cittadelmonte.info Environment Society And Environment Book For Amie Pdf

SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT BOOK FOR AMIE PDF

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Pdf 32 amie book for society and environment. can any one upload the soft copy of society and environment by sc naik. hi friend here is the list of Study notes/Material of AMIE Section A for Society and Environment to download those Study notes/Material click on. AMIE Study Material & Admission Packages. AMIE(I) Study What measures. (b) Write the author(s) of the following books: . SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT.


Society And Environment Book For Amie Pdf

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Amie Society and Environment Notes - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File (d) All it is mainly used as a fuel. in his famous book “ The closing circle”. AD Society And Environment AN Society And Environment Group A Society Societal Structures and Dynamics: An analysis Recommended Books • SC Naik and T N Tiwari. Amie-Design-and-Manufacturing-Notes. pdf. AMIE. Phone cittadelmonte.info Summer SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT .. (c) Name the author of the book,”Planned Economy in India.

Page 1 Notes Long type Answers: Development is a total transformation of society and a movement in consciously chosen direction. There is no straight and linear progress from traditional to modern society, and neither is this transition smooth. Development is a complex one and involves several aspects: Intellectual development. The first requirement of political development is a high degree of role of specialization and differentiation of political institutions and the growth of communication media. Political parties, trade unions, religious organizations, pressure groups and other similar organizations represent functional differentiation.

COD and DO emanating from sewage and other wastes. Delineation means changing land into desert area. Industrial effluents and Agricultural discharges. This breaks down glucose and other complex organic compounds and converts the carbon back to CO2 in the atmosphere or water for reuse by producers. Population and Gulf-war: A brief review of Gulf-war is described in a tabulated shape. If carbon cycle removes too much CO2 from the atmosphere.

The basic function of biosphere is that it supports life. Causes of Eco-Imbalance: The Reasons which cause ecological imbalance are given below. Aerobic process accumulation enhancing need of BOD. So the process of photosynthesis. Biosphere cycle: Maintenance of the biosphere is possible through constant recycling of materials between the biotic living and abiotic nonliving components. CO2 into complex carbohydrates such as glucose. I v The Sulphur Cycle. Improper road construction results in soil erosion that may lead to uprooting of large trees and degeneration of lower counts.

Society and Environment book (Hindi)

Phosphorus cycle is one of the mineral cycle begins when phosphorus compounds are leached from rocks and minerals over long periods of time. Biosphere means sphere of life. This connection between photosynthesis in producers and aerobic respiration in producers.

More than 40 lakhs surface transport moves on the roads of Delhi only. This way it leads to serious ecological imbalances affecting adversely run-off factors. Carbon is essential to life. II In order to avoid any geological havoc. A Biosphere cycle EPA Environmental Pro tection Agency recommend use of Wood Stoves nation wide hilly areas and plains to over-power eco-imbalance as a remedial measure and attempt deal burning.

Its use is good remedy for eco-imbalance besides being cheaper. Microconsumers or decomposers small heterotrophs. An ecosystem may be a single tree False Ans: Debris obtained during road cut-tings must be accumulated at some appropriate place and plantation must be done on the same V Programme of social forestry must be taken upto the grass root level Small water tanks along with the proper drainage system must be constructed along the roadsides in order to protect both flora and fauna.

It is better to consult an environmentalist prior to road construction. Ecosystems function by maintaining a flow of energy and a cycling of nutrients through a series of steps of eating and being eaten. Besides this wood burning bring forth hazardous amounts of carbon monoxide CO and hydrocarbons HC due to inefficient and incomplete burning of wood. It is a source of renewable energy..

Plantation must be done along the banks of rivers Mac fadyen: III Wood burning as a source of energy is very popular in those area where oil.

This plantation will help in retaining the natural environment. During photosynthesis. Biogas is mainly produced from cattle dung. New Delhi has develops technology of briquetting saw dust into smokeless fuel— a good and eco-friendly source of energy which yields Biogas and pynogas.

The best example of social forestry is found in China where even single inch of wasteland is not left without plantation. Remediesfor Eco-Imbalance: Some important strategies programme and plans for reducing the ecological imbalance in the world eco-system are given below: I Road construction activities must be minimum on reserve forests in order to avoid and disturbance to natural wealth.. The chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the sun The wastelands must be garlanded with trees. IV Biogas is another way A Ecology..

According to the principal of organic growth. According to many authorities. Fats are formed by the elements carbon.

