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The have been a local adaptation of the Roman banding first set of samples . of the priesthood with the cult of fire. ing, the shrine of "Pir-e Gandom-e Berian". Mithras Reader: An Academic and Religious Journal of Greek, Roman and part of this mountain, another tomb with the name, 'Pir Gandom Beryan' exists. influences (prehistoric, roman and early medieval). The extremely . covers the basaltic Gandom Beryan plateau in the northwest of the core.


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The full text of this article hosted at iucr. E-mail address: Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The numerical analysis of elastic wave propagation in unbounded media may be difficult due to spurious waves reflected at the model artificial boundaries. This point is critical for the analysis of wave propagation in heterogeneous or layered solids. Perfectly Matched Layers lead to an important reduction of such spurious reflections.

She has papers published in the following anthologies: Both Sides of Heaven: Her Sacred Fires Avalobia, According to these reports the Chaldaean distinguished between two fiery bodies: We note that a certain Iranian cosmology places the Sun beyond the Stars, and we find this evidence particularly in the Mysteries of Mithras. The Hypercosm is in fact an inner condition achieved through hard cultual practices. The most important source for our knowledge of the Platonic tradition of the existence of two Suns is the Chaldaean oracles, the collection of sayings ascribed by a father and son both named Julian.

These oracular sayings were, as is well known, seized upon by Porphyry and later Neoplatonists as constituting a divine revelation Saffrey The Chaldaeans distinguished between two fiery bodies Lewy The former was said to conduct the latter. Brisson The Chaldaean oracles were the product of a Middle Platonic milieu, since they are permeated by concepts and images known from Platonizing thinkers ranging from Philo to Numenius Lewy Plato then amplifies this image in his famous allegory of the cave at the beginning of Book VII of the Republic.

No earlier myth has told of a place beyond the heavens, a , but this is not the first occasion on which the true Being, the , has been given a local habitation Ulansey In the passage of Republic VI which introduces the famous comparison of the Form of the Good to the Sun we have a contrasted with a C: Because the movement upward had found its fullest expression in the allegory of the cave in the Republic.

What is, of course, important to see here is that there exists already in Plato the obvious raw material for the emergence of the idea of the Hypercosmic Sun: It would therefore be a natural and obvious step for a Platonist to imagine that what is outside the cosmic cave of the Republic — namely, the Sun, the visible symbol of the highest of the Forms and of the source of all being — is also what is to be found outside the cosmos in the Hypercosmic Place described in the Phaedrus.

VIII, 31 [Colson Wolfson IV, A [Wright The passage from Julian, therefore, shows that the Hypercosmic Sun of the Chaldaean oracles was understood as being hypercosmic not in a merely symbolic or metaphysical sense Eitrem As stated from the beginning, we have shown that in the late second century C. The evidence from Julian shows that the hypercosmic nature of this second Sun was understood as meaning that it was literally located beyond the outermost sphere of the fixed stars.

The fact that the Chaldaean oracles emerged out of the milieu of Middle Platonism suggests that the doctrine of the Hypercosmic Sun found in the oracles did not develop overnight, but that it has roots in the Platonic tradition, most likely, as we have seen, going back ultimately to Plato himself: We may say, therefore, that it is likely that there existed in Middle Platonic circles during the second century C.

On the basis of this explanation of Mithras as the personification of the force responsible for the precession of the equinoxes this striking parallel becomes readily explicable. As is well known, Porphyry, quoting Eubulus, explains in the Cave of the Nymphs that the Mithraic cave in which Mithras kills the bull and which the Mithraic temple imitates was meant to be an image of the cosmos De antr. VI [Simonini A Platonizing Mithraist of whom there must have been many — witness Numenius, Cronius, and Celsus , therefore, would almost automatically have been led to identify Mithras with the Platonic Hypercosmic Sun, in which case Mithras would become a second Sun besides the normal, visible Sun.

Capable of moving the entire universe, Mithras is essentially greater than the cosmos, and cannot be contained within the cosmic sphere Beck The place where turn itself the Soul in the afterlife Ulansey During their journey, the Souls gazing down from an unspecified place discern, extended from above through the heaven and the earth, a beam of light like a pillar that is compared with the rainbow probably on account of its transparency.

At any rate, from this passage, leaving aside the known difficulties of verbal and contextual interpretation, we derive the following: These intersect like the strokes of a ] chi in the letter forms of the fifth century B. With a cross attached on top, it was sanctioned as the orb of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus, this significant and much used symbol can claim to illustrate a concept of the heavens already known to Plato, although at first we understood it to be a Hellenistic invention Casadio The Zodiac and celestial equator, if these are meant, do not intersect perpendicularly but obliquely Pfeiffer In this she resembles the World Soul that had been postulated in the Timaeus.

A passage in the story of Er Rep. However, the description concentrates first only on this spinning implement which not only symbolizes the single concrete outward appearance of the world but its manifold mobility, the inner mechanism of the great machina mundi Brendel The picture is thereby completely changed.

