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Simone de Beauvoir - The Second cittadelmonte.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Simone de Beauvoir - The Second Sex - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Simone de Beauvoir's masterwork is a powerful analysis of the . SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR The Second Sex Simone de Beauvoir was born in Paris in In she became the youngest person ever to obtain the.


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The Second Sex. Simone de Beauvoir was born in Paris in In she became the youngest person ever to obtain the agrégation in philosophy at the. Le Deuxième Sexe has come to be accepted as a pioneering and uniquely ambitious attempt to explore, within a philosophical framework, all aspects of woman's situation (McCall; ). Gender as Lived Time: Reading The Second Sex for a Feminist Phenomenology of Temporality. Simone de Beauvoir. Introduction. For a long time I have hesitated to write a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially to women; and it is not new.

The work of Simone de Beauvoir has endured and flowered in the last two decades, thanks primarily to the lasting influence of The Second Sex on the rise of academic discussions of gender, sexuality, and old age. Essays in each of four thematic sections reveal the breadth and acuity of her insight, from the significance of The Second Sex and her work on the metaphysics of gender to her plentiful contributions in ethics and political philosophy. The volume concludes by considering her impact on contemporary feminist thought writ large, and features pioneering work from a new generation of Beauvoir scholars. Ambitious and unprecedented in scope, A Companion to Simone de Beauvoir is an accessible and interdisciplinary resource for students, teachers, and researchers across the humanities and social sciences. A prolific author, her most recent book is Simone de Beauvoir's Philosophy of Individuation: The Problem of The Second Sex. She is the author of Simone de Beauvoir, Philosophy, and Feminism.

The use of the microscope enabled von Baer in to discover the mammalian egg. In the same year. The ovary was still regarded as homologous to the male gland. These notions were not universally accepted. In a Dutchman. Before long it was possible to study the cleavage of the egg — that is. Under these imaginative hypotheses. The details of their union within the fertilised egg were first worked out in by a Belgian zoologist.

Hegel held that the two sexes were of necessity different. Today one notes an opposite tendency on the part of some scientists. Philosophy of Nature] And even after the egg had been recognised as an active principle.

In the penetration of the spermatozoan into the starfish egg was observed. The discoveries made in the course of experiments on parthenogenesis have On this basis it has been boldly suggested that the male gamete sperm is not necessary for reproduction. I have said that the latter has no claim a priori to be considered basic.

But there is no warrant for so bold an expectation.

It has been shown that in certain species the stimulus of an acid or even of a needle-prick is enough to initiate the cleavage of the egg and the development of the embryo.

The phenomena of asexual propagation and of parthenogenesis appear to be neither more nor less fundamental than those of sexual reproduction. I shall adopt their terminology without taking any stand on the relation between life and consciousness. We can hope to grasp the significance of sexuality only by studying it in its concrete manifestations. Let my words be taken to imply no more than that. It is to be noted. In the vast majority of species male and female individuals co-operate in reproduction.

I do not intend to offer here a philosophy of life. The biologist Ancel suggested in that the primordial germ cell is indifferent and undergoes development into sperm or egg depending upon which type of gonad. The development of oocytes from the primordial cells in the female differs from that of spermatocytes in the male chiefly in regard to the protoplasm.

However this may be. In some lower plants and animals the cells that fuse to form the zygote are identical. Sperms and eggs develop from similar primordial germ cells in the two sexes. In general the gametes are differentiated. They are defined primarily as male and female by the gametes which they produce — sperms and eggs respectively. It is obvious that when sperm and egg unite in fertilisation. Today it is well known that the sex of offspring is determined by the chromosome constitution established at the time of fertilisation.

According to the species concerned. Aside from the X. In the mammals it is the sperm. At the end of these developmental processes called spermatogenesis in the male and oogenesis in the female the gametes appear fully matured as sperms and eggs. If fertilisation is accomplished by an X-bearing sperm.

What we should note in particular at this point is that neither gamete can be regarded as superior to the other. The chromosomes contain the factors of heredity genes. If the Y-bearing sperm fertilises the egg. The first — that of the passivity of the female — is disproved by the fact that new life springs from the union of There are two common suppositions which — at least on this basic biological level — are clearly false.

