RED MARTIN ENGLISH GRAMMAR BOOK
If you are looking for Wren and Martin English Grammar pdf download, This book is gonna will help you to improve your English Grammar. High School English Grammar and Composition [P.C. Wren, H. Martin, The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: An Easy-to-Use Guide with. Total price: . Wren & Martin refers to a single book High School English Grammar and Composition or collectively, a series of English grammar textbooks written jointly by.
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Page iii PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION Wren and Martin's monumental work High School English Grammar Page iv CONTENTS BOOK I. Learn English Grammar from your favorite Wren & Martin book anywhere without carrying the book. * Easy to use app * Easy navigation to different chapters. How do we download a PDF file of “Wren & Martin”? How can I download the answer keys of Middle School English Grammar and Composition by Wren and Martin? How will I download the key of high school English grammar and composition Wren and Martin?.
The phrase 'the love of a father' may mean either 'a father's love of his child' or 'a child's love of his father'. Nouns in Apposition Read the following sentence: Rama, our captain, made fifty runs.
We see that Rama and our captain are one and the same person. The noun captain follows the noun Rama simply to explain which Rama is referred to. Page 19 When one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it.
In the above sentence the noun captain is in apposition to the noun Rama, and is in the Nominative Case because Rama is in the Nominative Case. Further examples: Kabir, the great reformer, was a weaver. Yesterday I met your uncle, the doctor. Have you seen Ganguli, the artist's drawings? In sentence 1, the noun in apposition is in the Nominative Case.
In sentence 2, the noun in apposition is in the Accusative Case. Sita is a clever girl. Girl of what kind1? I don't like that boy, Which boy? He gave me five mangoes. How many mangoes?
There is little time for preparation. How much time? A word used with a noun to describe or point out, the person, animal, place or thing which the noun names, or to tell the number or quantity, is called an Adjective.
So we may define an Adjective as a word used with a noun to add something for its meaning. Look at the following sentences: The lazy boy was punished. The boy is lazy.
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In sentence 1, the Adjective lazy is used along with the noun boy as an epithet or attribute. It is, therefore, said to be used Attributively. In sentence 2, the Adjective lazy is used along with the verb is, Page 20 and forms part of the Predicate. It is, therefore, said to be used Predicatively. Some Adjectives can be used only Predicatively; as, She is afraid of ghosts. I am quite well. Kinds of Adjectives Adjectives may be divided into the following classes: Adjectives of Quality or Descriptive Adjective show the kind or quality of a person or thing; as, Kolkata is a large city.
He is an honest man. The foolish old crow tried to sing. They are generally classed with Adjectives of Quality language. Adjectives of Quality answer the question: Of what kind?
Adjectives of Quantity show how much of a thing is meant as, I ate some rice. He showed much patience. He has little intelligence. We have had enough exercise. He has lost all his wealth. You have no sense. He did not eat any rice. Take great care of your health.
He claimed his half share of the booty. There has not been sufficient rain this year. The whole sum was expended. Adjectives of Quantity answer the question: How much? Adjectives of Number or Numeral Adjectives show how many persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or thing stands; as, The hand has five fingers. Few cats like cold water. There are no pictures in this book. I have taught you many things. All men must die. Here are some ripe mangoes.
Most boys like cricket. There are several mistakes in your exercise. Sunday is the first day of the week Page 21 Adjectives of Number or Numeral Adjectives are of three kinds: First, second, third, etc.
It will be seen that Ordinals really do the work of Demonstrative Adjectives. See 74] ii Indefinite Numeral Adjectives, which do not denote an exact number; as, All, no; many, few; some, any; certain, several, sundry. India expects every man to do his duty. Every word of it is false. Either pen will do. On either side is a narrow lane. Neither accusation is true. The same Adjective may be classed as of Quantity or Number, according to its use.
Adjectives of Quantity -- Adjectives of Number I ate some rice. I have enough sugar. Demonstrative Adjectives point out which person or thing is meant; as, This boy is stronger than Hari. That boy is industrious. These mangoes are sour. Those rascals must be punished. Yonder fort once belonged to Shivaji. Don't be in such a hurry.
I hate such things. Demonstrative Adjectives answer the question: What, which and whose, when they are used with nouns toask questions, are called Interrogative Adjectives; as, What manner of man is he?