It will change again just as suddenly, when Rep. To understand the passage, it is essential to recognize its metamorphic character. Such an element is the image of the universe surrounded by bands. It is the story of Er Armenios the Pamphylian, the slain man visits the next world and returns to life.

The purpose of the latter version is to describe the justice of the afterlife, not to emphasize the resurrection of Er. Classical writers identify the supernatural traveler as Zoroaster Kroll The transformation of one image into the other is described just before Rep.

The first words seem to continue the context: Here now the cosmos has been changed, from one word to another, as it were, into a spinning implement which is entirely new. It is indeed that part onto which the thread, weighted by the whorl, is spooled as it emerges from the loose material of the distaff; it is the only movable part. The conclusion one might naturally derive from this image would be that the world is the web of Necessity Peterson Yet this is nowhere stated nor is it what was intended by the Platonic concept.

In fact, not the web but the whorls are the subject of the discussion; thus the idea has taken a new turn which is equivalent to a sudden interruption of the hitherto coherent concept.

The break, if this is what we may call the interlocking of the visions, happens just in that passage where the discussion of the theory of the spheres begins Rep. The metamorphosis of the impersonal image of the cosmos into the mythical personification precedes this and is accordingly its prerequisite, although not its real cause as will be demonstrated momentarily.

First we must study the figure of the spinning woman because she creates the predominant, higher idea for all that follows Brendel She belonged from early times not so much to myth as to poetic tradition, even as early as Homer Il.

XX, ss. On the whole she seems to have remained a rather abstract personality whose origin could be easily remembered by her name Eitrem However, the plurality of two, three or more Moirai, is at home in the myth where they are nymph like, indistinct beings bearing a striking resemblance even in art to the sisterly groups of Nymphs or Horai. VII, ss. These recall the cult at Hierapolis that was not organized before Hellenistic times, but the goddess, known as Atargatis or by some other name, definitely originates earlier Garstang Conceptually she incorporates various elements, including the ancient image of the spinning goddess Cumont At an early stage she was associated with the great mother sanctuaries of Asia Minor.

Some Hittite reliefs expressing the same religious idea should probably be included in this broader context. The basic idea, expressed by venerable attributes, is generally the same.

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Even theological speculation, unfortunately understandable only at a later stage, has preserved a notion of the homogeneity of these beings and by preference made them the object of mystic contemplation. Much is to be learned from this for the conflation of goddess of fate, cosmic mother and heavenly queen in the image of the Syrian goddess and similar figures Cumont Here she is enthroned as cult image in full view, a celestial goddess, a spindle in her hand, endowed with almost unlimited power over all things living and dead; here she proves to be a genuine and ancient image of the myth.

As far as she is called Aphrodite — one of her many names — she is Urania Cumont I, 19, 1. But it does serve to reveal how this image of the spindle goddess could become a part of the existing concepts of the powers of fate in the story of Er, that is, simply by representing the Celestial being.

On these monuments the celestial sphere nowhere resembles the spindle but rather the distaff, since it occasionally even displays crossed bands which obviously served to hold the clew of loose wool together. One would think that the analogy with the celestial globe would be perfect. If instead Plato transferred the mythical comparison to the spindle, whose corresponding appearance in art is hardly demonstrable, there must be a reason, and that is: That, however, is the point of the myth; the concept is to proceed from the visual impression of the world as sphere to an understanding of the revolving spheres.

Therefore not even the image of the turning spindle is sufficient, for when the distaff is empty, owing to the fully wound clew, the spindle approaches a spherical shape Onians The spindle passes through the centre, a miniature counterpart of the axis of the universe; again at the top we find the hook made of adamant which distinguishes the image of the spindle.

In Pythagorean speculations about the appearance of the world there may even have been an analogy for it cfr. I, This object does have concentric circles decorating the surface, but of course it is all one piece. It arises from the possibility of relating a real object, constructed like the mechanism of the cosmos, to the image of the mythical spinner, which is always known as a superordinate concept Schuhl a: And this implies the existence of an artificial sphere that imitated the sky and its movement Schuhl a: Also it is possible that the works Sphaera graecanica and Sphaera barbarica were something like this, because the name of Neopythagorean writer Nigidius Figulus recall orbem ad celeritatem rotae figuli torqueri Schol.

I, ; Carcopino Therein lies their inner unity. Winding in a round motion, the Soul comes back to the Hypercosmic Place i. Cambridge Mass. Albrile, E. An outline on a Gnostic Myth. Beck, R. Bidez, J. Breiter, Th. Manilii Astronomica, I: Brendel, O. Brillante, C. Brisson, L. Segonds — C. Steel a c. Saffrey et L. Casadio, G. Carcopino, J. Colson, F. Cumont, F. Dieterich, A. Aalen Eisler, R. Eitrem, S. Faggin, G. Faraggiana di Sarzana, Ch. Marino Vita di Proclo.

