CSS COOKBOOK PDF
“For those all-too-common dilemmas that crop up with each project, CSS Cookbook provides hundreds of practical examples with CSS code recipes that you. This books is Free to download. "CSS Cookbook 3rd Edition – PDF Books book" is available in PDF Formate. Learn from this free book and enhance your skills. Estelle Weyl, author of HTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World O'Reilly Media, Inc. HTML5 Cookbook, the image of a common kestrel, and related.
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“There's a lot to know about Cascading Style Sheets, but sometimes you just want a quick answer to a specific problem. In CSS Cookbook, Christopher Schmitt. [O`Reilly] - CSS Cookbook, 3rd ed. - [Schmitt].pdf First HTML with CSS & XHTML teaches you how to do things right from the a Ruby on Rails developer. Title CSS Cookbook, 3rd Edition; Author(s) Christopher Schmitt; Publisher: O' Reilly Media; 3rd edition (December 31, ); Paperback: pages; eBook PDF.
Submit your own errata for this product. The errata list is a list of errors and their corrections that were found after the product was released. If the error was corrected in a later version or reprint the date of the correction will be displayed in the column titled "Date Corrected". The following errata were submitted by our customers and approved as valid errors by the author or editor. Color Key: The meta tag content attribute has an extra quotation before utf The text has
Web Typography. Page Elements. Links and Navigation. A Login Form 8. An Elegant Calendar Designing Web Pages for Printing. Page Layouts.
When I was first learning the wonders of CSS, trial and error prevailed as my primary means for discovering its creative powers: Instead of stumbling upon the solution for styling every ele- ment of the page, I could have just thumbed through CSS Cookbook, grabbed the recipe, and started baking. The modular nature of this book makes it an indispensable reference for designers and developers of any caliber. Posed with problems from how best to handle typography, links, and navigation to even entire page layouts, Christopher clearly explains not only the styles necessary to complete the task, but also the caveats that may be attached for certain browsers.
For example, a recent article told of a common usability problem: The button may get clicked twice, with the results of the form getting duplicated. What to do? So, my advice is to clear off a space on your desk because CSS Cookbook will take up permanent residency in the corner. CSS is a simple standardized syntax that gives designers extensive control over the presen- tation of their web pages and is an essential component of web design today.
Compared to s-era development techniques, CSS gives web designers greater con- trol over their designs so that they can spend less time editing and maintaining their websites. CSS also extends beyond traditional web design to designing and controlling the look of a web page when it is printed.
The basic re- quirements are a computer, a modern browser such as Firefox, Safari, or Internet Ex- plorer for Windows to name a few , and your favorite web page editor. Now you know what the book is about. Let me tell you its story, its history. Some would say web design officially began when Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, put together the first set of web pages. Though it might seem ironic, I happen to believe that this new media really got started with books.
These two books helped to kick off the web revolution as much as those who invented the technologies that made the Web possible. CSS has come a long way since then. In addition to IE8, other browsers are making their presence known, and are often ahead of Internet Explorer in supporting new features. Together they can help you create your own bit of web design history.
Audience This book is for web designers and developers struggling with the problems of designing with CSS. With this book, web builders can solve common problems associated with CSS-enabled web page designs. CSS Cookbook is ideal for people who have wanted to use CSS for web projects but have shied away from learning a new technology. If you are this type of reader, use the solutions in the book one or a few at a time. Use it as a guidebook and come back to it when you are ready or need to learn another technique or trick.
Even if you consider yourself an expert in CSS, but not in basic design knowledge, this book is useful to have next to your computer. It covers elements of design from web typography to page layouts, and even includes a chapter on designing with CSS to get you motivated.
Assumptions This Book Makes This book makes several assumptions about you, dear reader. One assumption is that you possess some web design or development experience either as a hobbyist, a student, or a professional. If you use a program such as Adobe Dreamweaver only in its WYSIWYG or design mode and rarely, if ever, touch the markup in code view, you might have trouble getting the most out of this book right away.
Some of the code in this book can be re-created using dialog-box-driven web page building applications, but you may run into some problems along the way trying to click tabs and enter CSS values into said tabs.
Another assumption is that web designers and developers practicing their craft with HTML table-based layouts, font tags, and single-pixel GIFs will find this book both helpful and frustrating.
