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Read Architectural Graphics PDF - by Francis D. K. Ching Wiley | The bestselling guide to architectural drawing, with new information. The bestselling guide to architectural drawing, with newinformation, examples, and resources Architectural Graphics is the classic bestsellingreference by one of . Architectural Graphics, 4th Edition; Francis DK. Ching 32 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Architectural Graphics, 4th Edition.

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Architectural Graphics Sixth Edition Francis D.K. Ching JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. Cover design: C. Wallace Cover image: Courtesy of Francis D.K. Ching This . Ching () Architectural Leonidas Koutsoumpos. L. Koutsoumpos. FOLJRJ H EI21IION, EBAf\JCI5 0 f'. C E4 lt\JG ARCHITECTURAL . This books (Architectural Graphics, Sixth Edition [PDF]) Made by Francis. Ching Pages: pages Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Language: English ISBN X ISBN Illustrated Cabinetmaking: How to Design and Construct Furniture That.

Orthographic projection represents a threedimensional form or construction by projecting lines perpendicular to the picture plane. Projectors are both parallel to each other and perpendicular to the picture plane. Major faces orfacets of the subject are typically oriented parallel with the picture plane. Parallel projectors therefore represent these major faces in their true size, shape, and proportions. This is the greatest advantage of using orthographic projections-to be able to describe facets of a form parallelto the picture plane without foreshortening. Ambiguity of depth is inherent in any orthographic projection, as the third dimension is flattened onto the picture plane. Lines that are perpendicular to the picture plane areprojected as points.

Complete mastery of the tools and conventions is essential to the successful outcome of any project, and mistakes can cause confusion, time delays, increased costs, and possible catastrophe. Architectural Graphics is the comprehensive guide to professional architectural drawing, with insight from a leading authority in the field. View Instructor Companion Site. CHING is one of the leading authorities on architectural design drawing around the world.

His numerous bestselling works have been translated into over seventeen languages and are regarded as classics for their renowned graphic presentation. Table of contents Preface v. Undetected country. NO YES. PP need not be drawn at the same sca leas the plan setup. The position of C can be determined from the plan setup. The unit of measu rement is typically one foot; we can, however, use sma ller or larger increments depending on the scale of the drawing and the amount of detail desired in the perspective view.

Wedothe same along a vertical measuring line VML drawn through one of the measured points at one end of GL. We call this vanishing point adiagonal point DP. Wheret his diagonal crosses the lines ont hefloor or ground planet hat converge at C.

Architectural Graphics, 6th Edition

The result is aperspect ive grid of one-foot squares on the floor or groundplane GP. Wecantransfer these depth measurements and est ablish a similar grid along one or both receding sidewalls, as well as onaceilingor overhead plane. Ahalf-distance point will cut off two- foot increment s indepth for every one-foot increment ' ' in widt h: With the same grid, we can also locate the positions and relative sizes of other elements within the space, such as furniture and lighting fixtures.

Note that, particularly in interior views, properly cropped foreground elements can enhance the feeling that one is in a space rather than on the outside lookingin. The center of vision C is closer to the lefthand wall so that the bending of the space to the right can be visualized. It therefore is able to illustrate both the constructional aspects of adesign as well as the quality of the spaces formed by the structure. Because thesection cut is assumed to be coincident with the picture plane PP of the perspective, it serves as a ready reference for making vertical and horizontal measurements for the perspective drawing.

The height of HL and position of Cdetermine what is seen within the perspective view. As arule of thumb, the distance from Cto DPL or DPR should be at least as great as the width or height of the building section, whichever is larger.

The principal vertical axis is parallel to PP, and all lines parallel to it remain vertical and parallel in the perspective drawing. The two principal horizontal axes, however, are oblique to PP All lines parallel to these axes therefore appear to converge to two vanishing points on the horizon line HL , oneset to the left and the ot her t othe right. These are the two points referred to intwo-point perspective. Two-point perspective is probably the most widely used of the three types of linear perspective.

Unlike one-point perspectives, two-point perspectives tend to be neither symmetrical nor static. Atwo-point perspective is par- ticularly effective in illustrat ing the three-dimensional form of objects in space ranging in scale from achair to the massing of abuilding. The orientation of thetwo horizontal axes t oPP determines how much we will see of the two majar sets of vertical planes and the degree to which they are foreshortened in perspective. As with the construction of a one-point perspective, you should first establish the observer's point of view.

