HOW TO HAVE A BEAUTIFUL MIND EBOOK
Beauty of physical appearance does not necessarily mean beauty of mind. Looking good is important but having an exciting, flexible and creative mind is even. But there's an easier way to become a beautiful person. No matter how you look, if you have a mind that's fascinating, creative, exciting - if. Editorial Reviews. Review. “Highly recommended.” —The Good Book Guide. “ One of the Support Advanced Search. Kindle Store · Kindle eBooks · Self-Help .
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Read "How To Have A Beautiful Mind" by Edward de Bono available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first purchase. People spend a. Get this from a library! How to have a beautiful mind. [Edward De Bono]. People spend a fortune on their bodies, their faces, their hair, their clothes. Cosmetics, plastic surgery, diets, gym membership - everyone's trying to be more .
Not in United States? Choose your country's store to see books available for purchase. See if you have enough points for this item. Sign in. People spend a fortune on their bodies, their faces, their hair, their clothes. Cosmetics, plastic surgery, diets, gym membership - everyone's trying to be more attractive.
Dr de Bono has been invited to lecture in fifty-two countries and to address major international conferences. In he was asked to chair a special meeting of Nobel Prize laureates. He has had a planet named after him by the International Astronomic Union and was named by a group of university professors in South Africa as one of the people in all history who have contributed most to humanity. Dr de Bono runs the most widely used programme for the direct teaching of thinking is schools.
This is now in use in many countries around the world. Dr de Bono's key contribution has been his understanding of the brain as a self-organizing system. From this solid base he set out to design practical tools for thinking. His work is in use equally in the boardrooms of some of the world's largest corporations and with four-year-olds in school.
His design of the Six Hats method provides, for the first time, Western thinking with a constructive idiom instead of adversarial argument. His work is in use in elite gifted schools, rural schools in South Africa and Khmer villages in Cambodia.
What if everyone read this book? Since the ideas are to be played out in the future, there is no way of checking which will happen and which will not. Using this playful approach, the simplest of situations can be turned into an interesting game. What if chief executives were to be trained as chief executives from the youngest age — as soon as they entered the corporation? In France, judges are trained as judges from the earliest age. In the UK successful barristers are chosen and asked to become judges, although they often decline because the drop in income may be huge.
Putting forward alternatives and other possibilities can make the discussion more interesting. The possibilities can then be explored — even if they are finally rejected. Maybe tax could be handled in a different way. The taxpayer could decide with up to half the tax being paid what that money should be used for — health, education, defence.
This would allow a sort of voting through taxation. Alternative solutions could be offered for recognised problems or conflict situations. Once the solution has been offered then it can be discussed and considered. Around , people have been killed in the conflict in Algiers. About 56, people have been killed in the war in Sri Lanka.
Around 39, people have been killed in the fighting in Colombia. Could there be any better approaches to solving these sorts of conflicts also Kashmir, Northern Ireland, Israel, etc. Could the UN function in a different way? A young Australian doctor suggested that peptic ulcers might be caused by an infection.
At first everyone laughed at him. It turned out that he was right. People who had spent years on antacids could now be cured in a fortnight.
Serious operations to remove part or all of the stomach Billroth operations were now no longer necessary. Science advances through hypotheses and alternative possibilities.
It is said that in the USA 75 per cent of people marry someone with whom they work. This seems a very limited choice. In Roman Catholic countries official suicide rates seem very low. Is this because a strong religious element reduces suicides or because a suicide cannot be buried in a church graveyard so suicides are not recorded as such? Quite recently the lowest birthrate in Europe was in Spain, which is a Roman Catholic country that forbids contraceptive devices.
What was happening? Fat people often seem happy. Is this just an illusion? Is it that the same hormones that make them fat also make them happy?
Do they eat more because they are happy? Do they seem happy because they see that as the only way they can contribute to society? Once you get into the habit of looking for alternatives and possibilities, any subject becomes more interesting.
We were good friends but we found it difficult to hold a conversation because we each had a different view of what a conversation should be. His idea of a conversation was that you should start out by defining your terms precisely. Then, at the end of the conversation, you would see whether or not the conclusions matched those initial definitions. Each step took you further and further into new possibilities and new ideas. These could only be speculative. At the end you had a garden full of new plants.