Web designers who are practicing or are more familiar with these old production methods are going to find CSS challenging. This frustration is a natural part of the learning process. You should approach the process of learning how to design with CSS with patience and a good sense of humor. The good news is that the major browser vendors seem to have solved the problem. The recent version releases of browsers appear to have implemented CSS correctly; however, attempting cross-browser support for the older or less-popular browsers may still be a challenging exercise.
The solutions in this book, covering everything from web-based typography to multicolumn layouts, are geared for modern browsers with version numbers later than or equal to 5, with the exception of Safari and Chrome.
Whenever possible, I mention when a technique might cause problems in modern browsers. Although there is a chapter on hacks and workarounds to hide stylesheets from browsers with poor implementations of the complete CSS specification, this book makes no assurances that you are going to create pixel-perfect designs in every browser.
Even with traditional web design methods from the s, this has never been the case see http: Contents of This Book For me, the best use for a book such as this is to crack it open from time to time when trying to solve a particular problem, which I did with the first edition of the book to refresh my memory while writing this edition.
To that end, this book will serve you well on or near your desk—always within reach to resolve a problem about CSS or web design. However, feel free to read the book from its first page to its last. The following paragraphs review the contents of each chapter and the appendixes. Chapter 3, Web Typography, discusses how to use CSS to specify fonts in web pages, headings, pull quotes, and indents within paragraphs as well as other solutions.
Chapter 4, Images, discusses CSS techniques directly associated with manipulating styles and properties related to web graphics. Solutions in this chapter cover the topics of centering elements, setting a background image, placing a border on a page, and other techniques.
Chapter 6, Lists, describes how to style basic list items in various ways. Solutions in- clude cross-browser indentation, making hanging indents, inserting custom images for list markers, and more. Chapter 7, Links and Navigation, shows how to use CSS to control the presentation of a link and sets of links.
Solutions range from the basic, such as removing an underline from links, to the more complex, such as creating a dynamic visual menu. Although CSS can help you elim- inate HTML table-based designs, sometimes you may need to style tabular data such as calendars and statistical data.
Errata | O'Reilly Media CSS: The Missing Manual
This chapter includes solutions for setting cell padding, removing gaps in table cells with images, and styling a calendar. The solutions in this chapter include methods for designing one- column layouts as well as multicolumn layouts. Chapter 11, Page Layouts, provides information on how to set styles that are used when printing web pages. Solutions discuss how to add a separate print stylesheet to a web page, set styles for web forms, and insert URLs after links.
Chapter 12, Hacks, Workarounds, and Troubleshooting, provides solutions that enable you to hide stylesheets that certain browsers cannot handle. Recipes include hiding stylesheets for browsers such as Netscape Navigator 4, Internet Explorer 5 for Win- dows, and others.
Chapter 13, Designing with CSS, is an inspirational chapter. Focusing on the notion that CSS is merely a tool that implements design, this chapter covers topics such as playing with enlarging type sizes, working with contrast, and building a panoramic presentation. Appendix A is a collection of links and websites you can access to learn more about CSS. Appendix B is a listing of CSS 2. Appendix C is a listing of selectors, pseudo-classes, and pseudo-elements available within CSS 2.
Appendix D is a listing of selectors and pseudo-classes available from the new CSS3 specification. Appendix E takes a look at how various modern browsers handle the display of form elements. The print book version contains an introduction to this appendix, as well as information on how you can access the full version.
The online version of this appendix contains lookup tables that allow you to quickly check out which CSS properties are supported, as well as the entire form element review that contains screenshots of every test. Italic Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, directories, and Unix utilities Constant width Indicates commands, options, switches, variables, attributes, keys, functions, types, classes, namespaces, methods, modules, properties, parameters, values, ob- jects, events, event handlers, XML tags, HTML tags, macros, the contents of files, or the output from commands Constant width bold Shows commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user Constant width italic Shows text that should be replaced with user-supplied values This icon signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note.
This icon indicates a warning or caution. Using Code Examples This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, you may use the code in this book in your web pages and design. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code from this book does not require permission. Answering a question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require permission.
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Special thanks also go to Tatiana Diaz, my editor for the previous edition of this book. Laurent took over for Tatiana in the role of editor for this edition. His calm demeanor and ability to guide this book through the production process made the metallic bladelike swooshing sounds of deadlines bearable. Thanks to my friends who know me as the web geek I truly am, and who are OK with me not mentioning them all by name.
