to determine the building form. Some examples of situations that might cause a space or activity to be placed in the scheme due to external linkages to context are presented below.
Operations need- ing access to de- livery and pick- up vehicles. Building entry lo- cated to relate to primary ap- proach direc- tion. Zoning of parking areas away from view lines to building. Activities needing indirect natural lighting.
Activities needing direct sunlight. Operations need- ing shelter from high activity zones. Activities needing direct access for vehicles.
Integration of form with surrounding contextual im- ages. Relationship of spaces to exist- ing scale and geometric pat- terns. Spaces needing their own con- trolled exterior environment. Our first efforts at optimum placement of functions or spaces on the site in response to contextual pressures may involve any of three approaches.
Where function is considered a more critical form-giving determinant than context, we may place the bubble dia- gram on thesiteand allow thespaces to migrate and shift within the bubble so that their orientations and placements relate to the appropriate site condi- tions. Here the connecting lines be- tween the spaces in the bubble are made elastic while still remaining con- nected to the space bubbles so that the functional ties are always maintained while we are searching for a contextu- ally responsive placement of spaces.
Where relation to context is judged to be more important than internal func- tional efficiency, we may take each function or space and place it in its optimum zone on the site indepen- dently oftheother spaces.
When all the spaces have been placed including exterior spaces then we may begin to condense our spaces and knit them together with a circulation system. The third approach is appropriate where the project is particularly large with several site components.
Here we may needto deal with the placement of our building or buildings as wholes before we can address the location of their spaces. In this approach the prin- ciples and intentions are no different than those in the first two approaches. The scale of the components we are manipulating on the site is simply larger.
Once our buildings are placed in zones on the site, then we may use either of the first two approaches to zone the buildingspaces in responseto their context. Reasonsforlocatinga buildingin aparticu- lar area of the site may involve soil bearing conditions, contours that minimize earth work during construction, ridges to take advantage of views or breezes, streets or corners that ensure high visibility to the building, alleys that allow easy service ac- cess, site scars that have already caused disruption collect existing scars with the scars caused by construction or the avoidance of some particularly valuable asset that should be preserved trees or some particularly negativecondition poor view or noise.
I t is important to remember that site design and building and space place- ment can involve sectional issues as well as plan issues. Relation of floors to contours, heights of spaces in relation to views, stepping of spaces down hillsides and stacking of spaces in relation to contours and neigh- borhood scale are a few of the potential reasons to study the zoning of our facility on the site in section as well as in plan.
A thorough contextual analysis gives us confidencethat we havethe site conditions all recorded. That confidencefacilitates the conceptualization of site responses in de- sign and contributes to the heuristic proc- ess of idea formulation. In doing the con- textual analysisandengagingthe site issues through diagramming, we trigger design responseimagesfor dealingwith the site. Thecontextual analysisactsasaswitch to recall the parts of our design vocab- ularies that apply to the site problems and opportunities.
The role of contex- tual analysis as a stimulant for concep- tualization is vital to responsible de- sign. It helps to ensure that there is an appropriateness to those design ideas that surface in our minds in that they were triggered by the relevant project issues, conditions and needs and not arbitrarily fabricated and imposed on the project.
Too r'i? This will never happen. We must analyze the context to trigger design re- sponses, but the design responses or vo- cabularies must be there to be triggered. As designers we must continually work to ex- pand and deepen our vocabulary of ar- chitectural forms and concepts so that there is something there to draw upon when we "flip theswitch" through analysis.
These conceptual solution types constitute the design vocabulary that we accumulate from reading, travel, past projects we have designed and visiting buildings. Analysis will give us the condi- tions but not the responses. It will tell us that we have a great view but not what to do about it. We must draw from our vo- cabulary of design responsesfor the appro- priate concepts.
Diagramming the information learned through contextual analysis may utilize any of the conventional drawing frameworks to record the data. We may graphically express our site information in plan, section, elevation, perspective, isometric or any of the other types of draw- ings available to us. The types of drawings we useshould besympatheticto thetypeof information we are recording. Somedata is better expressed in plan, some in section, L L some in perspective, etc.
Normally there aretwo components to any site information diagram. First, we must have a referent drawing of the site to provide a context for the particular site information we want to record.
Second, we must diagram the site fact itself. The referent drawing may be a simple plan of the site boundaries with bordering streets or a section through the siteshowing only theground plane. We use these simple site drawings as frameworks for diagramming the particular site issues that we wish to express. There are two rather different postures we may assume regardingthe recording of the site informa- tion over these referent drawings.
J one referent drawing. The second approach segregateseach piece of site information to a separate referent drawing. This method values the expression of each issue sepa- rately so that it can be easily understood. By dealing with each fact individually we may be less likely to ignore something. Keeping these two approaches pure and unadulterated is not important. Where it is appropriate to our situation it is perfectly permissibleto use both methods within the same contextual analysis.