Bianchi a. An Introduction. New York. Garstang, J. Gnoli, Gh. Rossi a c. Gundel, W. Kirchhoff, A. Klein, F. Kroll, W. Breslau repr. Hildesheim Lewy H. Majercik, R. Some Reconsideration. Marinone, N. Nardi, B. Onians, R. Peterson, E. Pfeiffer, E. Robinson, J. Rudolph, K.

Saffrey, H. Schuhl, P. Sodano, A. Taylor, A. Todini, U. Turcan, R. Ulansey, D. Hinnells a c. Wolfson H. Mithraic Communities by Dr. In this context is possible to find the revival of religious models inspired by religiosity before the triumph of Christianity.

Religion has traditionally been an element of expression of inner feelings that human societies have expressed in connection with divinity throughout history. The vehicles of expression of this religiosity have been adapted from time to time, into ways of expression that each society has seen as its own.

Myths, legends, images and temples have had a special role; however, the Internet today is the most significant vehicle of dissemination used by those wishing to share and disseminate their religious beliefs. In the dominating sociological context that has developed during the last thirty or forty years, it has become customary to see, from time to time, the emergence of new patterns of expression of religious feeling, most of which seek to overcome the traditional religious systems based upon a still strong and recognizable religious institution, such as the Catholic Church.

These new currents have been often branded under the sociological parameters of "New Religious Movements" NRM , as an attempt to provide a theoretical framework to the large number of individual or group initiatives who have found in spirituality, with all its potential variants of expression, the tool to search for answers to their personal concerns.

In the early days of Christianity, those concepts always presumed a derogatory connotation, and thereafter the term "paganism", was viewed with a sense of confrontation against the Christian religion. However, an overall review of the history of Christianity in Europe provides us immediately with a lot of evidence that argues that many "pagan" elements managed to survive clandestinely, fed by individuals or groups who tried to maintain a relationship with these remote cults and religions.

As noted by W. Hanegraaff The particularity which connected these testimonies was that the Internet had become the main way of communication between their members. During the days of glory of the Roman Empire, a cult of mysteric nature emerged around a Romanised version of this god. It had a wide distribution and enjoyed acceptance among the male population until its persecution by the Christian authorities.

Archaeological evidence point to the V century A. The cult of Mithra was forgotten, and, although there are signs showing that certain aspects of it were Christianised, it was not until the Renaissance when the statues representing this divinity reappeared, and when scholars started to wonder about the religion which existed around this god.

Until the late XIX c. After that date, in parallel to the increasing interest about the Mysteries of Mithra, several individuals also started to show some interest about the "revival" of this religion Guthrie Some authors have sought evidences of Mithraic elements in some ceremonies performed at Masonic lodges; others have considered that Mithra and his cult have indirectly shaped ceremonies in some sects like the Ordo Templi Orientis or great Wiccan rite Nabarz It has been generally perceived that the ultimate reason that attracts these individuals to the cult of Mithra is to find an answer to fatigue caused both by today's society and traditional religious models.

As mentioned above, one of the main features shared by these different groups of new followers of the god Mithra is that Internet has become their main instrument of organisation, communication and dissemination.

Therefore, they are directly connected with an element that also characterises the way in which, in our day, there is a rising expression of religious feeling. The use of the Internet as a channel to express and find answers to the personal search in connection with a religion is in continuous growth, since the Internet is a new way to offer a "new and improved form of community" Foltz In most cases we find that many of them are inspired by a revisionist motivation, with the clear intention of proving the "benefits" of Mithraism, compared with revenge and "evil" that has been present in the Catholic tradition: This informational structure is clearly present in the different portals available for groups settled in Germany, Spain and France: For the English case, a website is available with information about the Mithraic history and then some suggestions for meditations in relation to the different grades of initiation: A more recent website comes from Japan: In English we found the Mithras List, [http: Topics include the Mithraic Mysteries, Mithraic history, archaeology, iconography, and more.

Serious scholarly discussion is welcome, as are religious topics from those interested in practising Mithraism as a living religion". Interestingly, this list aims to merge, in the same area, the academic debate with the personal experience of current followers of the Mithraic cult. The list began in and now has members of both sexes mainly located in America, Australia and Europe. With a much more restricted focus, led directly to those in the work of recovering from the Mithraic Mysteries in an experiential way, we can find a list called Mithraeum.

In this case, it has members and was started in by an American who was the founder of the "Nova Roma" movement and the "Julian Society ". But all this from the Respect, the Tolerance and the Freedom inherent in the Mithraism, and the Respect to other religions".

This forum was created in and has 43 members: The first one is to what extent can these groups be considered truly "Mithraists" as compared with the features of the cult of Mithra during the Roman Empire? Answering in detail these two questions would require a longer debate, well beyond the limits of this paper.

For that reason we will summarize the discussion into the following ideas.

