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BS 1881 PART 106 PDF

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BRITISH STANDARD BS Reprinted, incorporating. Amendments No. 1 and No. 2. Testing concrete. Part Methods for determination of. BS Part 1 to BS Part BS Part BS Part using manual or automatic control. C Load pacer. BS Parts 1 to BS Part BS Part BS ; Part BS Part BS Part .


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BS Part British Standard. Testing concrete. Part Methods for determination of air content of fresh concrete. 1. Scope. This Part of this. BS Part 2: Testing in accordance with this. Part of this standard will comply with ISO Together with Parts ,, and , this Part of BS. BS - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Part Methods for determination of air content of fresh concrete.

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Determine the aggregate correction factor by applying the operating pressure on a combined sample of the coarse and fine aggregates in the approximate proportions and moisture conditions that exist in the concrete sample.

The range of air contents which can be measured with a particular apparatus can be extended by determining an appropriate alternative operating pressure. The aggregate correction factor will vary with different aggregates and although it will remain reasonably constant for a particular aggregate an occasional check should be carried out. K see 5. The number of strokes per layer required to produce full compaction will depend upon the consistence of the concrete but in no case shall the concrete be subjected to fewer than 25 strokes per layer.

When compacting each layer with the compacting bar. Record the duration of vibration. Place the sample of concrete to be tested in the container in such a way as to remove as much entrapped air as possible without significantly reducing the amount of entrained air.

Fill the apparatus with water and tap lightly with the mallet to remove air adhering to the interior surfaces of the cover.

Clamp the cover assembly in place. Wipe the flanges of the container and of the cover assembly thoroughly clean and in the absence of the spray tube. If h4 — h2 is greater than 0. Over-vibration may cause excessive segregation and laitance or loss of entrained air. The required duration of vibration will depend upon the consistency of the concrete and the effectiveness of the vibrator and vibration shall cease as soon as the surface of the concrete becomes relatively smooth and has a glazed appearance..

Record the reading on the gauge tube.

If the concrete has a slump greater than approximately 75 mm. In this method the operational principle consists of merging a known volume of air at a known pressure in a sealed air chamber with the unknown volume of air in the concrete sample.

In order to remove pockets of entrapped air but not the entrained air. Read the gauge tube again and if the reading. Bring the level of water in the standpipe to zero by bleeding through the small valve with the air vent open. When compacting each layer by means of the vibrating hammer or table use applied vibration of the minimum duration necessary to achieve full compaction of the concrete.

Record the number of strokes. The quantity of material used in the final layer shall be. If h2 is greater than 0. A small quantity of additional concrete may be added if necessary and further compacted in order to just fill the container. Take the average value of h1— h2 as the aggregate correction factor. Repeat the entire procedure once. The cover shall have provision for being clamped to the container to make a pressure seal without entrapping air at the joint between flanges of the cover and the container.

The outer rim and the interior surfaces of the vessel shall be machined to a smooth finish. A flanged rigid cover of steel or other hard metal not readily attacked by cement paste. Close the main air valve and open valves A and B. During this process lightly tap the gauge and close valve B. A hollow cylindrical measure of brass or other non-corrodible metal having a capacity of approximately 0. Fill the container with water at ambient temperature and place the transparent plate over it to eliminate any convex meniscus.

Pump air into the air chamber until the pressure reaches the indicated initial pressure line. The balance shall be calibrated on initial commissioning and at least annually thereafter using weights of which the accuracy can be traced to the national standard of mass. Screw the extension tubing see Figure 2 into the threaded hole beneath valve A on the underside of the cover assembly and clamp the cover assembly into place.

Compacting bar made out of straight steel bar weighing Add water through valve A until all trapped air has been expelled through valve B. After allowing a few seconds for the compressed air to cool to ambient temperature.

The outer rim and lower surface of the flange as well as the interior surfaces shall be machined to a smooth finish. Smear a thin film of grease on the flange of the container to effect a water tight joint between the transparent plate and the top of the container. Remove water from the apparatus to the calibration cylinder in just sufficient quantity to fill it full or up to a predetermined line marked on it. A rigid transparent plate. The balance shall be checked after relocation or disturbance.

A rubber syringe. Wipe away surplus water and determine the mass of the container filled with water by weighing on the balance. The aggregate correction factor will vary with different aggregates and although ordinarily it will remain reasonably constant for a particular aggregate an occasional check is recommended.

The aggregate correction factor can be determined only by test as it is not directly related to the water absorption of the particles.. The air content indicated by the pressure gauge corresponds to the percentage of air.