In the matter of heredity. In birds and butterflies the situation is reversed. The essential peculiarity of the egg is that it is provided with means for nourishing and protecting the embryo. The nucleus of the egg is a centre of vital activity exactly symmetrical with the nucleus of the sperm.

The second false supposition contradicts the first — which does not seem to prevent their coexistence. It is to the effect that the permanence of the species is assured by the female. This said. It is the male gamete that seeks it out. The sperm has a threadlike tail and a small. The tail is dropped and the head enlarges. In consequence the egg is of massive. In its whole structure it is adapted for mobility.

The sperm is always a naked cell. No inert substance weighs it down. Whereas the egg. In the starfish and other echinoderms. Thus the egg — active in its essential feature. The ovule has sometimes been likened to immanence. Meanwhile the egg quickly forms a membrane. Being much smaller than the egg. The competition involved is an important phenomenon. But allegory should not be pushed too far.

It was the form of the sphere that to the ancients represented the circumscribed world. The truth is that these notions are hardly more than vagaries of the mind. No doubt movement seems to the mechanistic mind to be an eminently rational phenomenon. It is false to say that the egg greedily swallows the sperm. Male and female gametes fuse in the fertilised egg.

We can derive a valid suggestion. This is magical action — disquieting. The two gametes at once transcend and perpetuate themselves when they unite. We may conclude. There are two interrelated dynamic aspects of life: These two factors always operate together. On the other hand. Without the foresight of the egg. The sperm. It is a question to what philosophy of nature these dubious ideas pertain. But in the secondary and superficial phenomena upon which fertilisation depends.

I can only suppose that in such misty minds there still float shreds of the old philosophy of the Middle Ages which taught that the cosmos is an exact reflection of a microcosm — the egg is imagined to be a little female.

These musings. In the unfertilised egg not even the concept of femaleness is as yet established. It is our duty. In all honesty it must be admitted that in any case it is a long way from the egg to woman. Males and females appear rather to be variations on a common groundwork. But our theorisers do not look too closely into the matter. It has already been pointed out that in many plants and in some animals such as snails the presence of two kinds of gametes does not require two kinds of individuals.

Even when the sexes are separate. As Hegel justly remarks the sexual relation cannot be referred back to the relation of the gametes. In All this helps to In bees the unfertilised eggs laid by the queen produce males exclusively. But as noted above pages But in most animals all eggs that develop have been fertilised. In the embryonic development of both sexes the tissue from which the gonads will be formed is at first indifferent.

Among the mammals there are indications of this sexual bipotentiality. The fact is that the individual. Even in those species exhibiting a high degree of sexual differentiation individuals combining both male and female characteristics may occur. Many cases of intersexuality are known in both animals and man. Very often one sex possesses certain organs characteristic of the other. In the vertebrates.

Even the genital tract itself is somatic. Some of the hormones secreted by the gonad act as stimulators. Grafting and castration experiments on adult animals and man have contributed to the modern theory of sexuality.

It may be regarded as a kind of neutral element upon which the influence of the gonad imposes the sexual characteristics. Numerous experiments show that by varying the hormonal endocrine situation. In the ants. In these cases the whole organism is affected. In these respects.

To reveal their peculiar. These glands discharge their products through ducts that are more or less complex according to sex. Both have reproductive glands — ovaries or testes — in which the gametes are produced by strictly corresponding processes. Numerically equal in the species and developed similarly from like beginnings. Intersexuality may result when the hormones are abnormal and hence neither one of the two sexual potentialities is exclusively realised. In no way do gametes and gonads represent in microcosm the organism as a whole.

One of the most remarkable features to be It is extremely difficult to give a generally valid definition of the female. Some have wished to see in spermatogenesis an example of prodigality and in oogenesis a model of economy. To define her as the bearer of the eggs and the male as bearer of the sperms is far from sufficient.