The Mithraic religion in Roman times was a cult carried out exclusively by men who gathered to hold a liturgy itself and to develop the ceremonies of initiation. The issue of hierarchy is represented nowadays by the importance attached to the grades of initiation, but it is not linked to the performance of a recognised explicit authority. There are moderators on the lists, but this fact does not appear to be linked to membership in the higher grade of "pater", who were the leaders in ancient Mithraic communities.

In the reconstruction of the personality of Mithra evidence in some of these groups, it is possible to see the influence of a mixture of elements that highlight the dual identity of Mithra as a Persian and Roman god, while in the Roman cult, this issue had been totally minimised in order to avoid problems with the Roman authorities.

Dawson or H. Campbell , have asserted in favour of accepting the reality of this communal fact on the Internet. The websites and, particularly, the active mailing lists serve as an instrument of communication and dissemination of news and experiences, but it is very difficult to quantify the degree of personal belonging and individual involvement that must exist in any community experience Hackett Although it is very difficult to recognize the sincerity of religious beliefs of individuals, it is clear that in these cases of new followers of Mithra, there are elements that go beyond religious devotion.

Some elements are recognized from the esoteric curiosity or belligerent response to Christian beliefs. Peter Lang Publishing, New York. Routledge New York. Drama of Interior Initiation. Diogenes, Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Religion and Migration. OUP Oxford, Oxford. Inner Traditions, Vermont. California Institute of Integral Studies. Those who live in a cold climate and in Europe are full of spirit, but wanting in intelligence and skill; and therefore they retain comparative freedom, but have no other political organization, and are incapable of ruling over others.

Whereas the natives of Asia are intelligent and inventive, but they are wanting in spirit [thymos], and therefore they are always in a state of subjection and slavery. I will analyze interpretations of the origins and evolution of thymos in order to focus its relational applications. For purposes of coherency, thymos will be used throughout. This article speculates that Aristotle did not take any nation's maturity into account when he ascribed potential slavery status, but rather, made a pure political consideration as a result of: It is crucial to focus on the relationship of Indic and Greek thought in the centuries prior to the publication of Politics.

Figure 1: The Royal Road courtesy: In B. Centuries before Darius I constructed his Royal Trade Route, there were many avenues of exchange between India and the Southwest where discourse on art, culture, calendars, numbers, philosophies, and spiritualities prevailed. One of the earliest was a Persian Gulf route that ran from the mouth of the Indus River to the Euphrates towards Antioch and beyond, which tied India to East Asia and existed as far back as the 3rd millennium B.

Forty years later in the main court in Persopolis Parsa: The City of Persians and throughout his kingdom, Darius I opened the doors to traders, poets, physicians, and other thinkers of the day. Hindu Kush courtesy: Anaximander was in his prime in B. Hecataeus c. Hecataeus was a wealthy native of Miletus who tried to dissuade his fellow countrymen from revolting against the Persian conquerors.

When the cities of Asia Minor, including Miletus, were defeated, he became ambassador to Darius' brother, Artaphenes. Hecataeus encouraged the 17 McEvilley , p. The Greeks believed that Uttarakuru shamans wandered down from the Himalayan mountaintops to Greece, 19 where they were attributed legendary status to include Orpheus and Pythagoras. In Perigesis, Hecataeus reported on fact, travel, and legend. Figure 3: Hecataeus' Map Courtesy: In the earliest books The Histories between and B.

E, he writes of Democedes, a Greek physician to Darius through circumstances that kept him in relative captivity. He taught distinctive theories on universal flux, the unity of opposites, and elemental physics.

Although only fragments remain of his book, the philosopher was extolled by many historians including Plutarch, Aristotle, and Sextus Empiricus. While it is true is that Plutarch called Ktesis an ambitious, inaccurate "liar" in reference to his accounts of India,27 Ktesis did have peripheral knowledge through close sources, and wrote extensively of the civilization in his book, Indika.

However, resulting from these personal denigrations by Plutarch and other detractors, the exactitude of his 22 Ibid, p. McEvilley masterfully sums up the theoretical relationship: The early period of philosophy in Greece and India contained many shared elements: According to the digital website, Perseus, Plato referred to Asia a few times but offered little of relevance to philosophy, mathematics, politics, or the sciences. Aristotle used the word sparingly: Persia is mentioned a few times, but again, little affecting philosophy or conceptual thinking.

The facts are otherwise. In Physics By this He thinks into existence this material world and into Him it disappears. Having become air, they become smoke. Having become smoke they become the white cloud. Having become the cloud they fall as rain. Hesiod and Homer combined earth and water as the matter of man.

Scholars offer numerous examples of comparative Parmenidean and Indic thought including the idea of opposites: But not the same as this other, which in itself is opposite: In the Samkhya all mental functions—perception, imagination, thinking, willing— are not performed by the soul, but via mechanical processes of the material aspects of the body.