Determine what you wish to illustrate. Look toward the most significant areas and try to visualize from your plan drawing what will be seenintheforeground, middleground, and background. Review theperspective variables on pages It is usually convenient to have PP intersect a major vertical element of the space so that it can be used as a vertical ' Remember that the vanishing point for any set of parallel lines is that point at wh ich a line drawn from SP, parallel to the set, intersects PP.

The diagonal point in one-point perspective is one example of such ameasuring point. VPl- -. This intersection is MPR. For example, if you have a series of parallel diagonals in your design, establish their vanishing point as well. This scale need not be the same as t he scale of the plan setup. The unit of measurement typically is one foot; baseline in perspect ive by drawing lines to MPR. Tra nsfer scalemeasurements onGL to t he right depending on the scale of the drawingand the amount baselineby drawing li nes to MPL.

These are of detail desired in the perspective view. For example. It is important measurements along the major horizontal baselines - to see the perspective grid as a network of points in perspective.

When one-foot squares Thegrid of squares facilitates the plotting of become too small to draw accurately, use two-foot points in three-dimensional space, regulates the or four-foot squares instead.

In each case, however, the height of the observer's station point SP above the ground plane GP has been selected to portray a specific point point of view, and the scale of the grid has been altered to suit the scale of the structure. Note that the left vanishing point VPL lies within the drawing, enablingthree sides of the space to be shown and a greater sense of enclosure to be felt.

Because VPL lies within the drawing, greater emphasis is placed on the right- hand portion of the space. If the left-hand side of the space is to be emphasized, use a reverse image of the grid. But there are techniques we can use to determine the relative heights, widths, and depths of objects in the pictorial space of a perspective drawing.

Measuring Height and Width In linear perspective, any line in the picture plane PP displays its true direction and true length at the sca le of the picture pla ne. We can therefore use any such line as a measuring line ML to scale dimensions ina perspective drawing.

While a measuring line may have any orientation in the picture plane, it typically is vertica l or horizontal and used to measu re true heig hts or widths. The ground line GL is one example of a horizontal measuring line. Digital Perspectives Perspective measurements are not a major issue in 3D-modeling programs because the software uses mathematical formulas to process the three-dimensional data we have already entered.

Various methods of perspective construction establish depth in different ways. Once we establish an initial depth judgment, however, we can make succeedingdepth judgments in proportion to thefirst. Subdividing Depth Measurements There are two methods for subdividing depth measurements in linear perspective: Method of Diagonals In any projection system, we can subdivide a rectangle into four equal parts by drawing two diagonals.

Lines drawn through this midpoint, parallel to the edges of t heplane, will subdivide the rectangle and its receding sides int o equal parts. We can repeat this procedure t osubdivide a rectangleinto any even number of parts.

To subdivide a rectangle into an odd number of equal parts, or to subdivide its receding edges into a series of unequal segments, its forward edge must be parallel to the picture plane PP so that it can be used as a measuringline ML.

These mark off the desired spaces, which diminish asthey recede in perspective. Ifthe receding line is 1 1. From each of the scaled subdivisions, we draw lines that are parallel to BC and therefore converge at the same vanishing point. These lines subdivide the receding line into the same proportional segments.

Extending a Depth Measurement If the forward edge of arectangular plane is parallel to the picture plane PP , we can extend and duplicate its depth in perspective.

First, we establish the midpoint of the rear edge opposite the forward edge of the rectangle. Then we extend adiagonal from a forward corner through this midpoint to meet an extended side of the rectangle.

The distance from the first to the second edge is identical to the distance from the second to the third edge, but the equa l spaces are foreshortened in perspective. The reason for this is t hat, in the latter aperspective drawing.

If perpendicular or oblique to PP, however, an inclined set of lines will appear to converge at a vanishing point above or below the horizon line HL.

The easiest way to do this is to visualize the inclined line as being the hypotenuse of aright triangle. If we can draw the sides of the triangle in proper perspective, we can connect the end points to establish the inclined line. An inclined set of parallel lines is not horizontal and t herefore will not converge on HL.

Ifthe set rises upward as it recedes, its vanishing point will be above HL; if it falls as it recedes, it will appear to converge below HL. This intersection is the vanishingpoint VPi for the inclined line and all other lines parallel to it.