Simone de Beauvoir - The Second Sex

It is to this the whole organism — that we must now direct our attention. At the bottom. In some lower species the organism may be almost entirely reduced to the reproductive apparatus. In comparison with the male. In a way they are intermediate between hermaphroditism and gonochorism. Thus in certain Crustacea. But in all such cases the female is no less restricted than the male.

In Edriolydnus the dwarf male is still more degenerate. In some rotifers the male lacks a digestive tract and fecundation. Among somewhat higher animals an individual autonomy begins to be manifested and the bond that joins the sexes weakens.

If the male is bound to the female. In the termites the enormous queen. At the season of the nuptial flight in ants. The privileged position held by the females in many insects comes from the fact that the production and sometimes the care of the eggs demand a long effort.

The mother dies after the appearance of the next generation is assured. The fertilised female has a gloomy fate. The workers. In certain spiders the female carries the eggs about with her in a silken case until they hatch. But the workers purchase their right to live by incessant toil. It is much the same with bees. She is much larger and stronger than the male and may kill and devour him after copulation.

If she dies. The queen is in truth enslaved to the hive. If she does eat him. In the male. The mantis. The female lives longer and seems to be more important than the male.

It cannot simply be said that in ants.

The species. And sometimes to this endowment is added a seeming luxury of brilliant coloration. Accordingly the organs of locomotion. But this privilege is a social disgrace. In impregnation he very often shows more initiative than the female. Beyond the brief moment of copulation the life of the male is useless and irresponsible. Many female moths are wingless.

Sometimes he has to battle for her with other males. It can even happen that the father will take charge of the newly It is striking that these. The less strictly the mother is bound to the egg. In higher forms of life.

The female fish. This separation. It is not the essential nature of the egg that requires this separation. This innovating aspect becomes the more unmistakable as the singularity of the individual becomes pronounced. Water is an element in which the eggs and sperms can float about and unite. In some species the eggs are abandoned by the parents and develop without assistance.

But very often it is the father who takes charge of them. Certain males have been described as making a kind of protective nest by blowing bubbles of air enclosed in an insulating substance.

The mother discharges the eggs. As soon as he has fertilised them. Most fish do not copulate. There is no reason why the mother. It is remarkable that in True copulation is unknown to them. In rare cases — for example among the sparrows — the male does the incubating and rearing. As the eggs are discharged. In birds the egg is formed rather slowly inside the female. Male and female pigeons secrete in the crop a milky fluid with. It is much more closely associated with the mother than with the father.

Usually the mother sits on the eggs and takes care of the newly hatched young. In the obstetrical toad the male wraps the strings of eggs about his hind legs and protects them. In the batrachians frogs and toads similar phenomena are to be seen.

The female is the victim of the species. There the division of the two vital components — maintenance and creation — is realised definitively in the separation of the sexes.

This cycle consists of two phases: It is in this group that the mother sustains the closest relations — among vertebrates — with her offspring. During certain periods in the year. The female organism is wholly adapted for and subservient to maternity. In the mammals life assumes the most complex forms. In the end it is he who makes the decision. It may happen in mammals — as in certain birds — that she solicits the male. She is quite unable to force copulation upon him.

In the female mammal. If fertilisation does occur. We have seen that even in the insects. The time of ovulation at the end of the first phase is known as oestrus and it corresponds to the period of rut.

In this penetration her inwardness is violated. But it is in birds and mammals especially that he forces himself upon her. Even when she is willing. Often the word applies literally. The male is not doing violence to the species. His domination is expressed in the very posture of copulation — in almost all animals the male is on the female. Her body becomes.

Simone de Beauvoir - The Second Sex.pdf

The male deposits his semen. Although she may feel the sexual urge as a personal need. And certainly the organ he uses is a material object. The egg. But the fundamental difference between male and female mammals lies in this: Tenanted by another. Thus it is not too clear when the new individual is to be She carries the foetus inside her abdomen until it reaches a stage of development that varies according to the species — the guinea-pig is born almost adult. First violated. It is noteworthy that the more clearly the female appears as a separate individual.