It may be correct that we should only trust and act upon the truth but in order to get there we may have to explore possibilities as with a scientific hypothesis.
In conversation there is also the entertainment value. Speculation also has a much higher entertainment value than truth. Playing around with ideas is both interesting and entertaining. Are there fewer women artists than men because women are more serious and have to get on with the serious business of life and families, while men can be more irresponsible, frivolous and self-indulgent? According to Peter Ueberroth there was and he used the creative techniques of lateral thinking to help him design the new concepts that made such a success of the Games.
Is there any connection between teenage pregnancy in England and a welfare policy that allocates public housing to mothers? It is easy to see connections where there are none. Conspiracy theories and paranoia abound in imagined sinister connections. On the other hand, there is no harm in exploring possible connections so long as they are not taken seriously until proven.
All the others may be very competent — but rather dull. A new idea shines out as being different. It is the same in conversation. Most people can be reasonable and competent and rather dull. New ideas are rare because we have been taught analysis and judgement but never creativity.
There is a silly myth that creativity is a sort of mystical talent which some people have and which others can only envy. It is nothing of the sort. The main purpose of the brain is to allow incoming information to form itself into routine patterns. If the brain did not do this, life would be impossibly complicated and slow. So we identify situations and apply the routine pattern. This is the opposite of creativity.
Instead of waiting for creative inspiration there should be some thinking methods which we could learn and use deliberately. The term is now in most dictionaries and the methods are widely used in business and elsewhere.
The methods include provocation, concept extraction, and random entry. A self-organising system is one in which information arranges itself into patterns. In any self-organising information system there is a mathematical need for provocation.
Take, for instance, a factory on a river, which emitted pollution. People downstream suffered from this pollution. But from the provocation comes a perfectly practical idea. If you build a factory on a river then your input must always be downstream of your own output — so you have to be more concerned about cleaning up your own pollution. I am told this has since become legislation in some countries.
Creativity is a skill and a habit. You need to learn and practise the skill, which then becomes a habit. But even without any special creative skill you can always seek to have new ideas and to put them forward. If nothing else, the new idea will provide a starting point for fresh considerations. So instead of just carrying on with the flow of the conversation you now pause at that point. You explore the point. You elaborate around the point. You open up possibilities and alternatives.
You make connections. It is like having a bow and a quiver full of arrows. At any moment you aim your arrow at a particular point and let fly: You will need to build up and lay out the interesting aspects. You invite the other party to join you in exploring the point.
You should learn to use the phrase very formally as an attention-directing tool. It is not enough just to wait for the attitude to arise. You need to develop the habit of finding interest in almost anything. Developing this habit of mind needs practice. A very simple way of doing this is to take different things and then to seek to find interest in them. What would you say? How could you be interesting about each of the following?
Cut out pieces of card and write different words like the above on separate pieces and put them into a bag. Without looking, draw a single card out of the bag. It is always important to get to the truth, but being interesting is more important than winning an argument.
You owe it to yourself and to others to be interesting. Interest may arise from interesting things you have done, are doing or know about. Interest can also arise from how you conduct a conversation. Looking out for possibilities and alternatives enriches the conversation. There is usually more than one way of doing things or looking at things. Speculation looks forward and opens up new areas of interest. Description only looks backward. Finding and making connections links matters together and generates interest.
New ideas are rare and freshen any discussion. Seek to be creative and to generate new ideas. Learn and apply the formal techniques of lateral thinking. Provocation is a useful way to force new ideas. You put forward a statement you know to be wrong or impossible in order to provoke new thinking. Use as a formal tool the phrase: Seek to explore and elaborate and to pull interest out of any matter.
Practise simple exercises to develop your ability to create interest. When someone else opens up an interesting line of thought, go along with it and help to develop the interest further. To reach agreement. This may be because both parties are seeking truth or because they have to design a practical way forward for action. To spell out and agree on the points of difference. This also includes spelling out the basis for the difference — values, experience or point of view, for instance.
To have as interesting a time as possible in the course of the discussion. Those are the overall strategies or objectives. Getting there involves many other activities which happen from moment to moment. That is what this chapter is about.