There is no sustainable development. Most of the victims of this biggest industrial accident in the world were the poor people living in the slums adjacent to the plant. India has also achieved near self-reliance in many core sectors such as iron and steel. It was found that within 5 to 7 years of clearing the forest. The price of the Central American beef in the US which is roughly half the price of the beef produced in the US from grass-fed cattle does not represent its real ecological cost.

Amie Society and Environment Notes

Attempts should also be made to remove some of the weaknesses existing in the planning system. Their dimension. While planning for any developmental project. In January.

What these industries have provided and what has come out is noteworthy. Myanmar and Sri Lanka appears to be over-population that throws heavy demands on natural resources including air. India today is one of the First ten industrialized countries of the world.

Development in harmony with the environment should be the spirit of our Five-Year Plans. Rich countries should transfer more of their resources to poor nations. If we build a large dam. An extreme example of this was the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. As an answer to the problem of environmental degradation. Give some examples of unplanned growths.

The main factor of environmental pollution in the Indian sub-continent i. We have both non-degradable and bio-degradable pollutants. India has made tremendous progress on all fronts. The current over fishing on India's coast is. Despite the worldwide process of decolonization after the Second World War. Since independence. This is the dilemma of development No one can deny the need for development. This is not sustainable development We all know that pollutants are present in water.

Pollutant emission within the permissible limit is a fine approach of development but the moment permissible limit is crossed may be due to anyone's carelessnessit becomes hazardous to the health of both living and non-living organisms. The reason is that cattle ranching has proved to be the worst form of land use for the fragile soil of Central America on which the tropical forests existed before The food requirements and habit of the rich Western countries have been instrumental in destroying the forests and degrading the land of many poor Third World countries.

In the US. The mechanism for this destruction of ozone involves the following two reactions: But if we ignore the other reactions and add the above two reactions. The district of Ludhiana in Punjab. Chemically active solar ultraviolet light in the range of to nm. The only naturally occurring chemical that can transport much chlorine high enough into' the stratosphere to damage the ozone layer is methyl chloride CH 3 CI.

If the dram of micronutrients from the soil continues. Exactly what the industry of the rich Western countries does to the environment of poor Third World countries. The reason is that when firewood becomes scarce. In Punjab. The micronutrient fertilizer industry is likely to become a boom industry in the near future. One of the major effects of environmental degradation due to industrialization is the large-scale destruction of our forests. The reduction of crop-land productivity due to the destruction of forests occurs in two ways.

Nearly half the industrial output in India comes from biomass-based industries like cotton. These biomass-based industries need crop lands. The result is that the soil literally gets washed leading to an intensified cycle of floods and drought. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. India and several other countries in South-East Asia have established regulations to prevent trawler operators from fishing in the first few kilometers from the coast. To control these pests.

Most of the chlorine in the world is in the form of chemically stable sodium chloride NaCI. Explain in detail. Elemental chlorine Cl. Most of this methyl chloride is destroyed in the troposphere the lower atmosphere. It has been estimated that a single chlorine atom in the stratosphere can convert as many as 10 6 to 10 6 O 3 molecules to 0.

Before we had the synthetic halogen compounds known as chlorofluorocarbons CFCs. This over- fishing often leads to tension and violent encounter between traditional fishermen and the owners of the mechanized trawlers. This mechanism is often referred to as the catalytic destruction of ozone since the chlorine atoms act as a catalyst for the reaction.

The pattern of mindless exploitation of natural resources that we see on the global scale simply repeats itself on the national scale.

The more intensive the agriculture due to the use of high-yielding varities. Over a period of time. Each of these industries exerts heavy pressure on the cultivated and forest lands of the country. The threat to the ozone layer is so severe that international conferences have been held and declarations and treaties have been adopted that commit the nations to restrict and eventually eliminate the use of CFCs.

In case of sewage irrigation. The sewage is usually treated before discharging it into a water body to ensure that the condition of the receiving water body does not deteriorate to the extent of impacting on its normal use. The ODP is a relative measure of the ability of a gas or vapour to attack and destroy the stratospheric ozone layer. It is expressed as a function of the percentage weight of chlorine in the halogenated hydrocarbon to be used a CFC substitute and its lifetime in the stratosphere.

Many chemical companies. This method is considered quite satisfactory during the rainy season when the dilutionfactor is extremely high. There replacements should have all these properties and. Varanasi and Patna.