She displays initiative and inventiveness in their behalf. But normally she does not seek to affirm her individuality. She regains some autonomy after the birth of her offspring — a certain distance is established between her and them. The fish and the bird. At times when she is free from maternal servitude she can now and then equal the male. It is only that this individuality is not laid claim to. It is not that the female lacks individual abilities — quite the contrary.

Even in the fishes and whales. The lot of the male is quite different. As we have just seen. This characteristic is constant.

Simone de Beauvoir - The Second Sex

The organs used in such activities are. It is notable that the living impulse that brings about the vast production of sperms is expressed also in the male by the appearance of bright plumage.

In this respect Hegel is right in seeing the subjective There is a distance between desire and satisfaction which he actively surmounts. This vital superabundance. Subjectivity and separateness immediately signify conflict. The production of sperms is not exhausting. It might be said that before procreating. Aggressiveness is one of the traits of the rutting male.

The species takes residence in the female and absorbs most of her individual life. No doubt he also submits to powers beyond his control: Very often he abandons the female after copulation.

In the species capable of high individual development. The two types. He displays almost no paternal instinct. He is in general larger than the female. In nature nothing is ever perfectly dear. In mammalian societies it is always he who commands. Coition is a rapid operation and one that robs the male of little vitality. When he remains near her as head of a family group — monogamic family.

It is true. The difference between them is not. All in all. To maintain is to deny the scattering of instants. It would be too simple to define the difference as that between change and permanence: The male finds more and more varied ways in which to employ the forces he is master of. On the contrary. And this explains why the contrast between the sexes is not reduced when — as in higher forms — the individuality of the organisms concerned is more pronounced.

Woman — the most individualised of females — seems to be the most fragile. And it is true also that in the female it is the continuity of life that seeks accomplishment in spite of separation. The male is thus permitted to express himself freely. Parturition in cows and mares is much more painful and dangerous than it is in mice and rabbits. Once established. In man as in most animals the sexes are born in approximately equal numbers.

One might suppose that the male organisation is defined as such at the beginning. Embryological development is analogous in the two sexes. Thus it may be that the majority of pseudo-hermaphrodites are genotypically female subjects that have later become masculinised. They regulate the secondary sexual differences of the soma.

In embryonic life the supply of oocytes is already built up. The development of the male is comparatively simple. Neither the chemical formulae of the hormones nor the anatomical peculiarities are sufficient to define the human female as such.

It is her functional development that distinguishes her especially from the male. From birth to puberty his growth is almost regular. From this point on. In coming into the world woman experiences a kind of first puberty.

It is to be noted that this whole occurrence has the aspect of a crisis. While her body develops. But at puberty the species reasserts its claim. Under the influence of the ovarian secretions the number of developing follicles increases. From birth. The growth of the little girl is similar to that of the boy. Not without resistance At this period frequently appear such diseases as chlorosis tuberculosis.

Such abnormalities in no way represent victories of the individual over the species. Before puberty almost as many boys die as girls. In others. Certain women show signs of virilism. This duality is expressed at the level of the ovarian functions. In some cases puberty is abnormally precocious.

From puberty to menopause woman is the theatre of a play that unfolds within her and in which she is not personally concerned. Not properly constituted. Many of the ovarian secretions function for the benefit of the egg. In both sexes a castrated individual is not merely sterile.

The mammary glands. And furthermore many reproductive phenomena are unconcerned with the individual life of the subject and may even be sources of danger. In lower mammals this oestrus cycle is confined to a particular season. It is evidently easier to experiment with these animals.

Ovulation occurs on about the fourteenth These cellular proliferations being irreversible.

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This complex process. The latter secretes the hormone progesterone.

The Second Sex

The lining of the uterus becomes thickened and glandular and full of blood vessels. In the lower mammals the debris may escape gradually or may be carried away by the lymphatic vessels. Blood pressure rises before the beginning of the flow and falls afterwards. Almost all women — more than 85 per cent — show more or less distressing symptoms during the menstrual period. The blood carries substances usually put on reserve in the tissues. The red blood count drops.

The rate of basal metabolism is raised. It is during her periods that she feels her body most painfully as an obscure. The woman is more emotional. This glandular instability brings on a pronounced nervous instability. The central nervous system is affected. It is often associated in the first months with loss of appetite and vomiting.