What is the immediate reaction, reply or response to something that has been put forward? Some of the basic responses have been covered in preceding chapters. You can agree with what has been said. You might agree completely. You might agree partially.
You can agree with a modification of what has been proposed. You can differ with what has been said. You need to show exactly where you differ, how you differ and why you differ. The other party needs to know the exact nature of your difference.
You can disagree with what has been said. Once again you need to show the point of disagreement and the reasons for the disagreement. You can suggest alternatives and possibilities, either to the whole proposition or to some part of it. You can summarise and then repeat back what you think you heard. This chapter is concerned with other aspects of a response. This is a waste of energy.
So if there is the slightest doubt, you need to ask for clarification: Is this what you said … I understood you to say this … Is that correct? I am not sure I understood what you said.
Could you repeat it? I am not totally clear about what you have just said. Could you clarify it for me? Any speaker wants to communicate and to be understood, so no one minds being asked to repeat or to clarify something. To ask for a clarification does not mean that you are stupid. On the contrary, you are showing so much interest in what is being said that you want to be sure you have understood it correctly. In asking for a clarification you can simply ask the person to repeat, perhaps in simpler terms, what has already been said, or you can give your version and ask whether this is indeed correct.
Support means that you are going to put forward some opinion that actually makes the proposition of another person stronger. If someone says that he is hungry, you can agree that the person probably is hungry. If you give food to that person you are going further than mere acknowledgement. You may support a proposition from your own experience: My experience in schools has been exactly the same. What should you do if you do not agree with the line of argument but you have evidence that supports that line of argument?
Should you keep quiet, like a lawyer in court? The natural tendency would be to keep quiet. Why offer support for something with which you do not agree? Here we come to a rather important point.
For centuries we have accepted this as the best way to explore a subject. It is not.
It is primitive and crude. A much better way is introduced in Chapter 8. So if you think of evidence that will support the other point of view, you put forward the evidence. Suppose a speaker is complaining of the poor quality of service in stores. You say: However, you add: A conversation that is carried on entirely on an abstract philosophical level can be very boring. Stories do not prove anything in the sense that statistics can prove something. A story about one enterprising and hard-working teenager does not prove that all teenagers are enterprising and hard working.
Nor does it disprove the suggestion that most teenagers are lazy and only want to have a good time. I saw his letter to the teacher. In it he wrote: The possibility is that youngsters who are not good at the usual school subjects are not stupid at all but potentially good thinkers.
Once they realise this their self- esteem rises and they no longer need to be bullies. Stories can illustrate principles — which is why there are the parables in the Bible.
Someone once told me about some complex calculations to see how much rocket fuel had been loaded. One day someone suggested putting in a window so that they could see the level of the fuel.
The principle is that there may be a simpler and more direct way of doing things. In Miletus, in ancient Greece, there was an epidemic of suicides. Young women heard that a friend of theirs had committed suicide and they proceeded to do the same. The hysteria was stopped by an old fellow in the Senate who introduced a law that the body of every suicide would be carried, naked, through the marketplace.
There are many principles to be extracted from this story. One of them is the importance of vanity.
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Examples from personal experience are particularly powerful. When I was a young Rhodes scholar at Oxford you were supposed to be back in college by a certain time. If you went off to a party in London and got back late you had to climb into the college. One foggy night I returned late from London.
I knew that there were two walls to be climbed.
How to have a beautiful mind
So I climbed the two walls. I found myself outside again. In the fog I had climbed in and out across a corner. So when you are sure you are doing the obvious and correct thing, it is still worth checking!
There is a story about packers in a factory that used old newspapers in the packing process. The trouble was that the workers would spend too much time reading interesting bits in the old newspapers. They solved the problem so it is said by employing blind packers. It is important to remember that stories do not prove anything. So a string of powerful stories does not prove a point.
The stories illustrate matters and also show possibilities. This is support. Then you build upon the point and try to see where youngsters could get their sense of achievement. If a youngster was not gifted in the academic or sporting areas and did not play the guitar, where was achievement to come from?
Maybe a much more serious effort could be made to encourage and develop hobbies at school? Someone else might be talking about how important self-esteem is to teenagers. You agree and then build upon this by offering a new idea. Maybe the youngster was kind, or friendly, or on time, or helpful, or made people laugh.