With VP as the center, we swingan arc from the! Mark this point A. We establish a vertical vanishing trace VT through VP. This is the vanishing trace for the vertical plane containing the inclined set of parallel lines. From point A, we draw a line at the true slope a of the inclined set. We first lay out the perspective view of the horizontal stair run on the floor plane.

We arenot concerned yet with the individual treads of the sta irway. We then extend a vertica l plane tothe height of the stair landing or next floor level. Next we divide one side of this plane into the number of equal risers in the stair run. We draw an inclined line from the topof the first riser to the top of the landing or upper floor level. This inclined line is subdivided by extending horizontal lines from the riser markings.

We can use the vanishing points for inclined lines todraw other elements parallel to theinclined lines, such as stair stringers and railings.

This occurs most frequently when the plane of the circle is horizontal and at the height of the horizon line HL , or when the plane of the circle is vertical and aligned with the central axis of vision CAV.

The larger the circle, the more subdivisions are necessary to ensure smoothness of the elliptical shape. So while acirclein perspective appears to be an ellipse, we tend to see it in the mind's eye as a circle, and thus exaggerate the length of its minor axis. Checking the relationship between the major and minor axes of elliptical shapes helps to ensure accuracy of the foreshortening of circles in perspective. A reflecting surface presents an inverted or mirror image of the object being reflected.

For example, if an object is resting directly on areflecting surface. Thus, in a perspective view of the reflection, the reflected image follows the same perspect ive system of lines already established for the original image. Sightlines reflect off a mirrored surface at an angle equal to the angle of incidence.

Each reflection therefore doubles t he apparent dimension of the space in a direction perpendicular to the mirrored surface. Anything in front of or above a reflecting surface appears at the same distance in back of or below the reflecting surface in adirection perpendicular to the surface. Therefore, the major sets of parallel lines in the reflection appear to converge to the same vanishing points as do the corresponding sets of lines in the subject.

The plane of the reflecting surface should appear to be halfway between the subject and its refiected image. For example, the waterline establishes the horizontal reflecting plane. Point olies in t his pla ne. I Refiections oflines perpendicular to the refiecting surface extend the original lines.

While lines are essential to the task of delineating contour and shape, there are also visual qualities of light, texture, mass, and space that cannot befully described by line alone. In order to model the surfaces of forms and convey asense of light, we rely on the rendering of tonal values.

Our visual system processes these patterns of light and dark. If seeing patterns of light and dark is essential to our perception of objects. Through the interplay of tonal values we are able to: Thevisual effect of each technique varies according to the nature of t he stroke, the medium. Regardless of the shading technique we use, we must always be fully aware of the tonal value being depicted.

For example, atonal valuesuperimposed upon a darker tone will appear lighter than the same value set against a lighter tone. Covering the paper surface entirely can cause adrawing to lose depth and vitality Digital Tonal Values Paint and drawing programs usually permit colors and tonal values to be selected from amenu or palette.

Image-processing software further allows the creation and application of visual textures. The strokes may be long or short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either apen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper. When spaced close enough together, the lines lose their individuality and merge to form a tonal value. We therefore rely primarily on the spacing and density of lines to control the lightness or darkness of a value.

When extending atonal value over a large area, avoid the effect of banding by softening the edges and overlapping each set of strokes in a random manner. Maintaining the diagonal direction of the strokes in t his manner avoids confusion with the underlying drawing and unifies the various tonal areas of a drawing composition.

Remember that direction alone, however, has no impact on tonal value. With texture and contour, the series of lines can also convey material characteristics, such as the grain of wood, the marbling of stone, or the weave of fabric.

Be careful not to use too dense a grade of lead or press so hard that the pencil point embosses the drawing surface. You can only control the spacing and density of the hatching. As with hatching, the strokes may be be longor short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either a pen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper. The simplest crosshatching consists of two intersecting sets of parallel lines.

Ii pattern can also produce a stiff, sterile, and I. While simple hatching creates the lighter range of values in a drawing, crosshatching renderst he darker range. The freehand natureof scribbling gives us great flexibility in describing tonal values and textures.

We can vary the shape. The strokes may be broken or continuous, relatively ,: By interweaving the strokes. Applying stippling is a slow and time-consuming procedure that requires the utmost patience and care in controlling the size and spacing of the dots. The best results occur when using a fine-tipped ink pen on asmooth drawing surface.