CSS Cookbook 3rd Edition – PDF Books Book
Thanks to Jessica, who made me a chocolate cake with homemade chocolate icing and chocolate chips to celebrate my birthday and the release of the previous edition. I en- joyed it immensely, and my dentist appreciated the extra work. Thanks to my family for their love and appreciation. Your support through good times and bad has been a rock.
Thanks to Ari Stiles for being OK with me taking time out to work on this book. I love you. And to my dad, I dedicate this book once again. Thanks for being the best dad ever. Even a review of the chapter should help you build some good habits that will ease your work. Structuring Documents To build a design for your web pages, first there must be content in a web document, usually a simple text file. HTML provides structure to documents through the use of elements.
When you wrap these elements with tags, such as p for paragraphs and h2 for headings, throughout the content, the web page starts to form an inherent HTML document structure.
The browser then applies its own stylesheet to render what is known as the default rendering of the web page onto this document structure. For example, to denote a paragraph, we use the simple p tag at the beginning and end of the paragraph text: Since various HTML elements look different when they appear in a browser, web designers occasionally brew often-strange concoctions of HTML elements into what is commonly referred to as tag soup to achieve the desired look and feel.
To gain control of this look and feel, designers might add presentational HTML tags to otherwise semantically marked-up content, like so: Imagine you were designing a website that consisted of 20 pages, and you wanted to add certain design elements such as colors, fonts, sizing, and alignment to the site.
Now imagine maintaining a 1,page website. How about a 1,,page website? Through the use of semantic, lean coding, web developers save time in terms of main- tenance while also allowing the framework on which stylesheets can be applied.
Some are free and some require payment. Some basic text editors that come preinstalled with operating systems include: They are TextEdit and Notepad, respectively. Do not use word processing programs for working with HTML. Otherwise, the text editor might strip out the HTML elements. This option allows long lines to be wrapped within the application window, making it easier to edit. Do not append an additional. For example, example.
Even though these code editors—which are free and already installed in the operating system—do not offer many options, many web designers rely on them for working with HTML. Another potential text editor is jEdit, which is also available for Mac and Windows. IDE solutions More full-featured products often cost more, but they provide a complete solution for dealing with almost every aspect of building websites.
See Also http: Solution Start with basic content, such as the following: My Basic Web Page Epsum factorial non deposit quid pro quo hic escorol. Within each HTML element are two required elements: The head element contains the information about the document, often called meta information.
The head element needs to have the title element within it. This text is usually set in the top portion of the browser window and is used when creating book- marks. The default rendering of a basic HTML web page If the title element contains no text, browsers will use either the filename or the first few words of the document instead. Only text is allowed within the title element. The content of a web document is placed within the body element.
If you need to edit or revise a web page, most of the time it is within this element. For this example, the heading was set with an h1 element along with the standard p element for the paragraph. See Also Recipe 1. Solution HTML 4. Strict, Transitional, and Frameset.
HTML 4. So, when coding pages, make sure to check that the DOCTYPE is both added to the page and typed correctly to ensure that brows- ers do not render pages in quirks mode.
Table width in Firefox 1. However, an even shorter and valid example can be made: Solution Use one of the six available headings, h1 through h6, as shown in Figure The default rendering of six heading levels 1. When marking up content, be sure to use the headings in order. For example, if you use the h2 element, the header underneath it should be wrapped in the h3 element not h4 or h5.
The title of the page should not be wrapped in the h2 element use the h1 element. However, be sure not to overuse the h1 element, as that might lower your search engine ranking. Use the h1 element once for the unique title of your blog post or page; then use h2 and h3 for the other portions of the document. If you need to use h4, h5, and h6 elements in your document, break up the content into separate pages or investigate the document structure.
Also, if you are concerned about the look of the headings, do not worry. Through the power of CSS, the design of the headings along with the rest of the page can be modified. Using headers appropriately in a document benefits people using screen readers.
For a demonstration, see the video at http: See Also Chapter 3 for modifying headers and other common type treatments 1. Solution Use the blockquote element when quoting a large amount of text: The default rendering of quotations For citing phrases, use the q element: This means that text tagged with a blockquote element separates itself from the rest of the text by forcing a line break above and below itself.
The q element is an inline element, which does not force a line break. Inline elements are useful for quoting small portions of text within a paragraph element. The q element is typically rendered with quotation marks around the text it envelops. However, these quotation marks do not appear in In- ternet Explorer for Windows.
The cite attribute is optional for both the blockquote and q elements. The value of a cite attribute is a URI where the source of the quote originated. See Also Chapter 3 for other common type treatments 1. Figure An image placed within a document 14 Chapter 1: It merely defines the location of its placement within the document and specifies its location relative to the HTML document.