BS - Testing concrete. Method for determination of slump

If two or more determinations show the same variation from the correct air content. Determine the aggregate correction factor by applying the operating pressure on a combined sample of the coarse and fine aggregates in the approximate amounts. Then release the pressure in the container by opening valve B if the apparatus employs an auxiliary tube for filling the calibration cylinder. The volume of air in the container is now equal to the volume of the displaced water.

This shall be done in such a manner as to entrap as little air as possible. Remove a volume of water from the container approximately equivalent to the volume of air that would be contained in a typical concrete sample of a size equal to the volume of the container. Tap the apparatus lightly with the mallet until all entrapped air is expelled from this same valve.

After the addition of each scoopful remove any foam promptly and stir the aggregate with the compacting bar and tap the container with the mallet to release any entrapped air. Complete the test using the procedure described in 6.

The aggregate correction factor. Using the rubber syringe.. If necessary add additional water to inundate all of the aggregate.

Remove the water in the apparatus in the manner described in 6. Vo is the capacity of the container in m3 determined as described in 6. The required duration of vibration will depend upon the consistence of the concrete and the effectiveness of the vibrator and vibration shall cease as soon as the surface of the concrete becomes relatively smooth and has a glazed appearance. When all the aggregate has been placed in the container wipe clean the flanges of the container and the cover assembly thoroughly and clamp the cover assembly into position so that a pressure-tight seal is obtained.

Close the main air valve and open valve A and valve B. Close both valve A and valve B and then open the main air valve. NOTE 4 For further information on precision. Vc is the absolute volume of the ingredients of the concrete.

Open valves A and B in order to release the pressure before the cover assembly is removed. Express the air content as a percentage to the nearest 0.

The experiment involved 16 operators. If available.

BS 1881-102:1983

Close the air bleeder valve on the air chamber and pump air into the air chamber until the hand on the pressure gauge is on the initial pressure line. Lightly tap the apparatus with the mallet until all entrapped air is expelled from this same valve. Precision data are given in Table 1. NOTE 3 Test results on the same sample obtained within the shortest feasible time interval by two operators each using their own apparatus will differ by the reproducibility value R on average not more than once in 20 cases in the normal and correct operation of the method.

Using a rubber syringe.. The concretes were made using an ordinary Portland cement. Tap the sides of the container sharply. Calculate the air content of the concrete in the container.

Thames Valley sand. If required. After allowing a few seconds for the compressed air to cool to ambient temperature stabilize the hand on the pressure gauge at the initial pressure line by further pumping in or bleeding off air as necessary. The following information shall be included in the test report: The report shall state whether or not a certificate of sampling is available. Lightly tap the pressure gauge to stabilize it and then the reading of the pressure gauge is equal to the apparent percentage of air.

Wipe the flanges of the container and of the cover assembly thoroughly clean.. The report shall affirm that the air content was determined in accordance with this Part of this British Standard.

During this process lightly tap the gauge. The container shall be watertight and in using weights of which the accuracy can be traced to addition it and the cover assembly shall be suitable the national standard of mass.

The balance shall be for an operating pressure of checked after relocation or disturbance. A certificate Licensed Copy: A flanged rigid cover of steel organization carrying out the check. The outer rim and lower surface of the flange temperature and place the transparent plate over it as well as the interior surfaces shall be machined to to eliminate any convex meniscus.

Smear a thin film a smooth finish. The cover shall have provision for of grease on the flange of the container to effect a being clamped to the container to make a pressure water tight joint between the transparent plate and seal without entrapping air at the joint between the top of the container.

Wipe away surplus water flanges of the cover and the container. A hollow cylindrical pressure seal between cover and container. Close measure of brass or other non-corrodible metal the main air valve and open valves A and B.

Add water through valve A until all trapped air has been having a capacity of approximately 0. Pump air into the air be integral with the cover assembly. A rigid transparent plate, initial pressure line. After allowing a few seconds for suitable for use as a closure for the container.

A hand pressure pump such as a stabilize the hand on the pressure gauge at the bicycle tyre pump with a lead facilitating connection initial pressure line by further pumping in or to the non-return air inlet valve on the cover bleeding off air as necessary.

During this process assembly. Compacting bar determine the mass of water displaced, m3, by made out of straight steel bar weighing on the balance. Figure 2 Method B apparatus Depending upon the particular apparatus design, 6. The aggregate correction factor will and using the main air valve to control flow, or by vary with different aggregates and although opening the main air valve and using valve A to ordinarily it will remain reasonably constant for a control flow.

Then release the pressure in the particular aggregate an occasional check is container by opening valve B if the apparatus recommended. The aggregate correction factor can employs an auxiliary tube for filling the calibration be determined only by test as it is not directly cylinder, open valve A so that the tube is drained related to the water absorption of the particles.