Woman experiences a more profound alienation when fertilisation has occurred and the dividing egg passes down into the uterus and proceeds to develop there. In spite of an optimistic view having all too obvious social utility. It is evident that maternity can be very advantageous psychologically for a woman. In this crisis it is most clearly evident that the body does not always work to the advantage of both species and individual at once.

Childbirth itself is painful and dangerous. Nursing is also a tiring There is a loss of phosphorus. All that a healthy and well-nourished woman can hope for is to recoup these losses without too much difficulty after childbirth.

The conflict between species and individual. In the end woman escapes the iron grasp of the species by way of still another serious crisis. A number of factors — especially the hormone prolactin bring about the secretion of milk in the mammary glands.

Their maladies are often caused not by some infection from without but by some internal maladjustment. Woman is now delivered from the servitude imposed by her female nature. It may be supposed that the metabolic glands. And what is more. Some women develop fat deposits at this time. In many. Ovarian activity diminishes and disappears. Their pulse is more rapid. In addition to the primary sexual characteristics. The specific gravity of the blood is lower in woman and there is less haemoglobin.

Appearance in general — structure. The larynx is relatively smaller. Muscular strength is much less in woman. On the average she is shorter than the male and lighter. It would seem that in regard to calcium the ovaries exert a catabolic action. Irregularities in the endocrine secretions react on the sympathetic nervous system. Crises of puberty and the menopause. On the average. It would seem that her lot is heavier than that of other females in just about the same degree that she goes beyond other females in the assertion of her individuality.

These biological considerations are In comparison with her the male seems infinitely favoured: They are insufficient for setting up a hierarchy of the sexes. This accounts for our lengthy study of the biological facts. But I deny that they establish for her a fixed and inevitable destiny.

In the history of woman they play a part of the first rank and constitute an essential element in her situation. Throughout our further discussion we shall always bear them in mind. It has been frequently maintained that in physiology alone must be sought the answers to these questions: Are the chances for individual success the same in the two sexes? Which plays the more important role in the species? But it must be noted that the first of these problems is quite different in the case of woman.

Certain materialist savants have approached the problem in a purely static fashion; influenced by the theory of psychophysiological parallelism, they sought to work out mathematical comparisons between the male and female organism — and they imagined that these measurements registered directly the functional capacities of the two sexes. For example, these students have engaged in elaborately trifling discussions regarding the absolute and relative weight of the brain in man and woman — with inconclusive results, after all corrections have been made.

But what destroys much of the interest of these careful researches is the fact that it has not been possible to establish any relation whatever between the weight of the brain and the level of intelligence. And one would similarly be As for the present study, I categorically reject the notion of psychophysiological parallelism, for it is a doctrine whose foundations have long since been thoroughly undermined.

If I mention it at all, it is because it still haunts many minds in spite of its philosophical and scientific bankruptcy. I reject also any comparative system that assumes the existence of a natural hierarchy or scale of values — for example, an evolutionary hierarchy.

It is vain to ask if the female body is or is not more infantile than that of the male, if it is more or less similar to that of the apes, and so on. All these dissertations which mingle a vague naturalism with a still more vague ethics or aesthetics are pure verbiage. It is only in a human perspective that we can compare the female and the male of the human species. But man is defined as a being who is not fixed, who makes himself what he is.

As Merleau-Ponty very justly puts it, man is not a natural species: Woman is not a completed reality, What gives rise to much of the debate is the tendency to reduce her to what she has been, to what she is today, in raising the question of her capabilities; for the fact is that capabilities are clearly manifested only when they have been realised — but the fact is also that when we have to do with a being whose nature is transcendent action, we can never close the books.

Nevertheless it will be said that if the body is not a thing, it is a situation, as viewed in the perspective I am adopting — that of Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty: Woman is weaker than man, she has less muscular strength, fewer red blood corpuscles, less lung capacity, she runs more slowly, can lift less heavy weights, can compete with man in hardly any sport; she cannot stand up to him in a fight.

