CAMERON HYDRAULIC DATA PDF
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Cameron Hydraulic Data. Friction. Friction of Water New Steel Pipe (Continued). ( Based on Darcy's Formula). 1 Inch. Friction of Water New Steel Pipe. Cameron Hydraulic cittadelmonte.info - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online for free. Ing. Luz Marina Méndez Luz Marina cittadelmonte.info Top Nonfiction on Scribd. View More · Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind.
Westaway and A. Allentown, Pa. Gateshead, Co. Durham, England Sherbrooke, Que. Africa Coslada, Madrid, Spain Preface to the Sixteenth Edition 2nd Printing The Cameron Hydraulic Data Book is an Ingersoll-Rand publication and, as in the previous fifteen editions, is published as an aid to engineers involved with the selection and application of pumping equipment.
In addition, an acoustic analysis using either analog or digital methods is required to identify the problem frequencies and determine the effectiveness of the selected dampener. Qpically, this additional requirement is termed "acceleration head", or the pressure required to accelerate the liquid column on each stroke to prevent separation of this column in the pump or suction piping.
If there is insufficient suction pressure t o meet the NPSH requirements of the pump, cavitation resulting in loss of volumetric efficiency may occur. In addition serious damage may occur t o plungers, valves, packing, and other pump components due to the force released during the collapse of the gas or vapor bubbles during cavitation.
However, this method of analysis begins t o lose validity if the length of the suction line exceeds 50 feet, simultaneous operation of more than two pumps, more than three 3 bends in suction line, or complex mixtures of fluids. In addition this simplified method of analysis doesn't address the acoustic interaction discussed previously.
Barometric pressure for open tanks or sump; Absolute pressure existing in closed tanks or systems. Figure 6 illustrates the magnitude of pressure spikes that may occur due to cavitation. I t is easy to see why cavitation results in damage to pump components after reviewing Figure 6.
Therefore, the best method of insuring cavitation will not occur and system NPSH is accurately predicted is to perform an acoustic analysis. These problems are normally the result of interaction between the flow variation characteristics of the pumps and the acoustic natural frequency of the piping system.
The coincidence of the flow variation and acoustic frequency can result in extremely high pressure pulsations. If unattenuated, the pulsations can lead to cavitation, piping vibration, fatique failure of pipe elements, and possibly damage t o pump components.
An acoustic analysis is required t o avoid these problems. Typically, acoustic analyses of piping systems are conducted via either electro-analog techniques or digital computer simulation. In either instance, this analysis is extremely complex, requiring the assistance of consultants or individuals experienced in this field. Previous experience has shown that systems built or modified to correct pulsation related problems utilizing the benefits of acoustic analysis operate reliably.
Although torque is a function of the square of the speed in the case of centrifugal pumps, in the case of positive displacement pumps the torque is constant regardless of the speed, as long as the differential discharge pressure remains unchanged.
Where centrifugal pumps in the low to medium specific speed range under are started with the discharge valve closed the minimum torque requirements at various speeds for this condition are calculated as follows: Determine the maximum horsepower required a t rated speed under shut off conditions.
Convert this horsepower to torque in Ib. Tin 1b. Speed torque requirements for starting conditions other than with closed discharge will vary depending on the horsepower requirements a t each successive speed. This can be determined by superimposing the pump H-Q curve on the system curve; selecting several speeds and calculating the horsepower a t each of the speeds selected; then calculating the torque for each speed selected.
On vertical axial flow and propeller pumps with high specific speeds and high shut off horsepower it is standard practice to start the pumps with discharge valves partially open to reduce starting horsepower and thrust. Caution must be used in the selection of reciprocating engine drivers because excessive cyclic stresses may be superimposed on the pump shaft due to the periodic power impulses produced by each engine cylinder.
These cyclic pulses produce a torsional vibration whose magnitude depends on the state of resonance of the entire system; this results in an increase in the cyclic tensile loading of the pump shaft. Due to the torsional vibration problems that may develop, the pump manufacturers should be checked to determine the suitability of the engine drive being considered. Courtesy of Hydraulic Institute. Crane Company. Advertising Division.
The following are published by McGraw-Hill Inc.: Chow-Handbook of Applied Hydrology. Hicks-Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations. Kallen-Handhook of Inslrumerltation and Controls. King and Rrater-Handbook of Hydraulics. Merritt-Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers.