Amie Society and Environment Notes | Ecology | Ecosystem

In this method. So far the only method we know to protect the stratospheric ozone layer is to limit the emission of those substances mainly CFCs that can destroy it. The world production of carbon tetrachloride. Compared to the CFCs. In addition to the problems mentioned above. Huge amounts of money and effort are being spent now to develop suitable substitutes for the CFCs.

The other group. For example. Starting about a hundred years ago i. Another substitute. Carbon tetrachloride CCI. This method is very similar to intermittent sand filtration. The compounds like methyl chloride CH 3 CI that also contain hydrogen atoms can be attacked in the atmosphere by the OH radical.

Thus treatment. One of these. The sewage is usually given primary treatment before its disposal on land. These substitutes may also require more energy. In this case. I he cities arid towns which are situated near a large river Allahabad. The original CFCs were designed to be non. In developing countries. For some applications of the CFCs. In India. No one knows of another material we could send into the stratosphere to protect the ozone layer from CFCs.

Write in brief. Treatment of Sewage. The data on the new HFCs are. The chemical industry' is developing two major types of CFC substitutes. Some of the important methods used for the disposal of sewage are as follows: In case of domestic refrigerators. The digested sludge may also be used for land filling.

Primary Treatment: The primary treatment of sewage mainly consists of physical separation of floating and suspended solids that are settleable from the sewage. Se and Sb. The two oxides of sulpher are sulpher dioxide SO 2 and sulpher trioxide SO 3. Pb lead..

In the process of digestion of sludges. The power thus generated is enough to pump the entire sewage. The ozone O 3 is a variant of oxygen O 2. Once established. The main use of the sludge gas.? Dried digested sludge can be used as a fertilizer since it contains 0.

An important method used to process the domestic sewage is the septic tank. Among the sludge gases. Out of these. Cd cadmium. When the sludge is first placed in the digesting tank.

There are several oxide of nitrogen such as N 2 O. Sludge Digestion: The process of sludge digestion consists of liquefaction of organic materials in the sludge by anaerobic bacteria. The main equipment used for the primary treatment are screens. A Sanitary land-fill b Incineration c Composting d None of these.

It has been estimated that more than one billion PCs personal computers have already been sold globally and there has also been a spurt in the sales of other electronic items like refrigerators. Which are collectively known as NOx. Secondary Treatment: The secondary treatment of sewage includes flocculation and precipitation of the remaining materials in the sewage with the help of biological agencies.

The solid materials left behind i. The by-products of the secondary treatment process are screenings.. D-b Write the odd ones: Lime can not be used to precipitate phosphorous. Detergents are organic chemicals. Radioactive isotopes have a short half-life. Lime can be used to precipitate phosphorous. Radioactive isotopes have a Very long half-life. Cadmium poisoning may lead to formation of kidney stones Ans: Increase in dissolved oxygen adversely affects the aquatic plants and animals.

The anaerobic treatment process has been effective for effluents containing high concentration of orgaiuc matters. Detergents are inorganic chemicals. The anaerobic treatment process is not effective for effluents containing high concentration of orgaiuc matters. Reduce in dissolved oxygen adversely affects the aquatic plants and animals. Prolonged exposure to noise may cause hearing loss. Heat is an example of Thermal pollutant 8. The end point of a composting operation can be determined by noting a drop in the temperature.

No one in his right mind will be happy about having a sanitary land-fill near his house. The biological aspects of the land-fill as well as the structural properties of the compacted solid waste dictate the ultimate use of sanitary land-fill sites. Dearth of moisture. When the area is full. Excessive moisture makes it difficult to maintain aerobic conditions.

Since these gases have to find an escape. The mixture is kept aerobic by turning it at regular intervals for two or three months. The selection of a proper land- fill site is a difficult problem. Many types of micro-organisms. If pilings are used as foundations on a land-fill. The whole process takes about months.. For an optimum rate of composting. It is suggested that nothing should be constructed on a land-fill site for at least two years because uneven setting may often create problems.

This process. Manual methods are widely practiced in India and many other developing countries. Modern methods of composting may be classified into two broad categories: If this operation is conducted according to accepted practice. The compost is stabilized after about three week's. A community may be rewarded with playgrounds. At this point.

The basic principle of a landfill operation is to deposit the refuse. The Bangalore process of composting is a modified form of the hid ore process. The reason is that most of the sanitary land-fills in the past were nothing but glorified garbage dumps. The above engineering problems are quite important. The end products of anaerobic decomposition are mostly gases like carbon dioxide CO 2.