The diagrammatic forms that we may useto actually record our site information over the referentdrawings are many and varied. There are no rules for the forms these must take and no universally agreed upon vo- cabulary for them. We should begin to develop our own vocabulary of diagrammatic forms so that they may become second nature for us and may be used as an effective graphic shorthand for documenting site conditions.
There are essentially four steps to diagramming any site fact. We must design the initial dia- grammatic form, refine andsimplify it, emphasize and clarify the meaning through graphic hierarchy and em- phasis and finally introduce whatever notes and labeling are necessary. Contextual analysis may be applied tositu- ations of any scale and is relevant to both exterior and interior project issues. We may analyze a region, a city, a neighborhood, a parcel of land, the interior of an existing building or the interior of a single existing interior space.
The discussion that follows will deal principally with the analysis of single parcels of land. Some attention will also be given to the contextual analysis of interior space under "Other Contextual Analysis Forms.
As discussed previously, our goal should be to analyze all relevant issues about thesite becausethoroughness is vital to project success. It is useful in choosing from among the available site issue categories to let our choices be influenced by at least two im- portant inputs: We should think about the nature of the project, its needs, require- ments and critical issues.
What is the essence of the project? What isthe building's reasonfor being? What are its major goals and objec- tives? What roles can the building play in enhancing the site and its surround- ings? All of these concerns should help ustoanticipate the kindof sitedata that will be neededduringthe design phase of the project.
Site analysis should never be done at "long range. This "hands-on" direct encounter with site from a personal and sen- sory point of view gives us another set of clues for choosing the types of site information that should be addressed in our contextual analysis. The visit to the siteallows us todevelop asense of what is unique, valuable and important about the site. This checklist will help ensure that we do not forget any important site factor and will assist us to more efficiently iden- tify the site concerns to be included in our analysis.
A prototypical checklist- of potential site issues follows. Location a. Location of the city in the state including relationship to roads, cities, etc. Location of the site neighborhood in the city. Location of the site in the neigh- borhood. Distancesandtravel times between the site and locations of other re- lated functions in the city. Neighborhood Context a. Map of the neighborhood indicat- ing existing and projected property zoning.
Existing and projected building uses in the neighborhood. Age or condition of the neighbor- hood buildings. Present and future uses of exterior spaces in the neighborhood.
Any strong vehicular or pedestrian traffic generating functions in the neighborhood. Existing and projected vehicular movement patterns. Major and minor streets, routes of service vehicles such as trash, bus routes and stops. Solid-void space relationships. Street lighting patterns.
Architectural patterns such as roof forms, fenestration, materials, color, landscaping,formal porosity, relationship to street, car storage strategies, building height, sculptural vigor, etc. Neighborhood classifications that' miglht place special restrictions or responsibilities on our design work such as "historic district.
Nearby buildings of particular value or significance. Fragile images or situations that should be preserved. Sun and shade patterns at different times of the year.
Major contour and drainage pat- terns. Size and Zoning a. Dimensions of the boundaries of our site. Dimensions of the street rights of way around our site. Location and dimensions of ease- ments. Present site zoning classification. Front, back and side yard setbacks requiied by zoning classification.
Square feet of buildable area inside setbacks should also subtract easements. Building height restrictions re- quired by zoning classification. Zoning formula for determining re- quired parking basedon the typeof The number of parking spaces re- quired if we know the building area.
Any conflicts between what the present zoning classification al- lows and the functions we are planning for the site. Zoning classifications that the site would need to be changed to in order to accommodate all the planned functions. Any projected changes that would alter the dimensional characteris- tics of the site such as street widen- ings or purchase of additional property.
Legal a. Legal description of the property. Covenants and restrictions site area usage allowed, height restric- tions, screening of mechanical equipment or serviceyards, restric- tionson rooftopelements, architec- tural character, design require- ments in historic districts, etc.
Name of the property owner. Name of the governmental levels or agencies which have jurisdic- tion over the property. Any projectedor potential changes in any of the above categories. Natural Physical Features a. Topographic contours. Major topographic features such as high points, low points, ridges and valleys, slopes and flat areas.
Drainage patterns on the site in- cluding directions of surfacedrain- age perpendicular to contours , major and minor arteries of water collection ditches, arroyos, river- beds, creeks, etc. Existing natural features on the site andtheir value interms of preserva- tion and reinforcement versus al- teration or removal. This would also include opinions regarding permanency in terms of difficulty or expense to remove features. On site features might include trees type and size , ground cover, rock outcroppings, ground surface tex- ture, holes or ditches, mounds, on site water pools, ponds, lakes, riv- ers and stable or unstable areas of the site site scars versus virgin areas.
Typeof soil atdifferent levelsbelow surface and bearing capacity of the soil. Soil type distribution over site. Man-Made Features a. Size, shape, height and location of any on site buildings. If these are to remain; the exterior character and interior layout should also be documented. Ifthe buildings are to be part of our project, we mustdo a Location and type of walls, retain- ing walls, ramadas or fences. Location, size and character of ex- terior playfields, courts, patios, plazas, drives, walks or service areas.