Perry- Engineering Manual. Streeter-Handbook of Fluid Dynamics. Streeter and Wylie-Fluid Mechanics. TTrguhart - Civil Engineering Handhook. Shames-Mechanics of Fluids. The following a r e published by the Macmillan Publishing Company: Sahersky, Acosra and Hauptmann-Fluid Flow. Stepanoff-Centrifugal and Axial E'low Pumps. This chart has been constructed from test data obtained using the llqulds shown For applicability to other llqulds refer to the text Fig.
Binder-Fluid Mechanics. With references to Volume and Weight Equivalents, the following mavitv. Specific Gravity of Water is usually given a s 1. However, in some cases, for convenience, it may be given as 1. Based on using water having a specific gravity of 1. At the present time the base of For actual specific gravities and specific weights of water for other temperatures to Numerically, specific gravity is about the same a s the density in grams per cubic centimeter in the cgs system.
Other systems of measuring specific gravity or density are related; conversion tables are shown on pages to I For metric formulas see page U ' Temperature affects the characteristics of a liquid. For most liquids an increase in temperature decreases viscosity, decreases specific gravity and increases volume see page Selected Formulas and Equivalents General information on liquids A Specific Weight a s used in this discussion, is the weight in lb per cu ft.
The specific weight of water a t For other temperatures proper specific weight values should be used see page The capacity of a barrel varies in different industries. The drum is not considered to be a unit of measure as is the barrel. Equivalents of Head and Pressure Example: These flows values may be multiplied by the C value for a particular discharge to obtain actual flow. Approximate flow through Venturi tube. These formulas are suitable for any liquid with viscosities similar to water.
The values given here are for water. A value of Affinity laws See page Note: Kelvin 0 Absolute zero Water freezing point: Friction loss principles. Versus Friction Factor Chart. For laminar viscous flow Reynolds number below the roughness or condition of the pipe's interior surface has no effect except a s i t affects the cross sectional area and the friction factor 0 becomes: Pages through are located in this section following Paper Stock Friction Data for convenience and ready reference.
For turbulent flow Reynolds number above the friction factor is affected by both the roughness of the pipe's interior surface Friction of paper stock in pipes. The resistance to flow as a liquid is moved through a pipe results in a loss of head or pressure and is called friction measured in feet of liquid.
This resistance to flow is due to viscous shear stresses within the liquid and turbulence that occurs along the pipe walls due to roughness. The amount of head loss for a given system depends on the characteristics of the liquid being handled; i. A vast amount of research has been conducted to determine the amount of friction loss for different conditions, and various expressions based on experimental data have been developed for calculating friction loss.
This formula recognizes that pipe friction is dependent on condition roughness of pipe's interior surface , internal diameter of pipe, velocity of liquid and its viscosity. It is expressed as: Colebrook ; i.
Moody ASME and included herein on page This graph shows the relation between the friction factor f, the Reynolds Number R, and the relative roughness clD, where is the absolute roughness in feet and D is the pipe diameter in feet; Note that for convenience the relative roughness is used in developing the graph on page However, to avoid possible errors in reading the friction factor f from the Moody graph the friction loss data presented in the tables on pages to were calculated mathematically programmed on a digital computer basis the following assumptions: For pipes with other absolute roughness parameters see the following table.
To obtain friction loss in pipes having other roughness parameters, the applicable friction factor can be obtained from the Moody chart on page and then, if desired, checked for accuracy with the Colebrook formula. Instead the best procedures to follow is to: Calculate the applicable Reynolds Number, select the applicable friction factor from the Moody Chart and use it in the Darcy formula to determine the head loss desired.
The effect of aging and the allowances that should be made in estimating friction loss is beyond the scope of this discussion. I t will depend on the particular properties of the fluid being handled and its effect on the interior pipe surface; any safety factors to allow for this effect must be estimated for local conditions and the requirements of each particular installation. For a more detailed discussion of friction loss calculations and the various items that should be considered, reference is suggested to the Engineering Data Book of the Hydraulic Institute; also to Crane Technical Paper No.
See page for bibliography. For convenient reference formulas used in connection with the Darcy-WeisbacWColebrook method are: In a convenient form it reads: Velocity Head: However, this formula can be used for any liquid having a viscosity i n the range of 1.
