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The IEEE does not warrant or represent the accuracy or content of the material IEEE Std , the IEEE Buff Book™, has been extensively revised and. IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis (IEEE Brown Book, Std ) [Institute of Electrical and Electronics . IEEE Std , IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis (The IEEE Brown Book) [Institute of Electrical.

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IEEE Recommended Practice for Power System Analysis (IEEE Brown Book). Abstract: Superseded by This recommended practice is a reference. This column is devoted to a discussion of the IEEE Brown Book. Officially, the. IEEE Brown Book is IEEE Standard , Rec- ommended Practice for Industrial. IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis (Brown Book). Abstract: This IEEE Standards product is part of the Color .

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If these parallel resonances are large in magnitude and. Harmonics in power systems, particularly in industrial plant like this one, can lead to many problems. These problems can be due to the both the harmonic currents and the resulting harmonic voltage levels they produce.

In industrial plant they can lead to pulsating torques in rotating machinery and in some cases may even cause smaller units to stall. In plant containing power factor correction capacitors the increased voltage levels across the capacitors can seriously reduce their lifetime and may result in failure. The motor drive, static load and power factor correction capacitor are all connected to the 33kV bus, which is supplied from the modeled utility source.

A frequency scan is performed to show the impedance seen from the harmonic source at the 33kV bus see Figure 2. Even though the parallel resonant frequency is not at one of the characteristic harmonics of the motor drive these are the six-pulse rectifier characteristic harmonics at the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th and 19th , it will still present a significant impedance to the harmonic injection currents at the 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th, particularly the 7th harmonic at Hz.

To view the effect of motor drive operation on the voltage distortion levels at the 33kV and kV buses, the voltage waveforms at these buses are detemined and a harmonic analysis performed. In the example, the voltage waveforms can be viewed on the 33kV Vdist and kV Vdist pages, and the harmonic voltage spectra viewed on the 33kV bus: A spectra see Figure 3 and kV bus: A spectra pages. To view these waveforms and spectra the Calculate Harmonic Load Flow option is chosen on the Button Bar menu and executed.

Figure 3: The harmonic voltage spectra results in the 33kV bus: A spectra and kV bus: A spectra pages have the IEEE harmonic voltage limits superimposed on the harmonic voltage distortion results. They show that the voltage distortion at the kV bus is within the IEEE defined limits but that at the 33kV bus, the 5th, 7th and 11th harmonic voltages exceed the limits, and the 13th harmonic is at the limit.

Clearly under this scenario a solution to alleviate the harmonic problem at the 33kV bus, is neceesary. Firstly, the impedance assessment at the 33kV bus see Figure 4 now shows that the inclusion of the 6.

This is fortunate as the higher order harmonics in a six-pulse converter which the harmonic motor drives harmonic injection currents are modeling, tend to rapidly diminish in magnitude as the order increases.

However, the same frequnecy scan performed at the 6. The harmonic spectra results at the 33kV bus see Figure 6 now indicate that the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonic voltage distortion limits have been exceeded, and that at the 6. These results indicate that the inclusion of the 6. Additionally, the frequency scan results indicate that the motor drive may be better placed at the 33kV bus, due to the relatively lower magnitude impedance at lower frequencies, seen from the 33kV bus by the harmonic injection currents.

Case Study 3 In the third study example, Case Study 3, the effect of the 6. The harmonic spectra results for the 6. Additionally the result in Figure 8 confirms that the motor drive would be best placed at the 33kV bus due to the increased distortion levels at the lower order harmonic voltages at the 6. Case Study 4 In the final case study in the Harmonics example, Case Study 4, a filter design is implemeneted at the 33kV bus, to modify the resonant behaviour of the plant and reduce the harmonic voltage distortion levels.

Filter design in situations where there are harmonic distortion problems can be approached using either single tuned harmonic filters or C-type high pass filters. In this example a single tuned filter is applied with a low Q factor, and is designed to provide reactive power and minimise losses at the fundamental frequency.

Additionally the effective impedance of the original resonance should be modified such that the voltage distortion is maintained within either prescribed limits or levels that allow adequate plant operation.

In the example, the filter is connected at either the 33kV or 6. This is to finalise whether the motor drive installation is better suited at the higher or lower voltage levels within the plant.

The design of the filter is not elaborated on within this text, however in summary its design incorporates the original power factor correction capacitance, and a series connected tuning reactor. The filter is designed to alleviate the effects of the parallel resonance in Study Case 1, evident at the 33kV bus when the 6. It can be seen from Figure 2 that the parallel resonance occurs at approximately Hz.

The filter could be tuned to eliminate this resonance directly, however this approach leads to the occurrence of lower order resonant behaviour. Given that there are two significant harmonic currents at the 5th and 7th harmonics below the original resonant frequency, the risk is that the new parallel resonance may occur at these frequencies. For this reason single tuned filters should be designed to remove specific harmonic currents rather than parallel resonances.

This is to account for variation in the utility system impedance which may occur due to switchings or outages and affect the frequency of the parallel resonance.

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The example is then re-run with the 33kV motor load connected to assess whether the harmonic voltage limits have been breached with the addition of the harmonic filter. Figure 9: The results from Figure 9 indicate that at each harmonic, the IEEE voltage standards for bus voltages below 69kV have been met. This may necessitate the design and implementation of a second single tuned filter, tuned around the 7th harmonic frequency, to filter more of the higher order harmonics.

Figure 10 shows the harmonic voltage spectra at the 6.

The distortion levels have significantly reduced when compared with the unfiltered case in Figure 7, although the 7th harmonic voltage level may prove onerous for smaller induction motor operation.

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IEEE Brownbook - Harmonics

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