Which way shall we go? Whose book is this? Page 22 Exercise in Grammar 6 Pick out all the Adjectives in the following sentences, and say to which class each of them belongs: The ship sustained heavy damage. I have called several times. Every dog has his day. A live ass is better than a dead lion, 5. Every man has his duties. Say the same thing twice over. Several persons were present at the time, 8. He is a man of few words.
Neither party is quite in the right. What time is if? Which pen do you prefer? The way was long, the wind was cold, the minstrel was infirm and old.
He comes here every day. I have not seen him for several days. There should not be much talk and little work. Abdul won the second prize. The child fell down from a great height. He was absent last week. He died a glorious death. A small leak may sink a great ship.
Good wine needs no bush. I like the little pedlar who has a crooked nose. King Francis was a hearty King and loved a royal sport. In the furrowed land the toilsome patient oxen stand.
My uncle lives in the next house. Some dreams are like reality. A cross child is not liked. It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good.
In the following sentences the words own and very are used as Emphasizing Adjectives: He was beaten at his own game. Mind your own business. He is his own master. That is the very thing we want. The word what is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjective; as. What genius! What folly! What an idea! What a blessing! What a piece of work is man! This girl sings.
These girls sing. That boy plays. Those boys play. This, these indicate something near to the speaker. That, those indicate more distant objects. Formation of Adjectives Page 23 Care -- careful Pardon -- pardonable Play -- playful Laugh -- laughable Hope -- hopeful Outrage -- outrageous Venture -- venturesome Courage -- courageous Trouble -- troublesome Glory -- glorious Shame -- shameless Envy -- envious Sense -- senseless Man -- manly Silk -- silken King -- kingly Gold -- golden Gift -- gifted ii Some Adjectives are formed from Verbs.
The town stood a siege. The prize was won by a Hindu. The woman lives in a wretched hut. This is a very matter.
The battle of Waterloo ended in a victory. Suddenly there arose a storm. It is a lie. The tidings were a heavy blow to the old man. Here is a rupee: His reading is of a very range. The injured man wants advice. You cannot have it ways. India expects man to do his duty. The bird catches the worm. Have you any reason to give? There were riots in places.
An man will not reason calmly. He stands feet in his stockings. Nelson won for himself fame. I have no cash. He always walks with a step.
Every cloud has a lining. He was a man of ambition. He was listened to in silence. Exercise in Composition 8 Form Adjectives from the following Nouns: Page 24 pain, doubt, wonder, peace, child, prince, mountain, ridicule, picture, labour, wood, pomp, artist, progress, slave, contempt, tempest, sense, quarrel, I thought, hope, friend.
Exercise in Composition 9 Use each of the following Adjectives in a sentence: His polite manners have endeared him to all. Swimming is a healthy exercise. A certain man fell among thieves. Exercise in Composition 10 Use a suitable Adjective with each of the following Nouns: A long siege. A decisive victory. A populous city. A devoted husband. Storm, siege, sleep, victory, advice, blow, silence, hands, water, servant, flower, city, artist, dealer, voice, husband, subject, child, king, dog.
Exercise in Composition 11 Use as many suitable Adjectives as you can with each of the following Nouns: A deliberate lie, a black lie, a white lie.
Exercise in Composition 12 Write down the Adjectives opposite in meaning to the following: Read these sentences: Rama's mango is sweet. Hari's mango is sweeter than Rama's. Govind's mango is the sweetest of all. Page 25 In sentence 1, the adjective sweet merely tells us that Rama's mango has the quality of sweetness, without saying how much of this quality it has. In sentence 2, the adjective sweeter tells us that Hari's mango, compared with Rama's, has more of the quality of sweetness.
In sentence 3, the adjective sweetest tells us that of all these mangoes Govind's mango has the greatest amount or highest degree of the quality of sweetness. We thus see that Adjectives change in form sweet, sweeter, sweetest to show comparison. They are called the three Degrees of Comparison. The Adjective sweet is said to be in the Positive Degree. The Adjective sweeter is said to be in the Comparative Degree. The Adjective sweetest is said to be in the Superlative Degree. The Positive Degree of an Adjective is the Adjective in its simple form.
It is used to denote the mere existence of some quality of what we speak about. It is used when no comparison is made. The Comparative Degree of an Adjective denotes a higher degree of the quality than the Positive, and is used when two things or sets of things are compared; as, This boy is stronger than that. Which of these two pens is the better? Apples are dearer than oranges. The Superlative Degree of an Adjective denotes the highest degree of the quality, and is used when more than two things or sets of things are compared; as, This boy is the strongest in the class.