Values of C for various types of pipe with suggested design values are given in the following table with corresponding multipliers that can be applied, when appropriate, to obtain approximate results.
Interior rlveted steel no projecting rlvets. Tar-coated cast-lron. Splral-rlveted iteel flow wlth lap I Spiral-riveted steel flow agalnst lap The suction pipe is 4" vertical 5 feet long and includes a foot valve and a long-radius elbow. The discharge line includes two standard 90 degree flanged elbows, a swing check valve and an open wedge-disc gate valve. I t is required to find the suction lift hs and the discharge head h, when the rate of flow is gpm.
Velocity head I calculation: To illustrate the application of the friction and head loss data in calculating the total system head for a specific system the following example is offered: The head loss due to pipe friction will be: Standard 90 degree flanged elbow pg. N e r Yark Sote: Chart shows relation of 1,elatlvr t.
Strretrr "1. Flow US gal per mln 0. O1 03 Oil I58 1.
I04 , , 1. OO I92 , No allowance has been made for age, difference in diameter, or any abnormal condition of interior surface. Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each particular installation.
Flow US gal per mln Velocity ft per sec Veloclty head ft 15 20 25 Velocity head ft Head loss ft per , I20 Ve locity ft per sec 1 ] ft Velocity f t per sec Ve locity head ft. I10 I38 , , 1. I23 I99 , , 1. I52 Oll , , I28 1. I54 , I15 1. I11 , , , , , I43 , I80 , I72 , , , I58 , , , Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each Particular installation.
I17 , 1. I23 2. I40 , Std wt steel sch 40 Schedule 80 steel Schedule steel I40 1. I33 I84 I51 , 3. I47 1. I60 , 1. I01 , I62 1. I59 2. I93 2. I32 3. I52 3. I37 , I95 , , I28 , , I79 I19 1. I03 26, Flow US gal per mln 42 Inch I14 12, 14, 16, I75 I37 , , , I89 head loss ft tt 10, 12, 1. I30 , I80 I37 I92 2. OOl , I25 , I10 , - I83 W inside dia I65 I05 , , , , I33 , , , 1,, 1. No allowance has been made for age, difference in diameter, or any abnormal condition of interior Surface.
Smooth copper tubing and pipe, brass pipe, plastic and glass pipe are available in various sizes and types to meet individual requirements a s specified-sizes may be different than standard.
To avoid the necessity of interpolation and applying correction factors to t h e values for cast iron and steel pipe, a special set of tables is included herewith on pages to figured on t h e basis of commercially available copper tubing, and S. These tables are calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation see page and basis an absolute roughness parameter of 0. Greater viscosities colder water will increase t h e friction; lower viscosities warmer water will decrease the friction.
Friction losses for tubing and pipe sizes between those listed in the tables may be determined with reasonable accuracy using a ratio of the fifth powers of the diameters; for example: O Flow - US gal per min. Type K tubing Note: Copper Tubing-'S.
Copper and Brass Pipe lnch. No allowance has been made for age, difference In diameter, or any abnormal condition of interior surface.
Figures in shaded area are laminar viscous flow. For velocity data see page Calculations on pages to are by lngersoll-Rand CO. I Bbl per hr 42 gal C 43 2 Approx 1 For veloclty data see page Bbl per hr 42 gal Kinematic viscosity-centistokes No allowance has been made for age, difference in diameter, or any abnormal condition of interlor surface. Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local condtlions and the requirements of each particular installation.
Any factor of safi? No allowance has been made for age, difference in dlarneter, or any abnormal condition of interior surface. Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each palticular installation.
NO allowance has been made for age, difference in diameter, or any abnormal condition of interior surface. No allowance has been made for age. Bbl Per hr 42 gal 26 4 80 40 I Note: Darcy formula for laminar viscous flow-hf This formula for lamlnar flow only, 1.
That data correlation produced a relationship between a pseudo-Reynolds Number "Re" and a friction factor "f" as shown on the chart on page The following equations are applicable here: This friction factor "f" is not related in any way to the Darcy-WeisbachColebrook friction factor previously discussed- page For pump performance corrections when handling stock see discussion on page Given the pipe size, stock flow, and stock consistency, the stock velocity and Re number can be calculated using equations 3 and 1.
The friction factor "f" corresponding to the calculated Re number can be taken from the chart on page or calculated using equation 2.
