Environment Biochemistry Book By U Satyanarayana Pdf


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Chemical Constituents of Life; Physiological Biochemistry; Metabolisms; Clinical Biochemistry and. Download BioChemistry by U. Satyanarayana 3rd Edition PDF Free. By and which greatly exceeds what could be covered in a conventional textbook alone. U Satyanarayana. Over 40 years (30 years as Professor) of teaching experience; authored four other popular books; published about

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biochemistry by cittadelmonte.infoarayana and chakrapani contain basic and essential biochemistry topics at college level. My elder son, U. Chakrapani(MBBS)deservesa specialplace in this book. He made a significant contribution at everystageof its preparation-writing, verification . U Satyanarayana Biochemistry is a very popular book among the medical students of India. You can download it in PDF format here.

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No notes for slide. Dr, lJ, Satyanarayana M. Eiochemistrg First Published: March Reprinted: August Reprinted: June Reprinted: Publishing rights and Printing rights reserved by the Publisher. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmifted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording or any informatign storage and retrieval system, without the prior wiitten permission of the Publisher. Exclusive rights reserued by the Publisher for publishing, printing, sale, marketing, distribution, expoft and translation of this book for all editions and reprints thereof.

Prefaceto the Third Edition Theresponseto the first andthe secondeditionsof my book'Biochemistry' reprintedseveraltimesin just 6 years from the studentsandteachersis simplyoverwhelming. I wasfloodedwith highlyappreciative lettersfrom all cornersof Indiaandabroad! Thisgivesme immensesatisfactionandencouragemLntin this academicventure. I havecorrespondedwith manybiochernistryteachers,invitingtheir commentsandopinionsfor further improvingthe book.

Mostof them havebeenkind enoughto offerconstructivesuggestions. I alsovisited severalcollegesandhadpersonalinteractionwith facultymembersandstudents. Theseexercises,spreadover the past 6 years,have helpedme to get direct feedbackon my book, besidesrealisingthe additional requirementsof students. A thoroughrevisionandupdatingof eachchapterwith latestadvances-.

Multicolouredillustrationsfor a betterunderstandingof chemicalstructuresandbiochemicalreactions. Increasein the font sizeof the text for morepleasantandcomfortablereading. Additionof ten new chapters-humangenomeproject,genetherapy,bioinformatics,free radicalsand antioxidants,tissueproteinsandbodyfluids,environmentalbiochemistry,genetics,immunologyetc. An improvedorientationand treatmentof humanbiochemistryin healthanddisease.

Additionof practicalbiochemistryandclinicalbiochemistrylaboratoryin the appendix. It is true that I representa selectedgroupof individualsauthoringbooks,havingsometime at disposal, besideshardwork,determinationanddedication. I considermyselfan eternallearneranda regularstudent of biochemistry. However,it is beyondmy capabilityto keeptrackof theevergrowingadvancesin biochemistry dueto the exponentialSrowthof the subject.

And this makesme nervous,wheneverI think of revisingthe book. I honestlyadmitthat I haveto dependon maturereadersfor subsequenteditionsof this book. Of course,I dowrite to somepeoplepersonaliyseekingtheir opinions. However,I wishto have the commentsandsuggestionsof eachoneof the readersof my book.

I sincerelyinvitethe readersto feelfree andwrite to me expressingtheir frank opinions,criticalcommentsandconstructivesuggestions. I owea deepdebtof gratitudeto my parents,the lateSri U.

Vajramma,for cultivatingin me the habitof earlyrising. Thewriting of this bookwouldneverhavebeenpossiblewithout this healthyhabit. I am gratefulto Dr. My elder son, U. Chakrapani MBBS deservesa specialplacein this book. He madea significant contributionat everystageof its preparation-writing, verification,proof-readingandwhat not.

I hadthe rare privilegeof teachingmy sonashehappenedto bea studentof our college. Anda majorpartof this bookwas writtenwhilehewaslearningbiochemistry. Thus,hewasthe firstpersonto learnthesubjectof biochemistry from my handwrittenmanuscript. Thestudent-teacherrelation ratherthan the father-son hashelpedme in receivinSlconstantfeedbackfrom him and restructurethe book in a way an undergraduatestudentwould expecta biochemistrytextbookto be.