This would mean that teachers would start to look out for positive aspects outside the academic requirements. You not only accept the idea but try to extend it. The person putting forward the idea may not realise the full possibilities of the idea, so you help that person see these possibilities. Once again, this goes much further than mere agreement. There is a co-operative effort to get the most from the idea. In the Veneto region of northern Italy there is said to be one business for every eleven people.
The region is one of the most economically successful in the whole of the European Union. What is the secret of setting up small businesses? One of the problems is risk. Someone suggests that low-interest loans which are used in Italy would help people to set up their own business. You can extend this attempt to reduce risk by suggesting another idea. When a small business collapses, the losses can be sold as a tax credit to any other company which does not have to be in the same field.
This removes some of the downside of setting up a small business. It is suggested that in an election each voter should have both a positive vote and a negative vote.
It might be difficult for extremists or tyrants to get into power. Their supporters would vote for them but everyone else would give them negative votes, which would then cancel the positive votes. A negative effect might be that people in one party would give negative votes to the most able person in the other party.
Carrying something forward means looking at all the possible consequences and scenarios. It is a genuine exploration — not just a search for aspects which support a point of view.
I once suggested that in the Middle East, Tuesday would be declared a violence-free day. This would mean that people could relax on Tuesday and would look forward to Tuesday. Then they would start to ask why every day was not like Tuesday and the impetus for peace would be increased. There is also a precedent for the idea. You may want to modify it to remove parts you do not like and so make the proposition more acceptable to you. You may modify the proposition to remove faults and weaknesses that occur to you.
You may modify the proposition to make it even stronger.
One of the simplest forms of modification is to seek to reduce a sweeping generalisation to a less absolute statement see here and here. All sex offenders should be castrated.
This might be modified to: There may be a place for investigating hormonal treatment of some sex offenders. I once put forward an interesting idea in Northern Ireland. The suggestion was that when a political party lost an election, those who had voted for the losing party would pay 10 per cent less income tax.
The logic is that if the winning voters were to be governed by their choice of government, the losers would be compensated by paying less tax! There would need, however, to be voter registration. The idea was not well received because the Unionists, who generally formed the majority of the assembly, did not see why others should be compensated.
How To Have A Beautiful Mind
The level of tax difference could be altered. The system might only be used if the same party had been in power for more than two terms. Once an idea has surfaced then it is there to be jointly developed and improved. Both parties benefit from that. The overall objective in any conversation might be to agree, to disagree, to agree on the difference — and to have an enjoyable and interesting discussion.
If you are in any doubt about what has been said, it is important to ask for clarification. Misunderstanding and arguing at cross purposes are a waste of time and energy. Support goes beyond agreement. You can support a point that has been made from statistics, from your own experience, from a shared set of values and so on. Anecdotes, examples and stories add liveliness and reality to the discussion. They may be stories from your own experience or ones you have heard and believe to be relevant.
Stories illustrate principles, processes and possibilities. A process that might be complex to explain can be illustrated by a simple story. You may want to go further than just agreeing with a point that has been made. You may want to build upon that point in order to take it further.
You may wish to extend a suggestion by enlarging it and growing the suggestion. You can imagine an idea being put into action in the real world. You watch what might happen and describe what you see: You may want to modify an idea to make it more acceptable to yourself, stronger or more practical. You cannot have a beautiful mind if you do not know how to listen. A good listener shows that he or she is paying attention to what is being said.
A good listener respects the speaker. A good listener shows that he or she is genuinely interested in what he or she hears. A good listener gets value from what is heard and shows that he or she is getting value. All the above are to do with real attitudes and not just pretended attitudes. Unless you are going to be talking all the time, you are going to have to listen.
So, do it well and get the most out of listening. This impatience is usually very visible and is offensive to the speaker. If you do not want to listen to anyone else then why should anyone else want to listen to you? You may feel that what you have to say is more important than what others have to say — but that is probably not a view shared by the others.
So listen carefully and attentively and you should get more value than if you are just impatiently waiting for a chance to do your own talking. Talking can show how smart you are. Talking can convince others of your views. Talking can help you clarify your own thinking.