Note 1: Instead of saying 'Rama is stronger than Balu we can say 'Balu is less strong than Rama'. Instead of saying 'Hari is the laziest boy in the class', we can say 'Hari is the least industrious boy in the class7.
Note 2: It was a most eloquent speech. Truly, a most ingenious device! This usage has been called the Superlative of Eminence, or the Absolute Superlative. Formation of Comparative and Superlative Most Adjectives of one syllable, and some of more than one, form the Comparative by adding er and the Superlative by adding est to the positive. Page 26 Positive -- Comparative -- Superlative Sweet -- sweeter -- sweetest Small -- smaller -- smallest Tall -- taller -- tallest Bold -- bolder -- boldest Clever -- cleverer -- cleverest Kind -- kinder -- kindest Young -- younger -- youngest Great -- greater -- greatest When the Positive ends in e, only r and st are added.
Brave -- braver -- bravest Fine -- finer -- finest White -- whiter -- whitest Large -- larger -- largest Able -- abler -- ablest Noble -- nobler -- noblest Wise -- wiser -- wisest When the Positive ends in j, preceded by a consonant, the y is changed into i before adding er and est. Happy -- happier -- happiest Easy -- easier -- easiest Heavy -- heavier -- heaviest Merry -- merrier -- merriest Wealthy -- wealthier -- wealthiest When the Positive is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel, this consonant is doubled before adding er and est.
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Red -- redder -- reddest Big -- bigger -- biggest Hot -- hotter -- hottest Thin -- thinner -- thinnest Sad -- sadder -- saddest Fat -- fatter -- fattest Adjectives of more than two syllables form the Comparative and Superlative by putting more and most before the Positive.
Positive -- Comparative -- Superlative Beautiful -- more beautiful -- most beautiful Difficult -- more difficult -- most difficult Industrious -- more industrious -- most industrious Courageous -- more courageous -- most courageous Two-syllable adjectives ending infill e. The following take either er and est or more and most. The-Comparative-in er is not used when we compare two qualities in the same person or thing. If we wish to say that the courage of Rama is greater than the courage of Balu, we say Page 27 Rama is braver than Balu.
But if we wish to say that the courage of Rama is greater than his prudence, we must say, Rama is more brave than prudent. When two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former; as, Iron is more useful than any other metal.
If we say, Iron is more useful than any metal, that is the same thing as saying 'Iron is more useful than iron' since iron is itself a metal. Irregular Comparison The following Adjectives are compared irregularly, that is, their Comparative and Superlative are not formed from the Positive: Exercise in Grammar 13 Compare the following Adjectives: Later, latter; latest, last.
He is later than I expected. I have not heard the latest news. The latter chapters are lacking in interest. The last chapter is carelesslv written Ours is the last house in the street.
Page 28 Elder, older; eldest, oldest. Elder is not used with than following. Older and oldest are used of both persons and things. John is my elder brother. Tom is my eldest son. He is older than his sister. Rama is the oldest boy in the eleven. This is the oldest temple in Kolkata.
Farther, further. After this he made no further remarks. I must have a reply without further delay. Nearest, next. Next refers to one of a sequence of things coming one after the other. Mumbai is the seaport nearest to Europe. Where is the nearest phone box? Karim's shop is next to the Post Office. Exercise in Composition 14 a Fill the blank spaces with 'later' or 'latter': The majority accepted the proposal.
The part of the book shows signs of hurry. At a date, he was placed in charge of the whole taluka. I prefer the proposition to the former. Is there no news than last week's? I have an sister. Rama is than Had by two years. His brother is in the Indian Police Service. She is the of the two sisters. The nephew is than his uncle. Rustam is the of my uncle's five sons. He is the member of the School Committee.
That is Antonio, the duke's son. The mosque in the town is near the railway station. Smith is the teacher in the school. I can't walk any No reasons were given. He walked off without ceremony. Until orders Mr. Dave will act as Headmaster of Nira High School.
To let, a bungalow at Ridge Road. For particulars apply to Box. Page 29 e Fill the blank spaces with 'latest' or 'last': The news from China is very disquieting. The time I saw him, he was in high spirits. To-day is the day for receiving lenders. We expect to get the news in a few hours. The Moghul Emperor came to an ignominious end. This is the post office to my house. The pillar-box is to my house. The burglar was taken to the police station.
His house is to mine. The railway station is two miles from here. Certain English Comparatives have lost their comparative meaning and are used as Positive. They cannot be followed by than.