Next,I thankDr. Sivakumar Director,NationalInstituteof Nutrition, Hyderabad for his helpful sugi5lestionson the microfigures. I am gratefulto my nephew,Mr. SrinivasaRao,for helping me in drawingsomefigures. Last but not least,I thank my wife Krishna Kumari and my youngerson,Amrutpani,without whose cooperationand encouragementthis book could never have beenwritten. The manuscriptwas carefully nurturedlike a newborn babyandthe bookhasnow becomea full-pledgedmemberof our family.

I haveindividuallyandpersonallythankedall of them whonumbera fewhundreds! I onceagainexpressmy gratitudeto them. I thank my friend and colleague,Mr.

JaganMohan,who has helpedme with his frequent interactionsto improvethe book,andmakeit morestudent-friendly. I wouldlike to placeon recordmy deep senseof appreciationto my post-graduate M. Vidya DesaiSripad,whoseperiodicalacademicinteractionandfeedbackhavecontributedto the improvementof the biomedicaVclinicalaspectsin somechapters.

I acknowledgethe helpof my friend,Dr. I expressmy gratitudeto Mr. Kolkata,for his wholeheartedsupportand constantencouragementin revisingthe bookin multicolour,and takingall the painsto bring it out to my satisfaction.

I thank Mr. ShyamalBhattacharyafor his excellentpage-makingand graphics-workin the book. I am indebtedto Mr. PrasenjitHalderfor the coverdesignof this book.

biochemistry by u.satyanarayana

I thank my wife, Krishna Kumari, and my younger son, Amrutpani, for their constantsupport and encouragement. I am grateful to UppalaAuthor-PublisherInterlinks, Vijayawada,for sponsoringand supportingme to bring out this edition.

Iiii] DT. Biochemistry The term Biochemistrywas introducedby Carl Neubergin Biochemistrybroadlydealswith the chemistrvof life and living processes.

Thereis no exaggerationin the statement,'Thescopeof biochemistrg is asuastaslilb itself! For that matter,everymovementof life is packedwith hundredsof biochemicalreactions. Biochemistryis the mostrapidlydevelopingandmostinnovativesubjectin medicine. Thisbecomesevidentfromthe factthat over the years,the major shareof NobelPrizesearmarkedfor Medicineand Physiologyhasgoneto researchers engagedir: The disciplineof biochemistryservesas a torch light to trace the intricate complexicitiesof biology, besidesunravellingthe chemicalmysteriesof life.

Biochemicalresearchhasamplydemonstratedthat all living thingsarecloselyrelatedat the molecularlevel. Thusbiochemistryis the subjectof unity in the diversified living kingdom. Advancesin biochemistryhavetremendousimpacton humanwelfare,andhavelargelybenefitedmankind and their living styles.

Theseincludethe applicationof biochernistryin the laboratoryfor the diagnosisof diseases. SectionI dealswith the chemicalconstituentsof life-carbohydrates,lipids,proteinsandaminoacids, nucleicacidsandenzymes. SectionII physiologicalchemistryincludesdigestionandahsorption,plasmaproteins,hemoglobinand prophyrins,andbiologicaloxidation.

SectionIII incorporatesall the metabolisms carbohydrates,lipids,aminoacids,nucleotides,minerals. Section[V covershormones,organfunctiontests,water,electrolyteandacid-basebalance,tissueproteins andtrodi'fluids,andnutrition.

SectionV is exclusivelydevotedto molecularbiologyandbiotechnology DNA-replication,recombination, ar"lnrepair,transcriptionandtranslation,regulationof geneexpression,recombinantDNAandbiotechnology. Section VII dealswith the basic aspectsfor learning and understandingbiochemistry bioorganic chenristry',hiophysicalchemistrytoolsof biochemistry,genetics,immunology. Each chapterin this book is carefully craftedwith colour illustrations, headingsand subheadingsto facilitatequickunderstanding.

Iconsare usedat appropriateplacesto serveas 'landmarks'. The origins of biochemicalwords, confusablesin biochemistry,practicalbiochemistryand clinical biochemistrylaboratory,givenin the appendixare novelfeatures.