In 39 West , p. E up to Aristotle's death in B. Later accounts by Porphyry and Diogenes state that Socrates studied both under the physicist Anaxagoras and, upon his death, with Archelaus—plausible confirmation of the purity of the lineage. They rejected the autocratic superiority of the Brahmans, ridiculing the archaic rituals, and deconstructing the Veda by pointing out its contradictions and unethical traditions.

While rejecting many of the contemporary values of Indian society, they evolved concepts regarding the attainment of happiness and salvation. Socrates and Buddha In the broadest sense, Buddha and Socrates were both philosopher kings. Alan Weber offers mutually affecting comparisons of the two. In Phaedo, Plato quotes Socrates as saying: In Phaedo, wisdom is described essentially the same as that in Buddhism. The teaching of the Buddha is primarily based on two truths: Was Aristotle aware of the similarities?

Was he aware of the emerging Indian orthopraxy at that time? Would knowledge of the teachings and wisdom of Buddha and his contemporaries have mattered one way or another in relation to his pronouncement of the thymotic deficiency of the Indian peoples? Plato What is the "allegory of the cave," if not the epitome of the role of the Bodhisattva? For Plato, phenomena are shadows on the wall of the cave.

In both traditions, phenomena are regarded as ultimately unreal. The foundation of the dharmas is concreted in a unifying, ultimate reality. Likewise for Plato and his Idea of the Good, which is the indispensable unity behind his Ideas. Reincarnation is discussed in some aspect in the Republic, Phaedrus, Timaeus, and the Laws.

In fact, although not represented in the Rigveda or in Homer,67 it certainly registered quickly thereafter in both cultures. Orally transmitted for centuries until committed to writing around the time of Plato and Aristotle, section The earlier Greeks perceived their world in a temperament of awe and wonder.

As philosophy evolved, and became more practical and codified, cosmic existence began to fade into the philosophical, as investigation and discourse prevailed. He writes of the essential essence of heat within fire as the essence of the soul within the impure bodily host.

Yet when the fire dies, whither goes the heat? His reason logos has the ability to facilitate evaluation, perception, and learning, while moderating the bodily functions. The driver is reason logos holding the reins of passion thymos and appetite epithumia.

The thymotic horse is heroic, an unsoiled, moral stallion guided by reason, a lofty being fierce by nature. Alongside him struggles the other steed, "a shaggy, recalcitrant beast which tries to drag the chariot down from its heavenly course. Aristotle posited that the soul was responsible for moving the body, could not survive without it, and was thus mortal.

It returns to the collective from which it later remerges to enter a new host as its life force. He believed that the soul, as life force, is present in every living thing. Aristotle categorized the soul: He created ten classifications of organisms, from zoophytes to vertebrates; each with their own companion soul ascribed to the potential actuality of the classified being, the higher the biologic classification the more formidable the soul. Many of his beliefs are culminations of thought originating with Pythagoras and Empedocles: Aristotle was dedicated to practicality; he was a scientist.

Later evolutes of thymos were associated with the heart and liver. The liver was the foundation of emotions; the heart, the place of desires.

It is our desire or appetite for recognition of value that drives us to be virtuous, courageous—to be leaders of men.

When it does not appropriate what it feels it deserves it becomes indignant. Thymos has become the Western psychological mean between megalothymia, the need to be thought of as superior , and isothymia, the need to be merely recognized as equal. Thymos is an intimate ally of logos as it provides the requisite passion to Homeric courage, but any thymotic reaction beyond the mean would, naturally, be in conflict with reason.

Koziak speculates that Platonic thymos as discussed in the Republic, essentializes four specific truths, their differences completed by their sameness: It positions the state as paramount to the individual. Men do not of themselves deliberately chose their own value, but are, by nature, set upon a certain course, cast by fate's determination. These people who "lack certain things" essential for living the excellent life are also burdened with a "much restricted capacity for development.

However, unless the slave desires to be a slave, he is not blessed with eudemonia. By calling this individual a "natural slave," implies that it is for his own good; being a slave is his "flourishing," his indeliberate endgame. One might argue, few men would deliberately chose to be a slave; Aristotle counters by proposing that one thing that is lacking in thymos is the ability for deliberation. The natural slave "Citizens, in order to live well politically and practically [within the polis] need slaves.

Because he is a political animal, the Athenian citizen requires the foundation of the polis "for the full actualization of his potentialities.

It was a matter of fact, and the ethical morality of slavery is beyond the scope of this paper. Farms, as they were then maintained, could not have produced effectively for the polis without slavery. The armies and mercenaries needed the support of slaves to wage war, and one might argue, the Battles of Marathon and Attica, and the successful overthrow of the Persian Empire by Alexander would not have succeeded without slavery.

Plato did not attribute the lack of thymos as primary prerequisite for slave mentality and believed the slave lacked logos reason. He has no choice but to subject his understanding of his beliefs to that of an authority, and to become subordinate to the dominance of the knower.