Additional tips Even though a picture is worth a thousand words, the value of the alt attribute should be a relatively short description. As shown in Figure , some browsers display text next to a cursor, called a tool tip, within the title attribute of an image: Both formats have their own pros and cons in terms of which types of images are best for each. All browsers support the PNG file format; however, alpha transparency is only now supported in Internet Explorer 8 for Windows.
Alpha transparency allows for opacity or levels of transparency within an image, unlike the GIF format, which can assign only one color to be transparent. If an older version of IE renders a PNG image with alpha transparency, the transparent portions usually turn into blocks of solid white. Character case sensitivity When specifying an image file within HTML, make sure the filename does not contain spaces and the lower- and uppercase characters match.
Although your computer OS might be OK with a difference in cases, chances are the web server hosting your web files will not, and may keep images from appearing in the browser.
Solution Use the audio element to specify an audio file, as shown in Figure Audio added to a web page Discussion The audio element has five attributes associated with it: Table Then include Flash Player embed and object code afterward: Video added to a web page Discussion You do not have to specify the width and height of the video element. If you do not set the video element with its respective attributes, the movie will play to the default values of the video file itself.
A video file might have its own poster, which is a static image that represents the video as a whole, similar to a thumbnail. However, you can override this poster by using the poster attribute. The poster image can be any file type the browser supports e. You can place alternative text in between the video tags, including a link to download the video file, for browsers that do not recognize the video element.
This method allows website visitors a method to view the content with third-party solutions other than browsers. At the time of this writing, Safari 3. The default rendering of highlighted text Solution Use the strong and em elements to denote emphasis within a document: Li nov lingua franca va esser plu simplic e regulari quam li existent Europan lingues. It va esser tam simplic quam Occidental: You would use em to draw attention to or contrast one or more words from the rest of a sentence.
Strong is an alternative element to em to bring attention to words or phrases. Although the use of em and strong helps to break up the monotony of text, be sure to use these elements sparingly as well as consistently so that you do not overuse or abuse their importance. The default rendering of an unordered list 20 Chapter 1: Marking up unordered lists and ordered lists is fairly straightforward. Use two ele- ments, ul and li, to mark up a series of items for an unordered list, which typically results in a circle appended to the left side of each list item.
An unordered list is typically used to create the base of a navigation menu. Ordered lists, which use an ol element instead of a ul element, have a numeral in sequential order prepended to the list.
CSS: The Definitive Guide, 3rd Edition
As shown in Figure , definition lists, which are used to define terms, work a little bit differently from unordered and ordered lists. Each item is broken down into two parts: The default rendering of a definition list See Also Chapter 6 on lists and Chapter 7 on links and navigation 1. Solution Using the anchor link: A tool tip displayed over a link Linking to another web page on the same site When you are creating links within the same site, use relative links instead of anchor links.
Relative links are addresses that are valid only if you are visiting from certain web pages. For example, suppose you have a website composed of four pages within the same root folder, the main directory that contains the website files, as shown in Figure Sample directory structure Including everything that is needed to point a web browser to a location in a link means that you created an absolute link, which looks like this: A relative link is a little bit leaner than an absolute link and, as in this example, can cite just the filename itself within the href attribute: When a browser navigates to a relative link, it uses the domain name of the page it is currently viewing to assemble the link to where it should go next.
Moving up folders Just as your personal computer probably contains numerous folders holding numerous files for a project, websites are also composed of folder sets and files. To link from one document to another document within the same website, use relative links.
For example, say you have a main technical specs page within a specs folder, which itself is in a widget folder. The organization of the files on the server might look some- thing like this: Another type of link to use in such a case is a root relative link. Here is how you would use a root relative link to code the link from the technical specs page to the main product page in the preceding example: You can create an anchor by assigning an id attribute to an HTML element: Designers use anchors to create a table of contents at the top of a web page that lets you quickly navigate to other parts of the document.
This approach is particularly useful on web pages with a large amount of content to help users avoid excessive scrolling. See Also Chapter 7 on links and navigation 1. The default rendering of a basic HTML table 1. The table tag defines the table as a whole.
The optional caption element is for the summary of the tabular data and appears im- mediately after the opening table element.