These are: Both the tiger and he leopard are cats; the former animal is much larger than the latter. The inner meaning of this letter is not clear. The soldiers ran to defend the outer wall. My elder brother is an engineer. This man is an utter fool. Certain Comparatives borrowed from Latin have no Positive or Superlative degree. They all end in or, not er. They are twelve in all. Five of them have lost their Comparative meaning, and are used as Positive Adjectives.
The exterior wall of the house is made of stone; the interior walls are of wood. His age is a matter of minor importance. I have no ulterior motive in offering you help. The comparative degree is generally followed by than; but Comparative Adjectives ending in -or are followed by the preposition to; as, Inferior, superior, prior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior.
Hari is inferior to Ram in intelligence. Rama's intelligence is superior to Hari's. His marriage was prior to his father's death. He is junior to all his colleagues. All his colleagues are senior to him.
Adjectives expressing qualities that do not admit of different degrees cannot, strictly speaking, be compared; as, Square, round, perfect, eternal, universal, unique. Strictly speaking, a thing cannot be more square, more round, more perfect.
But we say, for instance, The poor woman had seen happier days. Do not talk such nonsense. Make less noise. That child has a slight cold. A live ass is stranger than a dead lion. Soloman was one of the wisest men.
Hunger is the best sauce. His simple word is as good as an oath. There was not the slightest excuse for it. My knife is sharper than yours. Small people love to talk of great men. Of two evils choose the less. I hope the matter will be cleared up some day. Your son makes no progress in his studies.
Open rebuke is better than secret love. We never had such sport. I have other things to attend lo. Hari is the idlest boy in the class. I promise you a fair hearing. There is much to be said on both sides. He gave the boys much wholesome advice. He thinks he is wiser than his father. Bangladesh has the largest tea garden in the world.
Lead is heavier than any other metal. I congratulated him on his good fortune. He has many powerful friends. The longest lane has a turning. Good - How is your brother to-day? Is he ? Hot - May is here than any other month. Pretty - Her doll is than yours. Idle - Hari is the boy in the class. Sharp - Your knife is sharp, but mine is Dear - Honour is to him than life. Rich - He is the man in our town. Old - Mani is two years than Rati. Large - Name the city in the world.
Good - He is the friend I have. Page 31 Bad - He is the boy of the two. Bad - Raman's work is bad, Hari's is , but Govind's is the Ferocious - There is no animal than the tiger. Bad - The trade is in a condition to-day than it was a year ago. Tall - He is the of the two. Dry - Sind is the part of Pakistan. Useful - Iron is than any other metal. Useful - Iron is the of all metals. Great - Who is the living poet? Nutritious - I think he requires a diet. Proud - It was the moment of his life. Good -The public is the judge.
Little - That is the price I can take. Light - Silver is than gold. Exercise in Composition 18 Supply appropriate Comparatives or Superlatives to each of the following: Prevention is than cure. Akbar had a region than Babar. Sachin Tendulkar is the batsman in the world. The pen is than the sword. The buildings are found in America.
The Pacific is than any other ocean. Which of the two girls has the dress? Honour is to him than life. This pen is than the other.
Who is the boy in the class? The Eiffel Tower is than Qutab Minar. My uncle is than my father.
The multi-millionaire Mr. Sen is the in this town. Wordsworth is a poet than Cowper. Balu is the bowler in the eleven. The streets of Mumbai are than those of Ahmedabad.
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Ooty is than Chennai. The piano was knocked down to the bidder. Mount Everest is the peak of the Himalayas. He writes a hand than his brother. He writes the hand in his class. He is one of the speakers in Punjab. Who was the general, Alexander or Caesar? The fables are those attributed to j45sop.
The Arabian Nights is perhaps the story-book, Shakespeare is than any other English poet. Of all countries, China has the population in the world. Clouds float in the sky because they are than the air.
There are two ways of doing the sum, but this one is the It is good to be clever, but it is to be industrious. This is the of my two sons. This is the that I can do? Page 32 Exercise in Composition 19 Change the following sentences by using 'less' or 'least' without changing the meaning: The mango is sweeter than the pine-apple.
Silver is more plentiful than gold. This is the most useless of all my books. Wolfram is one of the rarest minerals. The wild-apple is the sourest of all fruits. Iron is more useful than copper.
Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison As the following examples show, it is possible to change the Degree of Comparison of an Adjective in a sentence, without changing the meaning of the sentence: Comparative - Lead is heavier than all other metals. Comparative - Mahabaleshwar is cooler than Panchgani. Positive - Panchgani is not so cool as Mahabaleshwar. Positive - He is as wise as Solomon. Comparative - Soloman was not wiser than he is. Superlative - Shakuntala is the best drama in Sanskrit.
Comparative - Shakuntala is better than any other drama in Sanskrit. Positive - No other drama in Sanskrit is so good as Shakuntala. Superlative - Chennai is one of the biggest of Indian cities.
Comparative - Chennai is bigger than most other Indian cities. Positive - Very few Indian cities are as big as Chennai. Positive - Some poets are at least as great as Tennyson. Comparative - Tennyson is not greater than some other poets, I Some poets are not less great than Tennyson.
Superlative - Tennyson is not the greatest of all poets. Exercise in Composition 20 Change the Degree of Comparison, without changing the meaning: Malacca is the oldest town in Malaysia. Soya beans are at least as nutritious as meat. No other planet is so big as Jupiter. Very few boys are as industrious as Latif. He would sooner die than tell a lie. India is the largest democracy in the world. Shakespeare is greater than any other English poet.
Samudra Gupta was one of the greatest of Indian Kings. The tiger is the most ferocious of all animals.
Australia is the largest island in the world. Some people have more money than brains. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend. The Marwaries are not less enterprising than any other community in India. I know him quite as well as you do.
You do not know him better than I do. No other man was as strong as Bhim. Some boys are the list as industrious as Suresh. Mount Everest is the highest peak of the Himalayas. Page 33 Very few animals are as useful as the cow. America is the richest country in the world. It is easier to preach than to practise. Iron is more useful than all the other metals.
The Sears Tower is the tallest building in the world. Sir Surendranath was at least as great an orator as any other Indian. Ooty is as healthy as any resort in India. The pen is mightier than the sword. Adjectives are often used as Nouns. Blessed are the meek. In future I shall charge you for medical advice. In short, we know nothing. The negotiations were carried on in secret.
I shall see you before long. Before long, he will be appointed to a higher post. At present, he is in pecuniary difficulties. I do not want any more at present. He has left India for good. At best we shall get no more dividend than five paise in a rupee. At best he is a clever versifier: It must be said to his credit that he stood by his friend through thick and thin.
I must have your teams down in black and white.
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Page 34 Right or wrong, my country. I am afraid the young man is going from bad to worse. The long and short of it is that I distrust you. Nouns used as Adjectives The use of Nouns as Adjectives is very common in English; as, I met a little cottage girl.
He is always playing computer games. An Adjective used attributively is generally placed immediately before the noun; as, King Francis was a hearty king, and loved a royal sport. Where are you going, my pretty maid, with your rosy cheeks and golden hair? O Captain! Observe the difference in meaning between: In poetry, however, the Adjective is frequently placed after the noun; as.
Children dear, was it yesterday. We heard the sweet bells over the bay. When several Adjectives are attached to one noun they are sometimes placed after it for emphasis; as There dwelt a miller hale and bold. The King, fearless and resolute, at once advanced. Franklin had a great genius, original, sagacious, and inventive.
When some word or phrase is joined to the Adjective to explain its meaning, the Adjective is placed after its noun; as, He was a man fertile in resource. A Sikh, taller than any of his comrades, rushed forward. In certain phrases the Adjective always comes after the noun; as Heir apparent, time immemorial, lord paramount, viceroy elect, letters, patent, knights temporal, notary public, body politic, God Almighty. Some, any- To express quantity or degree some is used normally in affirmative sentences, any in negative or interrogative sentences.
Page 35 I will buy some mangoes. I will not buy any mangoes. Have you bought any mangoes? But any can be used after if in affirmative sentences. If you need any money I will help you.
Will you have some ice-cream? Offer Could you lend me some money? Request Did you buy some clothes? Each, every. Each is used in speaking of two or more things; every is used only in speaking of more than two.
Each directs attention to the individuals forming any group, every to the total group. Each is used only when the number in the group is limited and definite; every when the number is indefinite. Every seat was taken. Five boys were seated on each bench. Every one of these chairs is broken.
Leap year falls in every fourth year. He came to see us every three days [i. It rained every day during my holidays. I was away ten days and it rained each day. Little, a little, the little. Thus, the adjective little has a negative meaning.
There is little hope of his recovery, i. He showed little concern for his nephew. He has little influence with his old followers. He showed little mercy to the vanquished. He has little appreciation of good poetry. A little tact would have saved the situation. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
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