We continue to add stippling in a methodical manner. If the scale of the dots is too large for the toned area, too coa rse a texture will result. In between exists an intermediate range of grays.

A familiar form of this range is represented by a valueor gray scale having ten equal gradations from white to black. It is worthwhile to practice producing both astepped seriesand agraduated scale of tonal values using a variety of media andtechniques. It can also describe the cha racteristic surface qualities of familiar materials, as the hewn appearance of stone, the grain of wood, and the weave of afabric.

This is tactile texture that can be felt by touch. Our senses of sight and touch are closely intertwined. As our eyes read the visua l texture of a surface, we often respond to its apparent tactile quality without actually touching it. We J base these physical reactions on the textural qualities of similar materials we have experienced in the past. In most cases, tonal va lue is more critical than texture to the representation of light, shade, and the way they model forms in space.

Shading with tona l values extends a simple drawing of contours into the three-dimensional realm offorms arranged in space. We must therefore be careful how we define the nature of the edge or boundary wherever two shapes of contrasting values meet. The skillful manipulation of tona l edges is critical to defining the nature and solidity of a surface or object. We define hard edges with an abrupt and incisive shift in tonal value.

Soft edges describe indistinct or vague background shapes, gently curving surfaces and rounded forms, and areas of low contrast. We create soft edges with a gradual change intonal valueor diffusetonal contrast. Digital Modeling It is relat ively easy to create three-dimensional digital models, and to apply complex algorit hms for lighting and applying textures and materials to the surfaces of the models.

At times, the photorea listic capabilities of graphics software can be distracting, leaving nothingto the viewer's imagination. Light is the radiant energy that illuminates our world The light-and-dark patterns we see emanate and enables us to see three-dimensional forms in space.

We do not actually from the interaction of light with the objects see light but rather the effects of light. The way light falls on and is and surfaces around us.

(PDF) Francis D. K. Ching Architectural Graphics, 6th Edition | Veronica Ortega -

Within these patterns reflected from a surface creates areas of light, shade, and shadow, which of light and dark shapes, we can recognize the give us perceptual clues to the surface's three-dimensional qualities. Shadows are t hedark values cast by an object or part of an object upon a surface that would otherwise be illuminated by the light source. Areas of reflected light-light cast back froma nearby surface-lig htenthe tonal value of a portion of a shaded surface or a shadow.

Digital Lighting Modeling and rendering software enable us to specify the orientation of the sun in order to study the solar responsiveness of a design. We can also designate the number and type of light sources to simulate the lighting within aspace.

These simulations, however, are often only approximations of the effects of point sources and their energy distribution profiles. Judgment of the end result, therefore, whether produced by hand or the computer, remains the responsibility of the illustrator. These two drawings of t hePiazza San Marco in Venice illustrate how the tonal contrast can be achieved either by rendering the building as a dark figure against alight background or by reversing the figure-ground relationship and rendering the tonal values of the site.

These values can effectively isolate I I and providea base for elements that are situated I I above thefloor plane. The lower t he floor plane, the darker its value. Be sure, however, that there is sufficient contrast to emphasize the dominance of the cut elements.

If necessary,, outline the cut elements with a heavy line weight. The most important distinctions to establish are between the cut through the ground plane in front of the building elevation and the building itself, and between the building elevation and its background. Tonal values are t hereforeused primarily to articulatethe orthogonal relationship between horizontal and vertical planes.

Toning the horizontal planes not only establishes avisual base for the drawing but also aids in defining the shape and orientation of the vertical planes. Although improvements continue to be made, the rendering of atmospheric and texture perspective remains problematic in many graphics programs.

Image- processing software, however. The depiction of light, shade, and shadow can.. The sun is so large and distant a source that its light rays areconsidered to be parallel. Shade refersto the relatively dark area on those parts of a solid that are tangent to or turned away from a theoretical light source.

The corollary t o this is that any point that is not in light cannot cast a shadow because light does not strike it. Ashadow can never be cast on a surface in shade, nor can it exist within another shadow. Digital Shade and Shadows Modeling software typically includes the ability to specify the location and orientation of the light source and to cast shade and shadows automatically.

This convention produces shadows of widt hor depthequal to the width or depth of the projections that cast t he shadows. In the view showingthe edge view of the receiving f'!.. The intersection of this transferred line withthe. A ray in the adjacent view marks the shadow of the point. The shadow of a stra ight lineon a flat surface of its shadow plane with the surface receiving the ' isthe linethat connects the shadows of its shadow.

