Environment Nuclear Power Plant Seminar Report Pdf


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Seminar: Nuclear power plants under construction in the world on the subject). Revised nuclear power projections in IAEA report. Introduction to nuclear power; Nuclear reactions; Nuclear power plant; Is nuclear energy safe? The science of atomic radiation, atomic change and nuclear fission was developed from to Otherwise, UN report ()- “there is no scientific evidence of any significant . pdf. This report provides an overview of the second annual seminar hosted by . need to water their plants via an SMS text message. nuclear plant simulations, the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and disposal.

Nuclear Power Plant Seminar Report Pdf

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nuclear powerplant seminar report. 1. Nuclear Power Plant Page 1 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION A nuclear power plant or nuclear power. The papers presented at thiB Seminar on Nuclear Power have We are pleased to report to you that the desalting plants of. 1-»illion gallons. Nuclear Power Plant Seminar Report - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. It is a seminar report on Nuclear.

Login to Your Account. Remember Me? Register Forget Password. Results 1 to 1 of 1. Thread Tools Show Printable Version. Female City: The reserves of these fuels are becoming depleted in many countries and thus there is a tendency to seek alternative sources of energy.

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Nuclear Power Plant Seminar Report

Similar Threads: Attached Files for Direct Download. Tags for this Thread engineering forum , faadooengineers , nuclear , paper , pdf , presentation , reactor , seminar. The time now is Copyright FaaDoOEngineers. All rights reserved. F Polls. In order to control the chain reaction one should use materials which tend to capture neutrons at a high probability.

The most widespread neutron absorbers are Cadmium and Boron. In India, at Narora Atomic Power Plant, Cadmium sandwiched steel rods have been used, because due to low strength Cadmium alone cannot be used. The so called control rods are important tools to control reactor. These are made of neutron absorbing materials and can be moved between the fuel assemblies.

For example, if one wishes to decrease the power of the reactor it is sufficient to push a control rod a little inner. The control rods are particularly useful for the short term control and stopping the reactor chain reaction. For long term regulation usually Boric acid dissolved in the moderator is used. Nuclear Fission of Uranium. Moderation is a process of the reduction of the initial high kinetic energy of the free neutron.

Since energy is conserved, this reduction of the neutron kinetic energy takes place by transfer of energy to a material known as a moderator. It is also known as neutron slowing down, since along with the reduction of energy comes a reduction in speed.

Heavy Water as a Moderator. Heavy water is used both as a moderator and coolant. The moderator system comprises of Heavy water and Helium system. Moderator D 2 O system circulating pump take suction from bottom of callandria and discharge back to the callandria through moderator heat exchanger for maintaining moderator temperature.

The fuel coolant system is called Primary Heat Transport System. It is a high pressure and high temperature circuit. The heat generated in the fuel bundles, as a result of uranium fission, is removed by the heavy water serving as a primary coolant. High pressure high temperature heavy water areas have been separated from the high pressure high temperature light water for recovery of high isotopic purity of heavy water. Control Rods in Reactor Building. They have two diverse and independent shut down system, one of them is fast and other is slow.

Primary Shutdown System. The system is meant to shut down the reactor whenever any operating parameter crosses a set limit. The system operates automatically and can also be operated manually. The system has 14 rods of Cadmium sandwiched in stainless steel as neutron absorbing element. Any trip signal actuates the mechanical drum assembly and the criticality is reduced to sub criticality in a span of 2.

Secondary Shutdown System. The Secondary Shutdown system comes into action when the primary shutdown system fails to operate.

It is provided as a backup protective system. It consists of 12 liquid poison tubes which remain empty during normal course of operation. But during operation the system enables the filling of tubes with a neutron absorbing liquid.

The principle is such that when liquid filled tanks are pressurized then the liquid rises up in liquid tubes located inside reactor. It makes the reactor subcritical in 1. The primary and secondary shut down system are unable to maintain the state of sub criticality for long enough therefore an additional system known as Automatic Liquid Poison Addition System is employed. Liquid poison is added in the moderator. This poison will absorb the neutrons and thus will interrupt chain reaction. Poison can be added either manually or automatically.

Steam Turbines. The turbine is a impulse reaction type, designed for saturated steam. After expansion in a single flow high-pressure turbine, moisture is extracted in separator-cum-reheater units where steam is reheated to 0 C before it enters the double flow low-pressure turbine.

Steam is extracted from suitable stages of the turbine to provide for 6 stage regenerative feed heating, with a final feed water temperature of 0 C. The total quantity of steam flow to the turbine is around Stator conductors are water-cooled. The stator core is cooled by dematerialized water and rotor are cooled by Hydrogen, since excitation current requirement is large with a maximum of Amps, inductor-type high frequency exciter is chosen to avoid commutation problems which are experienced in DC exciters.

A Turbo Generator. Cooling Towers. Natural Draught Cooling Tower. Emergency Power Supply: Most nuclear plants require two distinct sources of offsite power feeding station service transformers that are sufficiently separated in the plant's switchyard and can receive power from multiple transmission lines.