Later he amends this by declaring that the beast is fighting, not as much for himself, but in defense of his own species, a logical result of passionate duty. The great Greek hero who brims with thymos is the warrior willing to give up his own life in defense of what is good, that good being that of the sociopolitical structure of the polis.

This desire for national preservation is intrinsic.

The power of the subjective suggestive is another of paramount importance. Anything "other" was outside of that value. They were naturally subordinate and, in the dominant imagining, less civilized and suitable for slavery.

It is my conclusion that the principal reason for Aristotle's denigration of the Asiatic and thus the Indic civilization was his belief in the sanctity of the Greek warrior, and not just primary justification for acquiring the slave population necessary for valorization and political sustainability of the polis. There is evidence to suggest philosophical amnesia, due largely to his fervent personal nationalism, and androcentric belief in Greek citizen racial superiority.

Aristotle might have been aware of their acumen in battle, but since they were fighting for "other" than the Greek polis, their efforts were somewhat negligible. His egocentricity formulated an unflinching belief in the superiority of the governmental structure of the Greek polis. Jonathan Barnes. Princeton, N. Princeton University Press. Nicomachean Ethics. Terence Irwin. Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Pub. Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition.

University of Chicago Press. Ashliman, D. The Future Buddha as Judge. Rhys Davids London: George Routledge and Sons, , pp. First published Accessed 3 November Bentley, Russell.

Aristotle on Slavery and the Good Life. Brady, Michelle E. Burkert, Walter. The Orientalizing Revolution: Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Dillon, Matthew. Eggeling, Julius. Accessed 13 November Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of Eternal Return. New York: Penguin Group. John Burnet. Accessed 18 May The End of History and the Last Man.

Free Press. Garver, Eugene. Gunderson, Lloyd L. Meisenheim am Glan: Harvey, Martin. Greek Philosophy. Accessed 7 October Koziak, Barbara. Retrieving Political Emotion: Thumos, Aristotle, and Gender. University Park, Pa. Pennsylvania State University. Long, Anthony A. Mansfield, Jaap. B 85 DK. The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great.

New Delhi: McEvilley, Thomas. The Shape of Ancient Thought.

Allworth Press. Parmenides, and Allan Randall. On Nature Peri Physeos. Accessed 17 October Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University. Accessed November The Republic. Henry Desmond Pritchard Lee. London ; New York: Penguin Books.

Hugh Tredennick and Harold Tarrant. New York City, New York: Stephen Scully. Newburyport, MA: Focus Philosophical Library. Raju, P. Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University Press. Rawlinson, H. Cambridge, U. University Press. Romm, James S. Sampad and Vijay.

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The Wonder that is Sanskrit. Ahmedabad, India: Mapin Publishing. Stocks, J. Stone, Brad Elliott. Vlastos, Gregory. Platonic Studies. Accessed 1 November Warder, Anthony Kennedy. Indian Buddhism. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. Webber, Alan.

Philosophy and Liberation: University of California, Irvine, ProQuest Digital Dissertations. Accessed 5 Nov. West, M. Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient.

Clarenden Press. Woodbury, Leonard. The Amorites are posited in the Harappan civilization. Gaumata is identified with Gotama. Introduction The rough outlines of the histories of early Buddhism and Zoroastrianism are clear but for the discerning reader many questions remain unanswered.

Although Buddhism is said to have been born in Nepal or Eastern U. The history of Zoroastrianism is mired with greater uncertainties Zoroaster remains a mythical figure with no relics.

While M. Herzfeld, T. Young Jr. This was J. Henning, Zoroaster, Politician or Witch Doctor? Oxford, Similar to the Vedic Indra and the Buddhas, the term Zoroaster may have designated many individuals in different periods.

Ghosh, quoted in D.

There were many Buddhas before Gotama which implies that Buddhism was as old as Zoroastrianism. In fact, after correcting some obvious errors, they can be seen to be sister religions which belonged to the same milieu but which later separated. At Merv and other sites Zoroastrian and Buddhist artifacts are found side by side. Moreover, many knotty problems of Zoroastrianism can be resolved in reference to Buddhist history. Data from the Persepolis tablets and other sources suggest that Buddhism evolved from Eastern Judaism.

On the surface there is just a hint of a Jewish heritage but a detailed study leads to great surprises. This is usually doubted and traced to Clearchus of Soli and Megasthenes but Aristotle can be seen to be right.

In the 18th century B. Abraham and the Jews went from this area, not Sumer. Tod, an early historian of Rajasthan wrote; Mr. Elphinstone scouts the idea of the descent of the Afghans from the Jews; and not a trace of the Hebrew is found in the Pashtoo, or language of the tribe, although it has much affinity to the Zend and Sanscrit.

Whether these Yadus are or are not Yuti or Getes, remains to be proved. Archaeology has changed the historical scenario since the days of Tod, but both he and Elphinstone seem to be correct. Afghans and Indians are offsprings of the Yadus who were the forefathers of Abraham.