BS 1881-106

Determine the assembly close valve A immediately after filling the aggregate correction factor by applying the calibration vessel and leave it closed until the test operating pressure on a combined sample of the has been completed.

The volume of air in the coarse and fine aggregates in the approximate container is now equal to the volume of the amounts, proportions and moisture conditions that displaced water; close all valves, pump air into the exist in the concrete sample.

Obtain the sample of air chamber until the pressure reaches the initial aggregates either by washing the cement through pressure line, and then open the main air valve. If the concrete. In the latter case calculate the masses two or more determinations show the same of fine and coarse aggregates to be used, mf and mc variation from the correct air content, reset the respectively, as follows: Place the sample of concrete to be Pf and Pc are the proportions of fine and coarse tested in the container in such a way as to remove as aggregates, respectively, expressed as much entrapped air as possible without fractions by mass of the total concrete mix significantly reducing the amount of entrained air, aggregates, cement and water ; if present and to produce full compaction of the Vo is the capacity of the container in m3 concrete with neither excessive segregation nor determined as described in 6.

If properties and densities of the materials the concrete has a slump greater than and the nominal air content. Partially fill the The quantity of material used in the final layer shall container of the apparatus with water and introduce be, as nearly as possible, just sufficient to fill the the combined sample of aggregate in small container without having to remove excess material.

This shall be done in such a manner as to A small quantity of additional concrete may be entrap as little air as possible. After the addition of each scoopful material should be avoided.

When with the compacting bar and tap the container with compacting each layer with the compacting bar, the mallet to release any entrapped air. The number of strokes seal is obtained. Close the main air valve and open per layer required to produce full compaction will valves A and B.

Using the rubber syringe, inject depend upon the consistence of the concrete but in water through either valve A or valve B until water no case shall the concrete be subjected to fewer emerges from the other valve. Tap the apparatus than 25 strokes per layer. In order to remove lightly with the mallet until all entrapped air is pockets of entrapped air but not the entrained air, expelled from this same valve.

Remove a volume of after compaction of each layer tap the sides of the water from the container approximately equivalent container smartly with the mallet until large to the volume of air that would be contained in a bubbles of air cease to appear on the surface and typical concrete sample of a size equal to the volume depressions left by the compacting bar are removed.

Remove the water in the apparatus Record the number of strokes. When compacting test. Complete the test using the procedure each layer by means of the vibrating hammer or described in 6. Over-vibration may cause excessive water removed from the container expressed as a segregation and laitance or loss of entrained air, if percentage of the capacity of the container.

The required duration of vibration will depend upon the consistence of the concrete and the effectiveness of the vibrator and vibration shall cease as soon as the surface of the concrete becomes relatively smooth and has a glazed appearance.

Wipe the flanges of the container where and of the cover assembly thoroughly clean. Clamp the cover assembly in place, care being taken to Vm is the absolute volume of the ingredients of ensure that there is a good pressure seal between the mortar fraction i. Close the main air valve fine aggregate of the concrete, air free, as and open valve A and valve B. Using a rubber determined from the original batch masses syringe, inject water through either valve A or in m3 ; valve B until water emerges from the other valve.

Vc is the absolute volume of the ingredients of Lightly tap the apparatus with the mallet until all the concrete, air free, as determined from entrapped air is expelled from this same valve. Close the air bleeder valve on the air chamber and pump air into the air chamber until the hand on the Express the air content as a percentage to the pressure gauge is on the initial pressure line.

After nearest 0. Precision data are given in Table 1. Close both content determination valve A and valve B and then open the main air Table 1 Precision data for air content valve. Tap the sides of the container sharply. Open valves A and B in order to release the pressure before the sr r sR R cover assembly is removed.

Calculate experiment carried out in in which precision data were the air content of the concrete in the container, Ac, obtained for several of the tests described in BS The from the formula: Express the air content as a percentage to the NOTE 4 For further information on precision, and for nearest 0. If required, calculate the air content of the mortar 8 Report fraction of the concrete, Am, from the formula: The report shall state whether or not a certificate of sampling is available.

If available, a copy of the certificate shall be provided. The following information shall be included in the test report:. If requested the following information shall be included in the test report: Publications referred to. BS , Specification for test sieves. BS , Testing concrete.

BS , Method of sampling fresh concrete on site. BS , Method for determination of slump1. BS , Method for determination of compacting factor1. BS , Method for determination of Vebe time1. BS , Method for determination of density of compacted fresh concrete. BS , Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory. BS , Forks, shovels and spades. BS , Methods for specifying concrete, including ready-mixed concrete.

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