To all this weakness must be added the instability, the lack of control, and the fragility Her grasp on the world is thus more restricted; she has less firmness and less steadiness available for projects that in general she is less capable of carrying out. Certainly these facts cannot be denied — but in themselves they have no significance. If he does not wish to seize the world, then the idea of a grasp on things has no sense; when in this seizure the full employment of bodily power is not required, above the available minimum, then differences in strength are annulled; wherever violence is contrary to custom, muscular force cannot be a basis for The bondage of woman to the species is more or less rigorous according to the number of births demanded by society and the degree of hygienic care provided for pregnancy and childbirth.

The bearing of maternity upon the individual life. As with her grasp on the world. It has been said that the human species is anti-natural. In brief. Here again the human situation cannot be reduced to any other. Within such a society. At the level of the gametes. In sessile species. In human A single male can fecundate a number of females each year. This co-operation becomes absolutely indispensable in a species where the offspring remain unable to take care of themselves for a long time after weaning.

It is not merely as a body. But here we are leaving the realm of biology. Its ways and customs cannot be deduced from biology. But in truth a society is not a species. If the respect or the fear inspired by woman prevents the use of violence towards her.

Thus we must view the facts of biology in the light of an ontological. The enslavement of the female to the species and the limitations of her various powers are extremely important facts. If custom decrees — as in certain Indian tribes — that the young girls are to choose their husbands. The close bond between mother and child will be for her a source of dignity or indignity according to the value placed upon the child — which is highly variable this very bond.

Woman is a female to the extent that she feels herself as such. Destiny Chapter 2: The Psychoanalytic Point of View THE tremendous advance accomplished by psychoanalysis over psychophysiology lies in the view that no factor becomes involved in the psychic life without having taken on human significance. But that body is not enough to define her as woman. There are biologically essential features that are not a part of her real. Biology is not enough to give an answer to the question that is before us: Our task is to discover how the nature of woman has been affected throughout the course of history.

It is not nature that defines woman. It is not an easy matter to discuss psychoanalysis per se. The Like all religions — Christianity and Marxism. An entire system has been built up in this perspective. If you attack the letter of his doctrine.

Words are sometimes used in their most literal sense. After all. It is possible to reconcile these statements. According to Dalbiez. As Sartre and Merleau-Ponty have observed. In spite of a scholastic precision that often becomes pedantic. But there are heretics among these. There are metaphysical assumptions behind all his dicta.

Freud never goes to such an It is just such confusions that call for criticism. According to him. Not being a philosopher. Freud has refused to justify his system philosophically. Freud never showed much concern with the destiny of woman. He writes: This develops at first. When the boy reaches the genital phase.

Freud further brought to light a fact the importance of which had not been fully appreciated: There is only one genital stage for man. This transition is made at the time of puberty through a narcissistic phase. The boy becomes fixed on his mother and desires to identify himself with his father. Thus the castration complex springs from the But the penis will remain.

While still in the auto-erotic stage. These are repressed. Oedipus complex. Then the child identifies herself with the father.

Then aggressiveness towards the father develops. He recognised a very important difference between the two. This fixation of the girl represents a survival of the oral phase. The super-ego is more powerful in proportion as the Oedipus complex has been more marked and more rigorously resisted. It can be seen that like her genital Her feeling of frustration is the keener since.

Then the super-ego is built up also in her. Having then to renounce her virile pretensions. The castration complex and the Electra complex thus reinforce each other. The little girl entertains a feeling of rivalry and hostility towards her mother. But the idea of mutilation implies comparison and evaluation. The little boy obtains from his penis a living experience that makes it an object of pride to him. It could not arise from a simple anatomical comparison.

This attitude will cause her to remain in the clitoral phase. In consequence she may be led to react to the castration complex by denying her femininity. Many psychoanalysts today admit that the young girl may regret not having a penis without believing. The two essential objections that may be raised against this view derive from the fact that Freud based it upon a masculine model.

He assumes that woman feels that she is a mutilated man. One of the great problems of feminine eroticism is that clitoral pleasure is localised. Even in boys the occurrence of a definitely genital Oedipus complex is by no means general. To say. Freud takes this for granted. It does not determine the nature of its object.