See K. Kogi http: The Jews were linked to the Amorites who are placed in the west but were also in India. Koestler gave a new definition of Jewish origins which has been ignored. Alexander is said to have prostrated before the Jewish high priest Jaddua whose name echoes Yadu. Tilak, M. The common homeland of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and Judaism seems to vindicate Max Muller and has crucial implications in the history of religions.

The Dreadful Nepalese Forgeries The greatest hindrance in the history of early religions is the allusion to a Gotama of Nepal. The peerless Buddhist monuments of Bamiyan hint at a Buddhist heartland in this vicinity. Recently a huge collection of more than ten thousand Buddhist fragments have been found at Bamiyan, a large part of which is now in the Schoyen collection. This sensational find has been compared with the Dead Sea Scrolls. Nothing in the history, archaeology, literature, or art of early Nepal has the faintest hint of Buddhism, and it is uncanny that the patently absurd story of the rise of Buddhism in Nepal has survived scholarly scrutiny for nearly a century.

Although most historians unwittingly swallow the absurd Nepalese fables, C. Humphreys voices concern, The Lumbini gardens, where Gotama was born, lie in the difficult Nepal Terai, and Kusinara, where the Buddha passed away, has little to show'.

No relic of any Nanda or Maurya king is known from Patna. See also http: Humphreys 'Buddhism' Harmondsworth, Not only is there an almost complete absence of hard facts about its history in India; not only is the date, authorship and geographical provenance of the overwhelming majority of the documents almost entirely unknown, The way out of the chaos is shown by T.

Similar ideas were put forth by J. Fergusson and S. Eliot writes with great insight, Our geographical and political phraseology about India and Persia obscures the fact that in many periods the frontier between the two countries was uncertain or not drawn as now. Conze, 'A short History of Buddhism' London, Private communication. Toynbee wrote that the Achaemenian universal state belonged also to the Hinduis, the Pathavis etc.

VII Oxford, Dandamayev and W. But T. Starr also suspects Darius, Students of modern history can read many sources, though an abundance of evidence does not mean that they can always establish exactly what happened or explain why it occurred.

In ancient history, on the other hand, it is very rare to have two major accounts of the same event… In recreating the history of the past from its sources the historian must ask himself many questions. In this case do the stories agree entirely? Is Darius trying to prove anything in particular about his right to rule?

Darius was a devout Zoroastrian and believed in the truth; yet can we trust his official document? As for Herodotus, did he have any reason not to be impartial? How could he have known about the events? Does he make Darius solely responsible for the overthrow of Gaumata?

He boldly goes on to assert that Gaumata may have preached a new religion, He then specifically tells us that, 'As before, so I made the sanctuaries which Gaumata the Magian destroyed. Culican, 'The Medes and the Persians' London, Hammond, et al. Starr, 'Early Man' New York, The details of this disagreement escape us. This new religion is Buddhism and Gaumata was a contemporary and namesake of Gotama. Herodotus wrote that Gaumata was widely popular and M.

Dandamayev notes that he was a friend of the poor who freed slaves and waived taxes Another precious clue is offered by Xerexes. In a trilingual inscription, he boasts over his destruction of the Daivas, Among these countries that submitted to him was one where previously daivas were worshipped. Then, by the favour of Ahura Mazda, I destroyed that daiva place, and I had proclaimed, the daivas shall not be worshipped.

Where previously the daivas were worshipped, there I worshipped Ahura Mazda properly with the Law arta. Who were the Daivas? The identification of the clan is a serious problem in Persian history. Frye does not recognize the true Gaumata yet writes with clear insight, It is generally agreed that the daiva worshippers were not Babylonians or Egyptians but rather Iranians, or at least Aryans.

One may ask whether the Indians living within the Achaemenid empire, who worshipped the old gods, may have been regarded as daiva worshippers. Dandamaev, [], p. Diakonoff held that Gaumata acted against the nobility. The Indians in the Achaemenian empire were clearly the early Buddhists.

Tradition has it that Trapussa and Bhallika, two merchant brothers from Bactria visited the Buddha immediately after his enlightenment, became his disciples and then returned to Balkh to build temples dedicated to him. That this does not fit in with a Kapilavastu in Nepal occurred to none. To study Buddhist art of the 6th century B. The most important fact about the Silk route is that it passed through the land of the Buddha.

Curiously this is echoed in the Buddhist sources. If the date is taken back by 19 years, which is not a large margin of error in Indology, one has the accession of Xerxes who may have been mistaken for a Darius He is widely suspected to have been close to Zoroaster but there is no direct proof.

Thanks to the painstaking work of R. Hallock, W.

At the next stage, 20 ml of concentrated were employed as the first factor and sulfur levels sulfuric acid was added and the tubes were heated of 0, , , and kg S ha-1 plus for 4 hours until full digestion and the solution Thiobacillus as the second factor 1kg for all plots turning green.