But talking only rarely gives you something new. Listening, on the other hand, can give you new ideas — if you try to receive them. There may be information that you did not know.
You could, for example, find out why some countries drive on the right of the road and others on the left of the road. There may be new facts. For example, statistics might be given.
You may want to check these with a question before accepting them. Did you know that 95 per cent of US criminal cases are settled by plea bargaining? Did you know that in many countries more people are killed in road accidents through the driver falling asleep than through alcohol?
There may be a point of view you have not heard before. Smokers pay their pension contributions in the same way as everyone else. But smokers often live shorter lives up to eight years shorter, depending on the extent of the smoking. So smokers often do not draw down the full pension to which they have contributed. So smokers are subsidising non-smokers — which is very altruistic of them. There may be new insights and realisations.
In the USA there are twenty- seven times as many lawyers per head of the population as in Japan. Law is one of the most popular faculties at universities. In Japan the total number of lawyers allowed to practise is itself limited by law. Why so many lawyers in the USA?
Law is seen as a general-purpose qualification that both serves as a back-up and also allows you to do other things. It may also be that intelligent youngsters who want a mentally challenging profession but do not like mathematics go in for law. Law is one of the very few professions that do not demand a high expertise in mathematics as a gateway requirement.
You may gain new, alternative perceptions. You might always have looked at something in one way and, through listening, you find that there is another way of looking at the same thing. Perhaps you perceive retirement as a time for resting.
The new perception is that, on the contrary, it is the time for even more activity — but doing things you have always wanted to do and not been able to do. You may find value in seeing how a point of view, totally different from your own, is put together rationally.
You could listen to someone who genuinely believes that prolonging life at all costs is not a good use of resources.
It is said that in the USA some 75 per cent of health care costs are spent in the last month of life. You may find value in discovering what values matter to different people. What are these values? How do they operate these values?
Contrast someone sifting through mud to find diamonds and someone walking along a beach looking at the driftwood. The diamond seeker has to go through a lot of mud to find a single diamond. But the person knows what a diamond looks like and knows the market value or sale value of the diamond.
This is equivalent to looking for things of known value. So value may be defined and recognisable, or it may be what you bring to something that creates the value. Perhaps something already in your mind can be put together with something you hear in order to create a new value. Take note especially of the adjectives. Adjectives are almost always subjective. Adjectives tell you what the person feels rather than objective reality. That was a very boring journey. In fact, the scenery was beautiful but the person had seen it all before.
The restaurant was very exotic. He is arrogant and aloof. In fact, the person is shy and reserved. Pay attention to the turn of phrase and the analogies that are used. Some of them might be useful for you to use yourself in the future. You repeat back to the speaker what you think that person has been saying. Such repetition indicates that you have understood what was said. It also clarifies the situation in your own mind. Is that correct?
Are you saying that the USA may be the only industrialised country that really respects and admires success? Are you saying that in other countries, such as Britain, there is an automatic envy of success and attempts to bring it down?
Did I understand you to say that women might make better doctors than men because women are more intuitive and therefore likely to take many more factors into account?
How To Have A Beautiful Mind - Edward de Bono - Google книги
Is it your point that increasing the punishment for crime is not really a deterrent if criminals feel that their chance of being caught is actually very small? To summarise, condense, recapitulate and feed back what has been understood is flattering to the speaker, who wants to know if his or her message has been received.
They show attention and interest. They allow for the further exploration of certain points. They permit the clarification of any misunderstanding. They enable the speaker to elaborate on points which seem to be of interest to the listener. It doesn't have to be physical.
No matter how you look, if you have a mind that's fascinating, creative, exciting - if you're a good thinker - you can be beautiful. And being attractive doesn't necessarily come from being intelligent or highly-educated. It isn't about having a great personality. It's about using your imagination and expanding your creativity.
And it's when talking with people that we make the greatest impact. A person may be physically beautiful, but when speaking to others a dull or ugly or uncreative mind will definitely turn them off. In clear, practical language, de Bono shows how by applying lateral and parallel thinking skills to your conversation you can improve your mind.
By learning how to listen, make a point, and manoeuvre a discussion, you can become creative and more appealing - more beautiful. Some pearls of wisdom.
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