If it is admitted that the Electra complex has only a very diffuse emotional character. The sovereignty of the father is a fact of social origin. What deifies the father is by no means the feminine libido nor is the mother deified by the desire she arouses in the son.

Adler took issue with Freud because he saw the deficiency of a system that undertook to explain human life upon the basis of sexuality alone. With Freud all human behaviour seems to be the outcome of desire — that is. He gives so large a place to the intelligence that often the sexual has in his eyes only a symbolic value. According to his system. I shall not enlarge here upon the theoretical The place the father holds in the family.

It is not the lack of the penis that causes this complex. In woman the inferiority complex takes the form of a shamed rejection of her femininity. She is divided against herself much more profoundly than is the male. But this supposes that she begins by wholly accepting her role as woman and that she assumes her inferiority.

Through maternity she may be able to find an equivalent of the penis in her child. As a child In fact. The axiomatic proposition held in common by all psychoanalysts is this: And all the psychoanalysts allot the same destiny to woman. Adler retains the idea of psychic causation as an integral part of his system when he introduces the concepts of goal and of fiality.

As we know. This drama would seem to be endowed with an energy. The psychoanalysts have had no trouble in finding empirical confirmation for their theories. She will find her recompense in maternity. He it is whom she really seeks in lover or husband. For example.

But when a doctrine demands the indefinite and arbitrary multiplication of secondary explanations. It is possible to make out a form only against a background.. He endeavoured to replace the idea of value with that of authority. All psychoanalysts systematically reject the idea of choice and the correlated concept of value. Having dissociated compulsions and prohibitions from the free choice of the existent. This is possible only by our recovering through the disparate facts the original purposiveness of existence.

If we do not go back to this source. Freud fails to give us an explanation of their origin — he takes them for granted. The super-ego interiorises. Sexuality most certainly plays a considerable role in human life. Adler saw clearly that the castration complex could be explained only in social context. We have already learned from physiology that the living activity of the testes and the ovaries is integrated with that of the body in The human unity appears to be disrupted.

It is a mystery. The psychoanalysts hold that the primary truth regarding man is his relation with There is no need of taking sexuality as an irreducible datum. And likewise.

But if body and sexuality are concrete expressions of existence. The existent is a sexual. Lacking this perspective. Man aspires to be at one concretely with the whole world. It is at once in their light and in the light of these erotic The social ladder for thousands of years has given the women a minor role in the execution of essential tasks. In truth, we are all aversive to change, especially if that alteration conflicts with your beliefs and agenda.

This is not about choosing a side, nor erasing male dominance over women so that that peace can prevail. De Beauvoir also puts in the spotlight a myriad of well-defined types of behavior that are suitable for a woman. She asserts that these concepts are deeply embedded into human consciousness, with an intention to suppress uprisings and riots. Another tool used to conceal the troubles is maternity.

This amazing journey illustrates the new birth of two souls, a sacred path that is in correlation with nature. Robbing them of individuality is like depriving yourself of being in the company of a good friend. Lack of cultural and emotional intelligence inhibit the social growth. In the past, when a specific group was inhabiting the land of a lord it had no other choice but to abide by the principles of the landlord. These days, we have new rulers, who also want to keep the ball rolling.

Furthermore, these unethical laws are targeting certain groups, or in this case, women — leading to gender segregation, salary gap, you name it. What are the three main duties that any woman had to fulfill?

Second , having kids and being a mother. This role is not that big of deal, but men tried to enforce a mentality that would be suitable for this responsibility and thus keep the women locked in a mental cage.

Moral intelligence must be the core of decision-making and the only rulebook of that kind. It solely undermines the circle of slavery and bondage and converts it into a window of endless opportunities.

Like this summary? Whether you like feminists or not, you cannot neglect the fact that this classic changed the course of history. And what did men lose as a result? Hopefully, we will all rejoice together in the near future, with equal possibilities for everyone. For those of you who want to learn something new daily, 12min App takes you on a personal development journey with the key takeaways from the greatest bestsellers. PT ES.

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