Then, the tubes were completely according to factory instructions. The seeds were cooled down and then 50 ml of distilled water was planted in November at a rate of 5 kg per added to each tube. The digested tubes were hectare density: Increased green The variance analysis of data involved SAS surface of pods would lead to higher seed growth 9. At the next stage, Mostafavi Rad et al. Licord variety achieved the highest number of pods per plant. Grain yield strongly depends on pods since they play a major role in photosynthesis As indicated in Table 2, the number of pods after flowering.

Furthermore, the number of pods per , respectively. A few other researchers have and protein were not affected by sulfur levels. In soils suffering sulfur deficiency, application of 50 kg S Results of comparing the average values of traits ha-1 can lead to maximum crop reaction. Any Number of pods per plant higher amounts of sulfur are not recommended because of the possible adverse impact on the The results variance of data analysis suggested quality of canola seeds, e.

In fact, the highest number of pods per plant was achieved by Hayola at grain weight The grain weight was achieved by Hayola at However, seed weight varies less frequently than other treatments AB and A indicated no statistically yeild components Azizi et al. Basically, highest grain weight was obtained in Hayola number of pods per plant is the defining Aien also reported that the highest characteristic of canola yield, because the pods grain weight was achieved by Hayola Overall, researchers Height to first branch have reported the different branching capacities The results of variance analysis suggested that between Brassica species as well as several there was a significant difference between cultivars cultivars of a species Rao et al.

In fact, the maximum height to the first the number of branches was significant at branch was found in Gerry at In their study, Hayola the minimum height to the first branch was found outperformed RG and Sarigol.

Moreover, there was a Mostafavi Rad et al. In fact, the maximum height to the first branch was found in sulfur level of kg ha-1 at However, there was there was a significant difference between cultivars no statistically significant difference between in terms of diameter of main stem at probability treatments AB and A. The highest diameter of main stem This trait is important for harvesting, and was found in Gerry and RGS at 8. A larger diameter of main stem brings about The results obtained by Svecnjak and Rengel several advantages and disadvantages.

One of the and Walton showed the greatest advantages can be accumulation of nutrients in the height to the first branch was achieved by Licord. In fact, the highest number of branches at The highest ha-1 at Ramea also, compared the average values of grain yield among three genotypes, revealing that Different cultivars have involve varying Hayola achieved the largest and Sarigol genetic potentials to produce lateral buds and thus achieved the smallest grain yield.

Omidi et al. In fact, this potential is reported that canola cultivars showed affected by different conditions such as plant significant differences in terms of yield and yield density.

The cultivars generated under different components. Furthermore, Mostafavi Rad et al. In a study on the effect of sulfur produce more dry matter. In their control of canola seed quality Fismes et al. In a study on the McGrath and Zhao and Rudy et al.

Jackson Several researchers have reported Moreover, sulfur deficiency inhibits the growth of that canola cultivars and species reacted differently reproductive organs and even leads to sterility in to sulfur fertilization in terms of several traits such pods.

The maximum harvest index was achieved in terms of shoot dry matter at probability level of by kg ha-1 at The highest shoot dry matter was achieved by harvest index was found in 0 kg ha-1 at Hayola at The harvest index reflects the distribution ratio Moreover, there was a significant difference of photosynthetic materials between economic between sulfur levels in terms of shoot dry matter yield and of biological yield Shariati The maximum shoot dry matter was achieved at sulfur levels of and Mostafavi Rad et al.

However, there was no statistically significant Results of comparing the average interaction effects of traits under study difference between treatments AB and A. Grain yield Mendham et al. Bailey L. As Hyola contained the highest management in canola production. Gerry genotype also Grant C. Clayton G. Johnston A. Jafari H. Second found in and kg S ha-1 treatments. In the applied sciences seminar on oilseeds and interactions, the highest grain yield was observed in vegetable oils, Tehran.

November S ha In conclusion, sulfur and Thiobacillus Agronomy Journal, Kariminia A. Shahrestani M. Journal of advanced canola cultivars in Jiroft area. Soil and Water Sciences, 1 Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. In Kholdbarin B. Shiraz University Alayee Yazdi F. Barzegar Firouszabadi Gh. Plant nutrition management in calcareous Malakuti M. Tehrani, M. First Edition. Agricultural Education micronutrients in enhancing the yield and Publications.

Soltani A. Tarbiat physiology, farming, breeding and Modarres University Press. Jahad-e Malhi S. Gill K. Zhao J. Hawkesford M. Canadian Journal of McGrath S. Annals Marschner H. Academic press. Clark J. Simpson G. Journal of Agricultural Science, Diepenbrock W.

Shipway P. The effects of delayed sowing and weather on Field Crops Researches, Development and yield of winter oil- FAO Quarterly bulletin of statistics 8: Journal of Agricultural Rome Italy.

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