Thebriokis so organizedasto equipthe readerswith a comprehensiveknowledgeof biochemistry. Iiu] 6. Nucleicacidsand Nucleotides 69 8.

BflomnoXeeutrssaildthsCelll -l- hu living matter is composedof mainly six I elements-carbon, hydrogen, oxygenl nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.

Severalother functionally importantelementsare also found in the cells. This is attributedto the ability of carbon to form stable covalentbonds and C-C chains of unlimited length. Ghemical molecules of li e Life is composed of lifeless chemical molecules.

A single cell of the bacterium, Escherichiacoli containsabout 6. The important biomolecules macromolecules with their respective building blocks and major functions are given in Table 1. As regards lipids, it may be noted that they are not biopolymers in a strict sense,but majority of them contain fatty acids. Structural heirarehy off asn organisnl The macromolecules proteins,Iipids,nucleic acidsand polysaccharides form supramolecular assemblies e.

Protein Aminoacids 2. Ribonucleicacid RNA 4. Polysaccharide glycogen Monosaccharides glucose Fundamentalbasisofstructureand functionofcell staticanddynamicfunctions. Storageformofenergytomeetshortterm demands. Lipid Fattyacids,glycerol Storagetormofenergytomeetlongterm demands;structuralcomponentsofmembranes. Water is the solventof life and contributesto more than 60"h of the weight.

This is followed by protein mostlyin muscle and lipid mostlyin adipose tissue. The carbohydratecontent is rather low which is in the form of glycogen. The cell is the structuraland functional unit of life. The concept of cell originated from the contributionsof Schleidenand Schwann However, it was only after , the complexitiesof cell structurewere exposed. Constituent Percent 7" Weight kg Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells The cells of the living kingdom may be divided into two categories 1.

Prokaryotes Creek: These include the variousbacteria. Eukaryotes Greek: The higher organisms animalsand plants are composedof eukaryoticcells. A comparisonof the characteristicsbetween prokaryotesand eukaryotesis listedin Table 1.

The human body is composedof about cells. An eukaryoticcell is generally10 to pm in diameter. A diagrammatic representation of a typical rat liver cell is depicted in Fig. The plant cell differsfrom an animalcell by possessinga rigid cell wall mostlycomposedof cellulose and chloroplasts.

The latter are the sitesof photosynthesis. Water Protein Lipid Carbohydrate Minerals Chapter 1: Size Small generallypm Large generallypm 2.

Cellmembrane Cellisenvelopedbyaflexibleplasmamembrane Distinctorganellesarefound e. Sub-cellular organelles 4, Nucleus Notwelldefined;DNAisfound asnucleoid,histonesareabsent Nucleusiswelldefined,surroundedbya membrane: DNAisassociatedwithhistones 5. Energymetabolism Mitochondriaabsent,enzymesof energymetabolismboundto Enzymesolenergymetabolismarelocated inmitochondria membrane 6. Celldivision 7. Cytoplasm Usuallyfissionandnomitosis Mitosis 0rganellesandcytoskeleton absent Containsorganellesandcytoskeleton anetworkoftubulesandfilaments The cell consistsof well definedsubcellular organelles,envelopedby a plasma membrane.

By differential centrifugation of tissue homogenate, it is possible to isolate each cellular organelle in a relatively pure form Refer Chapter The distribution of major enzymes and metabolic pathways in different cellular organelles is given in the chapter on enzymes Refer Fig. The subcellular organellesare briefly describedin the following pages.

Nucleus Nucleus is the largest cellular organelle, surroundedbv a double membrane nuclear envelope. The outer membraneis continuous with the membranesof endoplasmicreticulum.

At certainintervals,the two nuclearmembranes have nuclearporeswith a diameterof about 90 nm. Theseporespermit the free passageof the products synthesizedin the nucleus into the surrounding cytoplasm. Diagrammaticrepresentationof a nt liverell. Eukaryotic DNA is associatedwith basic protein histones in the ratio of 1: An assembly of nucleosomesconstituteschromatin fibres of chromosomes Creek'. Thus, a single human chromosomeis comoosedof abouta million nucleosomes.