If the line intersects the surface, plane establishes the direction of the light rays, ' '. The shape of the shadow is elliptical since t hesection of acylinder cut by any planeoblique to its axis is an ellipse. The most convenient method of determining the shadow of acircle isto determine the shadow of thesquare or octagon circumscribing the givencircle, and then to inscribe within it the elliptical shadow of the circle.

It is usually best to beginby determining t he shadows of significant points in t heform, such as the end point s of straight lines and the t angent points of curves. The shadow of t heline will appear to be straight regardless of theshapeof the surface receiving theshadow. VAT lO t. Rather, they merely indicate the relative heights of the parts of a building above the ground plane. However, they may be used to emphasize thecut elements and the relative heights of objects withinthe space.

However, they can be used effectively to distinguish between horizontal and vertical elements, and the th ree- dimensional nature of their forms. To construct shade and shadows in a para line drawing, it is necessary to assume a source and direction of light.

Deciding on a direction of light is a problem in composition as well as communication. It is important to remember that cast shadows should clarify rather than confuse the nature of forms and their spatial relationships.

There are occasions when it may be desirable to determine the actual cond itions of light, shade, and shadow. Within t he shadow or area in shade, t here is usually some variation in value due to the reflect ed light from adjacent lit surfaces. This intersectionrepresents thesourceof the light rays, and is aboveHL when the light source is infront of the observer and below HL when behind t heobserver.

The shadow and the bearing direction I therefore share the same vanishingpoint. Both the casting edgeand its shadow t herefore share the samevanishing point.

To determine how a shadow is cast by a vertical element onto a sloping surface, first extend t he vertical element down to t hebase of the sloping surface. In each of the major drawing systems, we do this by extendingthe ground line and plane to include adjacent structures and site features. In addition to the physical context, we should indicate the scale and intended use of spaces by including human figures and furnishings.

We can also attempt to describe the ambience of a place by depicting the quality of light, t hecolors and textures of materials, the scale and proportion of the space, or the cumulative effect of details. Therefore, in the drawing of architectural and urban spaces, we include people to: Important aspects to consider inthe drawing of humanfigures are: We can therefore simply scalethe normal height of people in elevations and section drawings.

Since the view is three-dimensional, however, the figures should have some degree of roundness to indicate t heir volume. In perspective drawings, it is generally easiest to begin drawing people by locating whereeach figureis standing.

Figures above or below the level of t heobserver should first be sized as if on the same level, and then shifted up or down as required. The principles of linear perspective can be used to shift t he figure right or left, up or down, or into the depth of the perspective.

We therefore need to draw human figures in proper size and proportion. Instead, figures should be given a sense of volume, especially in paraline and perspective views. Thentheestablished I Their placement should remind us that there should be places on which to sit, lean, rest our elbow or foot, or to simply touch.

Digital libraries Many CAD and modeling programs include ready-made libraries or templates of t hese contextual elements. These can be easily copied, resized, and placed directly into drawings.

IJj buses, even bicycles-to indicate roadways and parking areas in exterior scenes. Drawing vehicles in conjunct ion with people helps establish t heir scale. These include: With these landscaping elements, we can: Different types of branch structures are illustrated below. The amount of detail rendered should be consistent with the scale and style of t hedrawing.

Draw these outlines freehand to give the foliage atextural quality. It is therefore necessary to differentiate between deciduous trees. As always, the type of trees selected should be appropriate to the geographic location of the architecture. The outline of foliage can be suggested with dotted or lightly drawn freehand lines. Foregroundelement s typically possess dark, saturated colorsand sharply defined contrast s in value. As elements move farther away, their colors become lighter and more subdued, and their tonal contrasts more diffuse.

In thebackground, we see mainly shapes of grayed tones and muted hues. This cansometimes be accomplished simply withan articulated profile line.

Trees and landscaping are shownmerely as shapes of tonal value and texture. These drawings describe a design proposal in a graphic manner intended to persuade an audience of it s value. The audience may be a client. Whether produced to assist the client's imagination or to obtain acommission, either privately or througha competition, presentation drawings should communicate as clearly and accurately as possible thethree-dimensional qualities of a design.