By using the appropriate given and derived values in equation 4 , the stock line friction loss can be calculated. Friction loss values shown on the accompanying curves were derived in the foregoing manner for various diameters of schedule 40 steel pipe.
For pipe diameters other than those shown, it is necessary to calculate friction loss values as described above. Although the R4 number was originally derived on an OD stock consistency basis, the friction loss curves shown here were calculated on the AD consistency basis, resulting in somewhat larger loss values and, therefore, more conservative results.
For stock consistencies below 2. Stock velocity should not exceed 10 feetlsec. Sulfite- SW B1. This friction factor multiplier K is not related in any way to t h e resistance coefficient K i n t h e tables on pages t o To determine the frictional resistance for either 90" long radius elbows or 45" elbows, multiply the results obtained from the chart by a 0.
To determine the frictional resistance of a standard tee, multiply the results obtained from the chart by a 1. The following example demonstrates how to use the chart. Find the frictional resistance in an 8 in. Entering the chart with gallons per minute, move horizontally to the intersection of the 8 in.
For fittings with internal diameters different from schedule 40 steel fittings, it is necessary to determine the'flow velocity. The chart can then be entered on the velocity scale and projected upward to the intersection with the consistency curves. The frictional resistance can now be read as before. For the various types of paper stock, the K values from the table on page should be used as multipliers of the frictional resistance. Cellulosic cell structures derived from the original plantlife source or from previously manufactured paper products; normally considered as water insoluble.
A composite mixture of cellulosic fibers constituting the basic material used for paper making. A designation of pulp fibers in process flow. In this Section, the terms "stock" or "paper stock" denote pulp fibers and water mixtures or suspensions. This usage excludes the presence of non-cellulosic materials such as fillers or dissolved solids. Equivalent to the terms "suspended solids" or "insoluble solids.
Oven Dry: Abbreviated as OD and signifying a moisture-free condition of pulp fibers. Air Dry: Pulp mill production rate, generally expressed a s tons of OD or AD pulp per day or 24 hours. The production rate can be calculated a s follows: Commonly required weight-volume relationships a r e listed in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 along with values calculated using the equations shown in Table 1. Constants used are: Use AD consistency value to obtain AD pulp production rate. Solutions of the production rate equation for a normal range of stock flow and consistencies are shown on the chart on page Locate TPD value on Y-axis and follow horizontal line until it intersects the 5.
Chart can be used for either OD or AD values but not for mixed values. The appropriate values given in Tables 2, 3 and 4 were calculated to reflect stock density change with change in pulp fiber content of the stock.
An equation, shown below, was derived to enable calculation of stock density a t any given stock consistency. In using the equations in Table 1 the values for Column E should be determined first, then proceed alphabetically starting with Column B. D fiber L Lb total wt per gal of stock 8. Select applicable K from tables on pages to ; select V for average velocity in pipe of diameter required to accommodate fitting; see examples on page A second method of expressing head losses hf through valves and fittings etc.
See table on page The applicable equations are: From the above one can solve for L and LID ratio using the value of K from the tables and selecting f for the zone of complete turbulence.
A third method of expressing head losses, particularly for control valves, is in terms of a flow coefficient C,.
The relationship of C, and K is shown by the following formulas. Since the K values between pipe sizes are close, it is reasonable to interpolate between sizes if they do not correspond to schedule 40 diameters. For K values for pipes larger than 24" it is suggested that the 24" value be used. The above text and tables on pages to are based on material in Crane Co.
Technical Paper No. Reference to this paper is suggested for more complete review of this subject. Technical Paper Determine L Friction loss in pipe fittings in terms of equivalent length in feet of straight pipe. Assume a 6" angle valveSchedule 40 pipe size.
Select K from table on page ; select D and f for schedule 40 pipe from table below where D is pipe diameter in feet. Gradual Enlargement Based on velocity in small pipe Pipe size inches sch. For angle valve in 6" pipe 1- dl2 d? Open mw YN'Cy? The dotted line shows that the resistance of a 6-inch Standard Elbow is equivalent to approximately 16 feet of 6-inch Standard Pipe. Data based on the above chart are satisfactory for most applications; for more detailed data and information refer to pages 10 to page which are based on crane Co.