The number of chromosomes is a characteristic feature of the species. Humans have 46 chromosomes,compactlypackedin the nucleus.

The nucleusof the eukaryoticcell containsa dense bodv known as nucleolus. The ground materialof the nucleus is often referredto as nucleoplasm. To the surpriseof biochemists,the enzymes of glycolysis,citric acid cycle and hexose monophosphateshunt have also been detectedin the nucleoplasm.

Mitochondria The mitochondria Creek'. They are regarded as the power housesof the cell with variablesize and shape. Mitochondriaare rod-like or filamentousbodies, usuallv with dimensions of 1. The mitochondriaare comoosedof a double membrane system. The outer membrane is smooth and completelyenvelopsthe organelle.

The inner membrane is folded to form cristae Latin- crests which occupy a larger surface area. The internal chamber of mitochondriais referred to as matrix or mitosol. The componentsof electron transportchain and oxidative phosphorylation flavoprotein, cytochromesb, c1, C, a and a3 and coupling factors are buried in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

The matrixcontainsseveralenzvmes concerned with the energy metabolism of carbohydrates,lipidsandaminoacids e.

The matrix enzymes also parlicipate in the synthesisof heme and urea. Mitochondria are the principal producers of ATP in the aerobic cells. ATP, the energy currency,generatedin mitochondriais exported to all partsof the cell to provideenergyfor the cellularwork.

Thus,the mitochondriaareequipped with an independent protein synthesizing machinery. The structureand functionsof mitochondria closely resemble prokaryotic cells.

Biochemistry - 5th Edition

Further,it is believedthat duringevolution,the aerobicbacteriadeveloped a symbiotic relationship with primordial anaerobiceukaryoticcellsthat ultimatelyled to the arrival of aerobiceukaryotes. Endoplasmic reticulum The network of membraneenclosedspaces that extends throughout the cytoplasm constitutesendoplasmicreticulum ER.

Someof these thread-like structuresextend from the nuclearporesto the plasmamembrane. A large portion of the ER is studded with ribosomesto give a granularappearancewhich is referred ro as rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Ribosomes are the factories of protein biosynthesis. During the process of cell fractionation,roughERisdisruptedto form small vesiclesknown as microsomes. It may be noted that microsomesas such do not occur in the cell. The smoothendoplasmicreticulumdoes not containribosomes. The newly synthesizedproteins are handed over to the Colgi apparatuswhich catalysethe addition of carbohydrates,lipids or sulfatemoietiesto the proteins.

Thesechemical modificationsare necessaryfor the transportof proteinsacrossthe plasmamembrane. Certainproteinsand enzymesareenclosedin membrane vesicles of Colgi apparatusand secreted from the cell after the appropriate signals.

The digestiveenzymesof pancreasare oroducedin this fashion. Colgi apparatusare also involved in the membrane synthesis, particularly for the formation of intracellular organelles e. Lysosornes Lysosomesare sphericalvesiclesenveloped by a singlemembrane. Lysosomesare regarded as the digestivetract of the cell, sincethey are actively involved in digestion of cellular substances-namely proteins, lipids, carbo- hydratesand nucleic acids.

Lysosomalenzymes are categorizedas hydrolases. The lysosomal enzymes are responsiblefor maintaining the cellular compounds in a dynamic stafe, by their degradationand recycling. The degradedproductsleavethe lysosomes,usually by diffusion, for reutilization by the cell. Sometimes,however,certain residualproducts, rich in lipidsand proteins,collectivelyknown as Iipofuscinaccumulatein the cell. Lipofuscinis the agepigmentor wear and tearpigmentwhich has been implicatedin ageingprocess.

The digestiveenzymesof cellularcompounds are confinedto the lvsosomesin the bestinterest of the cell.

Escapeof theseenzymesinto cytosol will destroythe functionalmacromoleculesof tne cell and result in many complications. The occurrence of several diseases e. Feroxisomes Peroxisomes,also known as microbodies, are single membranecellularorganelles.

They are spherical or oval in shape and contain the enzyme catalase. Accumulotion oJ lipofuscin,a pigment rich in lipids and proteins, in the cell hasbeen implicated in ogeing process. Leokageof lysosomalenzymesinto the cell degrodesseuerolfunctional macromolecules and this may leod to certain disorders e.