Then, if your table has a header, add the thead tag to one or more rows as the table header. Use the tbody tag to wrap the table body so that it is distinct from the table header. Next, add tr table row tags to mark off each table row. This element wraps groups of individual table cells. First you define a row, and then you add the enclosed cells. No tag exists for a table column. Only through building successive table rows do columns emerge.
You should enclose the specific cell content in the tag. By default, browsers make the text in header cells boldface. Use the td tag to mark out individual cells in a table. Like the th tag, the td tag wraps specific cell content. For a simple, web-based HTML table generator to bypass handcrafting numerous table cells, try http: See Also Chapter 9 on tables 1.
The default rendering of an hCard Solution Use class attributes with specific attributes listed in the hCard microformat specifica- tion see http: It is one of many standards detailed in the Microformats Project see http: Similar to a design pattern, an hCard standardizes the way in which information is represented, which allows third-party software to glean the information and put it to all kinds of good uses. To save time and avoid typos, use the hCard Creator see http: If it finds an hCard or hCards, it prompts the site visitor to download the data as a vCard.
Operator see https: A similar plug-in is available for Safari at http: See Also The hCard validator at http: Each separate event is designated with the vevent class. This specifies the content as an hCalendar entry.
The beginning time of the event, dtstart and summary, is required for every hCalendar event, whereas the end-time dtend and location properties are optional.
An hCalendar cheat sheet, available at http: See Also The hCalendar Creator http: Solution Use the W3C validator see http: However, sometimes the output can be hard to understand.
If you use a basic text editor, make sure the preferences are set to save as Plain Text and not Rich Text. Then add the following HTML between the body tags, and save the file as cookbook.
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Removed Website's address. The first word "colors" of the second line 6th line in "border-width" for the paragraph should be "widths". This is probably a copy-and-paste error carried from page in "border-color". In the "Values" bullet item continuation paragraph, last sentence, change: In the. The PDF version has the figures in the correct place.
All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on oreilly. Your Account. Confirmed Errata Unconfirmed Errata. Page 6 2nd paragraph, html code, meta tag. Page 64 Power Users Clinic box, last sentance. The two screen shots do not match the descriptions; they appear to be reversed. Page 97 1st "Note" at the top of the page. Page 98 middle of page, just under FAQ box. Page 98 FAQ "Get a little help" top -right. Page in the code sample inside the 4th paragraph. Page middle paragraph, starting with "When it comes to inheritance".
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Page 4th line from bottom of page. Page Under Step 5. Page 1st line of 2nd code example. Page Figure Caption - Second sentence.
The note refers to another note on page There is no note on Page Example above last paragraph. Page p TIP: Page step 6, line two of paragraph. Page 2nd paragraph, first sentence. Page Step 5 line 4 reads "background-position: Page 1 under 'Using Graphics for Bulleted Lists'. Page Step 4, and 2nd line of code. Page 2nd to the last line in step 8. Page Middle, paragraph starts with: Page 1st paragraph, next to last sentence. Page 2nd paragraph in Frequently Asked Question box.
Page should be The tutorial starts on page Page Note: Says 'locate the Features link' when should say 'locate the Home link'. Step 4 says repeat step 4, when it should say repeat step 3. Page Step 1. Tan Note from the Author or Editor: Page 1st paragraph after top code example. Page 1st paragraph, 3rd line, of section: Floating All Columns.
Figure , top. Page Box 'Power User's Clinic,' second paragraph. Page Power Users' Clinic, 5th paragraph. Page Last paragraph, 2nd sentence. Page 1st "Note" around the middle of the page. Page Code example shown just above the last paragraph. Page 1st sentence of the 2nd to last paragraph. Page 3rd paragraph, last sentence. Page Last paragraph, 2nd line "appling a border to of a table cell". Page 3rd paragraph, 2nd and 3rd line " Page Last paragraph before Note.
Page text-indent description, "Values" bullet point, line 5 refers to p. Page 2nd paragraph in "border-width". Page 2nd line in the paragaph under the Tip.
Partner Sites makezine. Errata for CSS: The Missing Manual Submit your own errata for this product. Confirmed Errata Unconfirmed Errata The errata list is a list of errors and their corrections that were found after the product was released. Page 34 Note box.
Page 42 3rd line from the tope. Page 42 top code snipped. Page 69 4th paragraph. Page 75 second paragraph of step 4. Page 79 Last sentence. Page 79 first paragraph. Page 82 Figure Page 89 3. Add three properties. Page 89 3rd paragraph.
Page line 2 after Figure 5. Page next to last line.
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