In the absence of meaningful data some engineers assume the flow is turbulent and use the equivalent length method; i. Calculations made on the basis of turbulent flow will give safe results since friction losses for turbulent flow are higher than for laminar viscous flow.
F o r some purposes a water temperature of Measuring methods have led t o other density units, such a s degrees API or degrees Baume, which a r e related t o specific gravity through the formulas and tables on the following pages.
F o r other temperatures proper specific weight values should be used see page ; also for f u r t h e r discussion refer back to page Weight and mass are numerically equal a t earth sea level in the usual English system of units where lb is properly distinguished as lb,,,, or lb,,,,,. If the lb,,,s,-lbf,,,,.
See pp. For complete Steam Tables see pages through Conversion factor Kinematic viscosity ftllb!
TO22 5. TO33 5. Values above Baume degrees 0 1 2 3 From Circular No. Drawn by Ingersoll-Rand based on data from various chemical handbooks.
Determine the maximum liquid surface temperature reached or likely to be reached by the liquid during the period of storage. The vertical temperature line interseeta the Reid vapor pressure line for the liquid being considered at a definite point. From the initial vapor pressure in pounds absolute subtract The result is the gage working pressure of the vessel required to store that Liquid, without evaporation loas.
Drawn by Ingersoll-Rand based on data from various refrigerant handbooks. This resistance to flow, expressed as a coefficient of dynamic or absolute viscosity is the force required to move a unit area a unit distance.
There are two basic viscosity parameters; i. These two parameters are related since the kinematic viscosity may be obtained by dividing the dynamic viscosity by the mass density. See note on page for definition of mass density.
The unit of dynamic viscosity in metric measure is the dyne-second per square centimeter called the poise, which is numerically identical with the gram per centimeter-second. I t is usually more convenient to express numerical values in centipoises such that centipoises equal one poise.
The dimensions of dynamic or absolute viscosity are: The unit of kinematic viscosity in metric measure is the square centimeter per second called the stoke.
I t is usually more convenient to express numerical values in centistokes such that centistokes equal one stoke. When the metric system terms centipoises and centistokes are used the density is numerically equal to the specific gravity. The relationship between the dynamic and kinematic viscosity units with their proper dimensions must be carefully considered so that the correct parameters will be used as required in friction loss and other calculations.
Various types of instruments are available to determine viscosity, the one most widely used being the Saybolt viscometer which measures the time in seconds required for a liquid to flow from a filled container of specified dimensions through one of two orifices in the bottom of the container. The efflux time in seconds is converted empirically to kinematic viscosity in other units. The various viscosity relationships and conversions are given on the following pages.
In this casecentipoises x 0. Courtesy of Texaco. On Fig below, let oil, A, have the higher viscosity and oil, B, the lower viscosity. Mark the viscosity of A and B on the right and left hand scales, respectively, and draw a straight line connecting the two as shown. The viscosity of any blend of A and B will be shown by the intersection of the vertical line representing the percentage composition and the line thus drawn.
The following two examples will illustrate the use of these charts. Example A-performance RT-2 Given: Characteristic curve Fig page for pump handling water a t normal temperature see page , and RT-4 Problem: Determine the approximate performance curve for oil having a specific gravity of 0.
Tabulate gpm for 0. Entering the chart Fig at gpm go vertically to the head in feet ' and horizontally to SSU and vertically to the correction factors, reading one value for C g and C, and four values for C, and tabulate as shown. Multiplying the tabulated water values by these factors will give the corrected values for operation with the viscous liquid. Figures to appear on pages to Sample Calculations Fig. Selecting a pump for viscous liquids is the reverse of correcting for water performance; i.
For example: Enter chart a t gpm and follow the same procedure as in Example A except for this calculation use C, from curve marked 1. Correction charts are approximate and apply only to Centrifugal pumps of conventional design with open or closed impellers and adequate suction head to force liquid into impeIler; not good for axial or mixed flow pumps or non-uniform liquids.
Correction factors for flows gprn and below Fig. For a more detailed discussion of these correction factors reference should be made to the Hydraulic Institute Standards. Pump performance on stock for friction loss see page r Fig. These corrections applied to the head and capacity at the best efficiency point bep will be approximately 0. The brake horsepower bhp of a pump delivering stock a t the corrected head and capacity will be approximately the same as if it were delivering water at the bep.