Peroxisome biogenesisdisorders PBDs , are a Broup of rare diseasesinvolving the enzyme activities of peroxisomes.

The biochemical abnormalitiesassociatedwith PBDs incluoe increasedlevelsof very long chain fatty acids C2aand C26 and decreasedconcentrationsof plasmalogens. The most severeform of PBDsis Zellweger syndrome, a condition characterized by the absenceof functional peroxisomes. The victimsof this diseasemav die within one vear after birth. More recent studies however, indicate that the cytoplasm actuallycontainsa complex network of protein filaments, spread throughout, that constitutes cytoskeleton.

The cytoplasmicfilamentsare of three types- microtubules, actin filaments and intermediatefilaments. The filamentswhich are polymers of proteins are responsiblefor the structure,shapeand organizationof the cell.

For this purpose, the various intracellularprocessesand biochemicalreactions are tightly controlledand integrated. Divisionof a cell intotwo daughtercellsis goodexampleof the orderlyoccurrenceof an integratedseriesof cellularreactions. Apoptosisis the programmedcell death or cell suicide. This occurs when the cell has fulfilled its biologicalfunctions. Apoptosismay be regardedas a natural cell deathand it differs from the cell death caused by injury due to radiation,anoxiaetc.

Programmedcell death is a highly regulatedprocess. Life is composed ol lifeless chemical molecules. The complex biomolecules, proteins, nucleic ocids DNA and RNA , polysaccharidesand lipids are formed by the monomeric units amino acids,nucleotides,monosaccharidesand fotty acids,respectluely. The cell is the structuroland functional unit of life. The eukoryoticcell consisfsof well det'inedsubcellulororganelles,enuelopedin a plasma membrane.

U Satyanarayana Biochemistry PDF Free Download [Direct Link]

The nucleus contoinsDNA, the repositoryol genetic int'ormation. DNA, in association with proteins histones ,forms nucleosomeswhich,in turn, make up the chromosomes. The mitochondria qre the centresfor energymetobolism. Theyare the principalproducers of ATP which is exported to all parts of the cell to ptouide energylor cellular work. Endoplosmic reticulum ER ts the network of membrane enclosed spocesthat extends throughout the cytoplosm.

ER studded with ribosomes, the factorles of protein biosynfhesis, ts relerred to as rough ER. Golgi opparatus sre a cluster of membrane uesiclesto uthich the newlg synthesizedproteins are handed ouer for t'urther processing ond export. Lysosomesare the digestiue bodiesol the cell, actiuely involued in the degradotion of cellular compounds.

Peroxisomescontoln the enzymecatalosethat protects the cell lrom the toxic elfects of HrOr. The cellular ground motrix is referred to as cytosol which, in fact, is composed of a network ot' protein t'ilaments, the cytoskeleton. Theeukaryoticcellsperform a widerangeof complex lunctionsin a well coordinatedand integrated fashion.

Apoptosis is the processol programmed cell death or cell suicide. They are primarily composedof the elementscarbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The name carbohydrateliterallymeans 'hydratesof carbon'. Someof the carbohydrates possessthe empiricalformula C. H2O nwhere n 3 3, satisfyingthat thesecarbohydratesare in fact carbonhydrates. However,thereare several non-carbohydratecompounds e. Further, some of the genuine carbohydrates e. Hencecarbohydratescannot be alwaysconsideredas hydratesof carbon.

Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis.


The lively illustrations and text with appropriate headings and sub-headings in bold typeface facilitate reading path clarity and quick recall. All this will the students to master the subject and face the examination with confidence. The case studies are listed at the end of relevant chapters for immediate reference, quick review and better understanding of Biochemistry.

Section I - Chemical Constituents of Life 1. Biomolecules and the cell 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Proteins and amino acids 5. Nucleic acids and nucleotides 6. Enzymes 7. Digestion and absorption 9. Plasma proteins Hemoglobin and porphyrins Introduction to metabolism Metabolism of carbohydrates Metabolism of lipids Metabolism of amino acids Integration of metabolism Metabolism of nucleotides Hormones Organ function tests Water, electrolyte and acid-base balance

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