Where it may be important to our designwe should recordthe paving patterns of man-made surfaces. Location and size of curb cuts, power poles, fire hydrants or bus stop shelters. This is particularly impor- tant where the architectural character will be a factor in the design of our facility historic dis- trict, etc.
Somefactors to consider in analyzing surrounding architec- tural character include scale, proportion, roof forms, window and door patterns, setbacks, mate- rials, colors, textures, open space versus built space, visual axes, landscaping materials and pat- terns, paving textures and patterns, porosity extent of openness and assertiveness ins and outs of wall forms, connections, details and ac- cessories, exterior lighting, outdoor furniture andcarstoragemethods.
Circulation a. On site sidewalks, paths and other pedestrian movement patterns in- cluding users, purposes, schedule of use and volume of use. Off site pedestrian movement pat- terns usingthe same characteristics mentioned for on site movement. If a pedestrianmovement pattern is considered valuable and to be pre- served or reinforced, our analysis should also include an evaluation of how the existing pattern could be improved. On site or adjacent vehicular movement patterns including type of traffic, origins and destinations, schedule, volume of traffic and peak loads.
Also included should be intermittent traffic such as parades, festivals, concerts, fire truck routes, service truck fleets, etc. Off site or neighborhood vehicular movement issues such as traffic generators buildings or uses that are significant destinations or ori- gins of vehicular traffic as well as the other traffic characteristics out- lined under on site traffic. Adjacent or nearby parking areasthat may be used for off site car storage in our project.
Off site traffic patterns should also include the relation of our site to the public transportation routes, stops at or near our site, probable directions of approach to our site by the users of the new building and directions of dispersal of traffic from our building.
Traffic analysis should document future Locations of probable or optimum access to our site for each type of pedestrianand vehicular traffic that will use the new building or move through the site. Travel time to walk across our site, to drive across the site or by the site where these times may be impor- tant to our design time it takes to walk between classes at a school.
It may also be useful to record the time it takes to drive to or from related locations in the city from our site to downtown, the univer- sity, the shopping center, etc. Utilities a. Location, capacity and con- veyance form type of pipe, etc.
This should involve the depth of each utility under- ground and, in the case of power, whether it is above or below grade. Location of power poles. Where utility lines stop short of our site boundaries, their distances from our site should be given. While page 6. Typical issues are views 10 and from the sue and noise generated around the site It ISof value to record the type..
It IShelpful to know noi only how climate conditions varv over a typical year but also what the crirical conditions might be maximum daily rainfall. Vandalism and crime patterns. This will never happen. Normally there are two components to any site information diagram. That confidence fdcilitates the conceptualization of site responses in design and contributes to the heuristic process of idea formulation.
The first we may call the composite or integrated approach where we attempt to diagram as many different site issues as we can over one referent drawing Here. Relation of floors to contours. While page 7 The referent drawing may be a simple plan of the site boundaries with bordering streets or a section through the site show ing on 1'. In doing the contextual analysis and engaging the site iS5ues through diagramming.
The contextual analysis acts as a switch to recall the parts of our design vocabularies that apply to the site problems anil opportunities.
There are two rather different postures we may assume regarding the recording of the site information over these referent drawings. These conceptual solution types constitute the design vocabulary that we accumulate from reading.
We may graphically express our site information in plan The types of drawings we use shou Id be svmpathetic to the type of information we are recording. A thorough contextual analysis gives us confidence that we have the site conditions all recorded.
Some data is better expressed in plan. It is important 10 remember that site design and building and space placemen! The role of contex- tual analysis as a stimulant for conceptualiration is vital to responsible design. In this approach we must make sure that the drawing does not become muddied and confusing and that the most important site Excerpt taken from Site Analysis by Edward T.
Too often we m. We use the these simple site drawings as frameworks for diagramming the particular site issues that we wish to express.
Analysis will give us Ihe condilions bUI not 11m responses. II will tell us that we h. O our building from a parking lot. As designers we must continually work to expand and deepen our vocabularv of architectural form. We should know many ways of taking advantage 01 d good view.
It is useful in choosing from among the available site issue categories to let our choices be influenced by at least two important Inputs: Site analysis should never be done at "long range. What is the essence of the project! What is the building's reason lor being? What are Its major goals and obieclives? What roles can the building play In enhancing the sue and its surroundings? All of these concerns should help us to anricipate the kind of site data that will be needed during the design phase of the project.
As discussed previously. We should think about the nature of the project. White page 8. The visit to the site allows us to develop a sense of what is unique. While page I "-"-r T While paqe U. Both the individual silt' design vignettes and comprehensive sitE' arrangement conceprs are drawn from our past experience as designers and our vocabutilry of site design ideas that we carry with us from project to project These ideas are 'called up' or triggered from memory by analvzing the various site conditions through diagramming.
The more extensive the vocabulary of candidate design ideas we have to draw upon for appropriately responding to site conditions.. Site Analysis Edward t White Uploaded by priyasankar Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Ching, Francis D.
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