Although the drawings that comprise a presentation may be excellent two-dimensional graphics worthy of an exhibition, they are merely t ools for communicating adesign idea, never ends in themselves. An effective presentation, however, also possess important collective characteristics. Point of View Be clear about design intent. Apresentation should communicate the central idea or concept of adesign scheme.

Graphic diagrams and text are effective means of articulating and clarifying the essential aspects of a design scheme, especially when they are visually related to the more common types of design drawing. An effective presentation employs economy of means, utilizing only what is necessary to communicate an idea. If any of the graphic elements of a presentation become distracting and ends in themselves, the intent and purpose of the presentation are obscured.

Clarity Be articulate. At a minimum, presentation drawings should explain a design clearly and in enough detail so that viewers unfamiliar with it will be able to understand the design proposal.

Eliminate unintended distractions. Too often, we are blind to these glitches, because we know what we want to communicate and therefore cannot read our own workin an objective manner. Accuracy Avoid presenting distorted or incorrect information. Presentation drawings should accurately simulate a possible reality and the consequences of future actions so that the decisions made based on the information presented are sound and reasonable.

Unity, not to be confused with uniformity, ; I 1: Continuity ;.. Each segment of apresentation should relateto what precedes it and what follows, reinforcing all the other segments of the presentation. The principles of unity and continuity are mutually self-supporting; one cannot be achieved without the other. The factors that produce one invariably reinforce the other.

At the same time, however, we can bring into focus the central idea of adesign through the placement and pacing of the major and supporting elements of the presentation. Only through a coordinated presentation of related drawings can the three-dimensional form and character of a design be communicated. To explain and clarify aspect s that are beyond the capability of the drawings, we resort to diagrams, graphic symbols, titles, and text.

In any design presentation, therefore, we should carefully plan the sequence and arrangement of all of the following elements: U-4 considered in composing a visually balanced presentation: Slide and computerized presentations involve a sequence in time. In either case, the subject matter presented should progress in sequence from small-scale to large-scale graphic information, and from the general or contextual view to the specific. Whenever possible, orient plan drawings with north up or upward on the sheet.

When each drawing successively builds on the preced ing one, work from the bottomup or proceed from left to right. Typical examples include a series of floor plans for a multistory building or a sequence of building elevations. The spacing and alignment of these individual drawings, as well as similarity of shape and treatment.

Do not fill up white space unless absolutely necessary. Avoid using lines, however, when spacing or alignment can achieve the same purpose. Be aware, however, t hat using t oo many frames can establish ambiguous figure-ground relationships. A darker background for an elevation drawing, for example, can merge with a section drawing. The foreground for a perspective can become t hefield for aplan view of t hebuilding. To be easily recognizable and readable, keep them simple and clean-free of extraneous detail and stylistic flourishes.

In enhancing the clarity and readability of apresentation, these devices also become important elements in the overall composition of a drawingor presentation. Theimpact of graphic symbols and letteringdepends on their size, visual weight, and placement. Size The size of a graphic symbol should be in proportion to the scale of the drawing and readable from the anticipated viewingdistance.

Visual Weight The size and tonal value of a graphic symbol determines its visual weight. If alarge symbol or typeface is required for readability but a low value is mandatory for a balanced D composition, then use anoutline symbol or letter style. Placement Place graphic symbolsas close as possible to the drawing to which they refer. Whenever possible, use spacing and alignment instead of boxes or frames to form visual sets of information. You should therefore spend time on the appropriate selection and use of fonts rather than attempt to design new ones.

Avoid mixing serif and non serif typefaces ina single tit le or body of text. Keep in mind that we may read different portions of a presentation-project overviews, diagrams.

The maximum size for a hand lettering is 3f16 of an inch.

Architectural Graphics, 4th Edition; Francis DK. Ching 32

Beyond this size, the strokes require a width beyond what a pen or pencil is capable of producing. The visual movement of slanted lettering can be distracting in a rectilinear drawing scheme. Drawing Titles Arrange titles and graphic symbols into visual sets that identify and explain the contents of adrawing. By convention. In this position. Lines that are perpendicular to the picture plane areprojected as points. Planes that are perpendicular to the picture plane are projected as lines.

Curved surfaces and those that are not parallel to the picture plane are foreshortened. Ching 32 Uploaded by Ina Alexandra.

Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Ching, Francis D. Building Construction Illustrated - 4th Edition. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Ching Mohamed Zakaria.

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