Therefore, the approximate efficiency of the pump on stock can be det,ermined by calculating its hydraulic horsepower at the corrected head and capacity and dividing by the bhp. Pumps handling stock with entrained air must be given special consideration consult with manufacturer. Slurry Information The abrasive nature of some slurries is clearly a consideration in selecting and designing slurry pumps.
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Excessive wear of wetted pump parts due to abrasion has limited operational life in some instances to two weeks. Abrasive wear is inconclusive and difficult to predict even though many studies on wear testers have been performed. Abrasive considerations are the abrading mineral itself, abrasive hardness, particle velocity, density, directions, sharpness, shape, size and corrosiveness. Scale of Particle Sizes Tyler screen mesh per inch U. Experience has shown that for abrasive handling pumps, the pump RPM should be kept as low as possible.
Hence since RPM is related to pump developed pressure, high head applications will wear much more rapidly than lower heads. Both synthetic and natural rubbers are used in slurry pumps for their superior abrasion and corrosion resistance. Their abrasion resistance exceeds Ni-hard or other metals when the particles are small and round.
Sharp and hard solids with high energy are unsuitable for rubber application because they can cut the rubber material. The dampening effect of rubber is low for impact angles greater than 20".
Also, rubber is generally unsuitable for applications with heads over ' and where particle size exceeds? Wear resistant metals such as Ni-hard are used on more coarse and harder slurries. PH greater than 4.
Solids less than? PH less than 6. Rheology-study of deformation and flow of substances. Fluid-a substance which undergoes continuous deformation when subjected to shear stress.
Consistency apparent viscosity -a slurry's resistance to deformation when subjected to shear stress. This term is applied to differentiate from absolute viscosity which is used in conjunction with Newtonian fluids. Fluidity -inverse of viscosity. Plasticity-property of a fluid which requires a definite yield stress to produce a continuous flow.
Rigidity-consistency of a plastic fluid in terms of stress beyond the yield. Newtonian fluid-a fluid whose viscosity is constant and is independent of shear rate, and where shear rate is linearly proportional to shear stress.
Non-Newtonian complex fluid-a fluid whose consistency is a function of shear stress, and the shear rate-shear stress relationship is non-linear. For either Newtonian or Non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity or consistency is the rate of shear flow per unit shearing stress force causing flow.
Bingham-plastic fluids-a fluid where no flow occurs until a definite yield point is reached. This yield stress is necessary to overcome static friction of the fluid particles. Most slurry mixtures used in pipeline transportation exhibit Bingham plastic characteristics. Pseudo-plastic fluids-substances with no definite yield stress which exhibit a decrease in consistency with increasing shear rate. These fluids h ve the property of increasing their volume when stirred.
Examples are starch in water, quicksands and beach sands. Thixotropic fluids-a fluid which exhibits a decrease in consistency with time to a minimum value a t any shear rate. I t will break down when stirred but rebuild itself after a given time. Examples are drilling muds, gypsum in water, paint.
Typical flow diagrams rheogram for various fluids: Shear stress is proportional to pressure or total head; shear rate is proportional to velocity or flow.
Useful formulas for solids and slurries: For larger particle size slurries over microns and volume concentrations up to 15 percent, a rough guide for minimum velocity is 14 times the square root of pipe diameter ft. There is no general method or formula to determine the critical velocity of all slurry combinations, therefore, if a precise critical velocity is required, results should be obtained by experimentation.
Slurry Head Correction-Pipe Friction Loss For a given solid throughput and pipe diameter, the lowest pressure loss is obtained at the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. Although this minimum pressure loss is also the most economical running point power per pound of solids , the operating velocity must be kept above this critical carrying velocity.
Critical Carrying Velocity of Slurries in Pipes As with critical carrying velocities, many extensive studies have been done with pressure gradients of solid mixtures. Again, a general purpose formula for all slurries is impractical to predict.
However, certain guidelines can be followed. As a slurry is conveyed by turbulent flow in a pipe, particles have a tendency to settle. The critical velocity of a slurry flow in a pipe is that velocity below which particles start forming a sliding bed on the bottom of the pipe which will cause the flow to become unstable and the pipe will eventually clog. General slurry pipeline practice is to design the pipe velocity to exceed the critical velocity by a t least 30 percent.