Nuclear power plants are equipped with emergency power systems to maintain safety in the event of unit shutdown and loss of offsite power. Batteries provide uninterruptible power to instrumentation, control systems, and valves.. The emergency diesel generators do not power all plant systems, only those required to shut the reactor down safely, remove decay heat from the reactor, provide emergency core cooling, and, in some plants, spent fuel pool cooling. Nuclear fuel: Fuel of a reactor should be fissionable material which can be defined as a fissionable material which can be defined as an element or isotope whose nuclei.

The fuels used are: U, U, U , UO2. Fertile materials, those which. When a fertile material is hit by neutrons. This material in the reactor core is used to moderate or to reduce the neutron speeds to a value that increases the probability of fission occurring. Control rods: The energy inside the reactor is controlled by the control rod.

These are in cylindrical or sheet form made of boron or cadmium. These rods can be moved in and out of the holes in the reactor core assembly. This completely surrounds the reactor core within the thermal shielding arrangement and helps to bounce escaping neutrons back into the core.

This conserves the nuclear fuel. Reactor vessel: It is a strong walled container housing the core of the power reactor.

It contains moderate, reflector, thermal shielding and control rods. Biological shielding: Shielding helps in giving protection from the deadly - and particle radiations and -rays as well as neutrons given off by the process of fission within the reactor. This removes heat from the core produced by nuclear reaction. The types of coolants used are carbon dioxide, air, hydrogen, helium, sodium or sodium potassium.

Chapter 7 Nuclear Power in India Nuclear power is the fourth largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity. As of , India has 21 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants, having an installed capacity of MW and producing a total of 30, Space requirement of a nuclear power plant is less as compared to other conventional power plants of equal size.

A nuclear power plant consumes very small quantity of fuel. Thus fuel transportation cost is less and large fuel storage facility is not needed.

Nuclear power plants are well suited to meet large power demands. Materials expenditure on metal structures, piping, storage mechanisms are much lower for a nuclear power plant than a coal burning power plant.

The generation of electricity through nuclear energy reduces the amount of energy generated from fossil fuels coal and oil. Less use of fossil fuels means lowering greenhouse gas emissions CO2 and others.

Currently, fossil fuels are consumed faster than they are produced, so in the next future these resources may be reduced or the price may increase becoming inaccessible for most of the population.

The production of electric energy is continuous. It reduces the price volatility of other fuels such as petrol. Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Plant Initial cost of nuclear power plant is higher as compared to hydro or steam power plant. Nuclear power plants are not well suited for varying load conditions.

Nuclear Power Plant Seminar Report | Nuclear Fusion | Nuclear Fission

Radioactive wastes if not disposed carefully may have bad effect on the health of workers and other population. Maintenance cost of the plant is high. It requires highly trained personnel to handle nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plants generate external dependence.

Not many countries have uranium mines and not all the countries have nuclear technology, so they have to hire both things overseas. Nuclear power plants are objectives of terrorist organizations. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations is expensive and takes a long time. Nuclear accidents can spread 'radiation producing particles' over a wide area, This radiation harms the cells of the body which can make humans sick or even cause death. Illness can appear or strike people years after they were exposed to nuclear radiation and genetic problems can occur too.

A possible type of reactor disaster is known as a meltdown. In a meltdown, the fission reaction of an atom goes out of control, which leads to a nuclear explosion releasing great amounts of radioactive particles into the environment. Chernobyl and Fukushima are the worst nuclear accidents to date causing many lives and leakage of radiation.

Chapter 9 Conclusion: Widely used nuclear energy can be of great benefit for mankind.

It can bridge the gap caused by inadequate coal and oil supply. It should be used to as much extent as possible to solve power problem. With further developments, it is likely that the cost of nuclear power stations will be lowered and that they will soon be competitive. With the depletion of fuel reserves and the question of transporting fuel over long distances, nuclear power Dept of Mechanical Engineering, JCE, Belgaum.

Government of India. It is a seminar report on Nuclear power plant for students. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Frictionless Compressor Technology Seminar Report. Jump to Page.

Search inside document. Nuclear Power Plant Abstract A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

There are two types of nuclear reactions Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at a very high speed and join to form a new type of atomic nucleus.

The uranium in turn splits into fast moving lighter elements fission products and releases three free neutrons at the same time, one or more prompt gamma rays are produced as well Comparison between Nuclear Fusion and Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fission Definition Fission is the splitting of a large atom into two or more smaller ones.

Nuclear Fusion Fusion is the fusing of two or more lighter atoms into a larger one. Byproducts of Fission produces many highly the reaction radioactive particles. Few radioactive particles are produced by fusion reaction Conditions Critical mass of the substance and high-speed neutrons are required.

Requirement Nuclear Fusion Extremely high energy is required to bring two or more protons close enough that nuclear forces overcome their electrostatic repulsion.

Energy Fission is used in nuclear power production plants. Fusion is an experimental technology for producing power.

Uranium is the primary fuel used in Fuel power plants. Fuel of a reactor should be fissionable material which can be defined as a fissionable material which can be defined as an element or isotope whose nuclei can caused undergo to be nuclear fission nuclear bombardment and to produce a fission chain reaction.

Fertile materials, those which can be transformed into fissile materials, cannot sustain chain reactions. When a fertile material is hit by neutrons and absorbs some of them, it is converted to material. U are fissile and Th examples of fertile materials used for reactor purposes. Reactor core:

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