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METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS PDF

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Engineering metrology deals with the applications of measurement science in Engineering Metrology and Measurements is a core subject for mechanical. Download Metrology and Measurements By cittadelmonte.inforaghavan, Lakshmi Publications – The book “Metrology and Measurements” for Engineering and. Download Engineering Metrology and Measurements Books – We have compiled a list of Best & Standard Reference Books on Engineering Metrology and.


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PDF | The main purpose of Metrology is to increase awareness of metrology and to establish a common metrological frame of reference in. quantity under consideration into: metrology of length, metrology of time etc Engineering metrology is restricted to the measurement of length. Engineering Metrology and cittadelmonte.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Engineering Metrology and Measurements. Gokul S. Sub Code: ME Staff-In charges: UNIT- V:

Variable manipulation element 4. Data transmission element 5. Data processing element 6. Data presentation element Basic units in SI system: Metre m which is equal to Kilogram kg which is equal to the mass of International prototype of the kilogram.

Second s which is equal to the duration of periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the hyper fine levels of the ground state of the Caesium atom. ME54 5 For Temperature: Mole mol is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0. Supplementary SI units: Radian rad 2 For Solid angle: Steradian sr Derived SI units: In the Line standard, the length is the distance between the centres of engraved lines whereas in End standard, it is the distance between the end faces of the standard.

Primary standard: It is only one material standard and is preserved under the most careful conditions and is used only for comparison with Secondary standard. Secondary standard: It is similar to Primary standard as nearly as possible and is distributed to a number of places for safe custody and is used for occasional comparison with Tertiary standards. ME54 Tertiary standard: It is used for reference purposes in laboratories and workshops and is used for comparison with working standard.

Working standard: It is used daily in laboratories and workshops. Low grades of materials may be used. Measuring instruments: A broad classification of the instruments based on the application mode of operation, manner of energy conversion and the nature of energy conversion and the nature of output signal is given below 1.

Deflection and null type instruments 2. Analog and digital instruments 3.

[PDF] Engineering Metrology and Measurements Books Collection Free Download

Active and passive instruments 4. Automatic and manually operated instruments 5. Contacting and non contacting instruments 6. Absolute and secondary instruments 7. Intelligent instruments. Performance of instruments: All instrumentation systems are characterized by the system characteristics or system response.

It consists of two basic characteristics such as static and dynamic. If the instrument is required to measure a condition not varying with time characteristics are called static while for a time varying process variable measurement, the dynamic characteristics are more important. Static response: The static characteristics of an instrument are considered for instruments which are used to measure an unvarying process conditions.

Dynamic response: The behaviors of an instrument under such time varying input — output conditions called dynamic response of an instrument. The instrument analysis of such dynamic response is called dynamic analysis of the measurement system. ME54 Dynamic quantities are two types 1. Transient Terms in Measurement: Sensitivity of the instrument is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the output signal to the magnitude of the input signal. It has wide range of the units which dependent up on the instrument or measuring system.

Readability is a word which is frequently used in the analog measurement. The readability is depends on the both the instruments and observer. The susceptibility of a measuring instrument to having its indications converted to a meaningful number. It implies the ease with which observations can be made accurately. Accuracy may be defined as the ability of instruments to respond to a true value of a measured variable under the reference conditions. It refers to how closely the measured value agrees with the true value.

Precision is defined as the degrees of exactness for which an instrument is designed or intended to perform.

It refers to repeatability or consistency of measurement when the instruments are carried out under identical conditions at a short interval of time. It can also defined as the ability of the instruments to reproduce a group of the instruments as the same measured quantity under the same conditions.

Correction is defined as a value which is added algebraically to the uncorrected result of the measurement to compensate to an assumed systematic error. ME54 Calibration: Calibration is the process of determining and adjusting an instruments accuracy to make sure its accuracy is with in manufacturing specifications. It is the process of determining the values of the quantity being measured corresponding to a pre-established arbitrary scale.

Engineering Metrology and Measurements.pdf

It is the measurement of measuring instrument. A part which can be substituted for the component manufactured to the small shape and dimensions is known a interchangeable part. The operation of substituting the part for similar manufactured components of the shape and dimensions is known as interchangeability.

Constant of a measuring instrument: The factor by which the indication of the instrument shall be multiplied to obtain the result of measurement. Nominal value of a physical measure: The value of the quantity reproduced by the physical measure and is indicated on that measure. Conventional true value of a physical measure: The value of the quantity reproduced by the physical measure, determined by a measurement carried out with the help of measuring instruments, which show a total error which is practically negligible.

It is the physical embodiment of a unit. Types of Errors: A Error of Measurement: It is the error which during several measurements, made under the same conditions, of the same value of a certain quantity, remains constant in absolute value and sign or varies in a predictable way in accordance with a specified law when the conditions change.

The causes of these errors may be known or unknown. The errors may be constant or variable. Systematic errors are regularly repetitive in nature. ME54 identical conditions. Random errors are non-consistent. Random errors are normally of limited time duration. It is the error, often gross, which results from incorrect execution of measurement. B Instrumental error: It is the difference between the nominal value and the conventional true value reproduced by the physical measure.

It is the difference between the value indicated by the measuring mechanism and the conventional true value of the measured quantity. It is the indication of a measuring instrument for the zero value of the quantity measured. It is the difference between the conventional true value reproduced by the physical measure and the nominal value of that measure.

It is the error of a measuring instrument arising from the fact that the values of the influence quantities are different from those corresponding to the reference conditions. It is the difference between the measured values of a quantity, when an influence quantity takes successively two specified values, without changing the quantity measured.

It is the error arising from the fact that the temperature of instrument does not maintain its reference value. It is the error due to the friction between the moving parts of the measuring instruments.

It is the error due to the inertia mechanical, thermal or otherwise of the parts of the measuring instrument. C Error of observation: It is the error of observation resulting from incorrect reading of the indication of a measuring instrument by the observer. It is the reading error which is produced, when, with the index at a certain distance from the surface of scale, the reading is not made in the direction of observation provided for the instrument used.

ME54 3 Interpolation error: It is the reading error resulting from the inexact evaluation of the position of the index with regard to two adjacent graduation marks between which the index is located. D Based on nature of errors: As the name implies, it should not exist.

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS AND METROLOGY (10ME 32B

These include mistakes and blunders, computational errors and chaotic errors. Chaotic errors are random errors but unlike the latter, they create chaos in the final results.

E Based on control: The sources of error are known and it is possible to have a control on these sources. These can be calibration errors, environmental errors and errors due to non- similarity of condition while calibrating and measuring. Calibration errors: These are caused due to variation in the calibrated scale from its normal value.

The actual length of standards such as slip gauges will vary from the nominal value by a small amount. This will cause an error of constant magnitude. Instruments are calibrated at these conditions.

If there is any variation in the ambient condition, errors may creep into final results. Of the three, temperature effect is most considerable. Stylus pressure errors: Though the pressure involved during measurement is generally small, this is sufficient enough to cause appreciable deformation of both the stylus and the work piece.

This will cause an error in the measurement. Avoidable errors: These errors may occur due to parallax in the reading of measuring instruments.

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS AND METROLOGY (10ME 32B - PDF Drive

This occurs when the scale and pointer are separated relative to one another. The two common practices to minimise this error are: These avoidable errors occur also due to non-alignment of work piece centers, improper location of measuring instruments, etc.

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