When the slurry contains particles under microns and the concentration of these particles is low, and the fluid velocity is high enough to ensure uniform particle distribution in the pipe-under these circumstances, the slurry behaves as a "Newtonian liquid and This velocity will depend upon pipe diameter, solids concentration and the properties of the fluid and solid particles.
Extended studies have been done on critical speeds of slurry mixtures. One typical study done by Durand with sand-water suspensions gives the relationship: That this coefficient is for sand-water mixtures to 15 percent concentration by weight.
In general slurry pipeline practice, to prevent settlement in the pipeline, hydraulic conditions should ensure turbulent flow. Pages to Friction loss is also dependent on pipe roughness. In slurry pipeline design, a rough pipe design will yield a higher pressure loss capability. Although slurry-pipe friction can be higher than water or Newtonian fluids, many slurries have negligible head correction and can be treated with a correction very nearly the same as clear water. Avoid large corrections, unless tested, since overcapacity can cause pump problems.
This formula is convenient to use and experience has shown, that with t h e selection of the proper friction factor "C" will produce reliable results.
Both t h e Darcy a n d Hazen-Williams formulas can be used for slurry pumping with appropriate experience correction factors.
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The Hazen-Williams formula is more convenient in that "C" values can be associated with given slurries and extrapolated from the friction factor tables, using corrections for various "C" factors shown on page With reference to pump performance, most slurries have little affect on performance except for density; allowance, however, should be made for pump wear to maintain plant production.
Temperature Data to The term vapor describes the gaseous state of any substance, below its critical condition, from which it can be reduced to a liquid by compression. But water vapor is usually thought of only in a mixture with air, while the word steam has a much broader meaning. In a certain range of low pressures, the terms steam and water vapor are used interchangeably. When the pressure exerted upon the liquid is mm Hg or Steam, or water vapor, is invisible. Only through partial condensation does it appear as a mist.
Steam may exist either in saturated form, while in contact with water, or as superheated steam, after separation from the water from which it was generated and further heating. Saturated steam may be dry or wet; in the latter case it carries free moisture and the amount of moisture determines the "quality" of the steam. The exhaust from a steam turbine or engine is usually wet steam. The temperature of dry-or wet saturated steam a t a given pressure is the same and is determined entirely by the absolute pressure.
If the pressure is maintained, the temperature will remain constant as condensation proceeds. Removal of heat produces condensation. Superheated steam behaves like a gas; when compressed, its temperature rises; when heated at constant pressure its volume increases, when heated at constant volume its pressure rises, etc. Its condition is usually indicated by the "degrees of superheat" above the saturation temperature, and by its pressure. The value of the latent heat varies with the pressure under which the liquid is caused to vaporize.
The latent heat of vaporization of water to steam is The Btu British thermal unit is equivalent to The lulogram-calorie or large calorie is gramcalories. In modern practice the Joule is used as a measure of energy. I t is equivalent to 0. The output of a steam generating plant is often expressed in pounds of steam delivered per hour. Since the steam output may vary in temperature and pressure, the boiler capacity is more completely expressed as the heat transferred in Btu per hour.
An older expression of boiler capacity is boiler horsepower. It is equivalent to It is equivalent to 33, Btulhr. Properties of Saturated Steam-Temperature Table cont.
Values from 1. Properties of Superheated Steam cont. PF saturated steam Ib gage, Keenan and F. Keyes, published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
These data may be used only for rough estimating. There is considerable variance between manufacturers for a given rating and condition, some offering a higher efficiency, some lower, depending upon how the conditions match a particular size or design.
Although very large turbines a r e used for certain types of drives, a limit of hp has been chosen for these data since it was felt this encompassed the majority of drives where such data would be used.
I t is to be expected that larger units would have higher efficiencies. The curves a r e based on 5 psig back pressure. For back pressures to 50 psig multiply RCE from t h e curves by a correction factor equal to: Base p and V on either upstream or downstream conditions. When h , is between 10 and 4 0 9 of upstream pressure, reasonable accuracy is obtained by using p and V based on an average of upstream and downstream conditions.
When h , is over of upstream pressure divide the total length into shorter sections and add the pressure drops for each section. What is the friction loss? Now enter the chart on page at 11, l b k r.
Run vertically to the line for 8-inch pipe and then horizontally to the right, reading a friction loss or pressure drop of 0. F o r equivalent feet of pipe the friction loss is x 0. A t intersection of 75" wet-bulb and 95" dry-bulb the relative humidity is read directly on the curved lines as 40 per cent.
Dew poiyzt: At intersection of 75" wet-bulb and 95" dry-bulb lines, the dew point is read directly on horizontal temperature lines as 67". V a p o r pressure: At intersection of 75" wet-bulb and 95" dry-bulb lines, pass in horizontal direction to left of chart and on scale read the vapor pressure as 0.
Total heat above 0" i n mixture per lb of dry a i r: From where wetbulb line joins saturation line, follow 75" wet-bulb line upward t o its intersection with slanting scale at left of chart read The use of this scale to obtain total heat in the mixture at any wet-bulb temperature is a great convenience, as the number of Btu required to heat the mixture and humidify, as well as the refrigeration required to cool and dehumidify the mixture, can be obtained by taking the difference in total heat before and after treatment of the mixture.
Grains of moisture per lb of dry a i r: From intersection of 95" dry-bulb and 75" wet-bulb temperature lines follow horizontal line to right and read directly 99 grains of moisture per lb. At intersection of 75" wet-bulb and 95" dry-bulb lines read directly on diagonal lines Reproduced bq perrnlsalon. The weight of one gallon of water is taken as being equal to 8. Intermediate water quan. The above figures are of the actual boiler horsepower developed.
These should be specified for a particular installation. However, for estimating purposes, the following are fair values: Carrying Capacity of Insulated Wire. Effect of Voltage and Frequency Variation. Allowable Voltage and Frequency Variations. Full Load Speeds of Synchronous Motors. Volt E is the unit of electric pressure or electromotive force.
CAMERON HYDRAULIC DATA
I t is the potential which will produce a current of 1 ampere through a resistance of 1 ohm. Watts W and Kilowatts KW are units of electric power. Kilovolt-amperes KVA is a measurement of apparent electric power. Kilowatt hour Kwhr is a unit of electrical energy or work performed. I t is important to check the starting and accelerating torque requirements of the driven machine in order that a motor may be selected with adequate torque.
I t should be noted that such variations will affect the operating characteristics, such as full load and starting current, starting and breakdown torque, efficiency and power factor. Standard motors are available to meet a wide variety of conditions.
In addition, special motors may be built to meet unusual conditions. Manufacturers can build motors with special torque characteristics if required. Motor speeds The synchronous speed of AC motors is determined by the number of poles and frequency. Voltage and frequency of current including probable variations in frequency and voltage. Horsepower requirement of the driven machine. Whether the load is continuous, intermittent or varying. The operating speed or speeds.
Method of starting the motor. Type of motor enclosure-such as drip-proof, splash-proof, totally enclosed, weather protection, explosion proof, dust-ignition proof or other enclosure.
The ambient or surrounding temperature. Altitude of operation. Any special conditions of heat, moisture, explosive, dust laden, or chemical laden atmosphere. Type of connection to driven machine. Transmitted bearing load to the motor. D-C motors have full-load base speeds when hot of , , , , and rpm. See speed chart on page Typical Efficienciesof Low Voltage Three-Phase Motors and rpm - Synchronous motors-unity Induction motors Horsepower Torque Torque is the turning effort caused by a force acting normal to a radius a t a set distance from the axis of rotation.
A handy reference on the subject of hydraulics and steam. Edited by C. Nineteenth Edition, First Printing. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Read more Read less. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Michael R.
Troubleshooting Process Operations. Petroleum Refining in Nontechnical Language. Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition. Eugene Megyesy. Norman P. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Cameron Hydraulic Data: Westaway and A. Cameron Hydraulic Data, 18th edition: Loomis G. Read more. Product details Hardcover Publisher: Flowserve Corp. English ASIN: Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle?
Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention hydraulic data reference book great reference cameron hydraulic engineers pumps system piping copy designing flowserve sizing. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Hardcover Verified Purchase.
My rating is only for this latest 19th version and not to the wonderful historical content of the reference. All the information is still there but this version from FlowServe is extremely hard to read.
This is most critical when trying to read the small print of table entries or charts. It's almost as if they photocopied the version from Ingersol Rand. Or printed it on a desk jet printer. I ended up buying a late 17th edition printing used for half the price and returning this one.
Quality of I-R copy is superb. Sure, it doesn't have some of the new FS pump information, but I don't need that. The tables, charts and data are far more important to me.
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