At the planning stage. The resulting compost is then left for another month or so without turning. It is preferable that the sanitary land-fill be situated in the down wind direction from the city or town. In the absence of oxygen. The refuse is periodically turned over to a How enough oxygen to penetrate all parts of the material to support the process. During this phase of decomposition.

The moisture content of the wastes is a critical factor in the aerobic composting process.

If initial compaction is poor. The engineering aspects of land-fill site selection include: Rapid runoff reduces the mosquito problems. These are: The sanitary land-fill operation is.

The Bangalore process has been. The decomposition may still be going on after 25 years. The manual method is more attractive for towns with a rural bias.

A small land-fill site with limited capacity is generally not acceptable because finding a new site involves considerable amount of trouble. The micro-organisms that decompose the wastes include bacteria which predominate at all stages of the process. In the Indore process. Scientists at the Indian Pl "wood Research Institute.

In the Tollemache process. The particle boards. In this process. The rates of air flow and water addition are regulated so that the decomposition of the waste takes place under optimum conditions.

The pulverised and screened refuse is allowed to decompose in trenches mounds for about three weeks. The remaining corn postable materialis then decomposed aerobicatly in open trenches or mounds. This partially decomposed refuse is then completely decomposed in open trenches or mounds. Bangalore have developed a technology for manufacturing particle board from rice husk. In the Nusoil process the non-compostable inorganic material is separated from the waste.

It has been estimated that approximately 1. In the Buhler process. The resulting compost is then cured for weeks. The entire operation may take about a month. The variable factors range from cattle dung availability and its calorific value to biogas yield and appliance efficiency.

Stabilisation by this process may take about months. Depending on the market demand. Fully mechanized composting plants involve shred ding. The resulting compost is quite satisfactory' for direct field application without addition of supplementary nutrients. The rotating drum is inclined so that the waste flows from one end to the other.

There are basically four processes of mechanical composting available in India. The complete stabilization. The Dane process uses a long rotating drum. The non-compos table inorganic materials metals and glass are separated from the waste by the strong sifting action on circular swinging sieves. The resulting compost is free from pathogenic i. The refuse moves downward through each section of the digester. Two major research needs in the area of biogas technology are restricted use of water in biogas plants and better strains of methane generating bacteria.

On dry basis. The method of particle board manufacture involves the following basic steps: The refuse is kept for about a day in each section of the digester and thus. The particle board has been found to be superior to wood or plywood boards because of the following advantages it offers: The refuse is partially decomposed in the drum and the outcoming refuse is generally free from odour and pathogenic micro-organisms.

The particle board obtained by using this technology is a versatile substitute in a wide range of applications. In contrast to the Indore process. There is an urgent need. The vertical digester is a cylindrical unit having seven sections.

Though the Bangalore process avoids turning the material altogether. Fly-ash from coal-fired power plants is a major industrial waste product in India. Short Answer Questions: Solid waste.

These bacteria decomposes the waste by eating and as a result produces methane. Open Dumping of solid waste is exclusively practiced in India. The fuel obtained from waste plastic contains no lead and had a high octain rating. Instead of throughing the garbage.

Shredding the solid wastes also known as pulverizing and then spreading the shredded material on fields has been found to be successful in a number of places. It is the final solution for the solid waste problem including volume reduction. The particle boards produced by these firms have shown excellent market acceptance and gained popularity because of their elegant look. Since spreading it out dries the pulverized refuse.

The process has been licenced to several firms in India and Malaysia. Land-fill operations are quite difficult to carry out during the raining season. Some other definitions or interpretations of sustainability or sustainable development are as follows: Sustainable development. In general. One can recover Many alternate development strategies have been propounded and they are being implemented without adequate environmental safeguards.

Sanitary land fill is an aerobic process. The compound furfural. Composting is an anaerobic process. In reality. Generally the agricultural waste are non-hazardous. In its report "Our Common Future". In case of CNG the cost is low. The chemical process for the conversion of coke to methanol is as follows: There is a global realization of the fact that single use of some of The important materials like metals.

We were In developed countries. Besides this. The engines of the other automobiles can be easily modified to run on CNG. The bulk of these materials is dumped.. Energy problems of urbanised population: The details of energy demand clearly reflect that there is imbalance between demand and supply of energy.

In many developing countries like India. China clay is produced from Granite Rock for use in ceramic industries. Every one nearly is having electrical appliance. Demand is more because number of houses and vehicles are increasing day by day. Photovoltaic energy conversion is a direct energy conversion in the sense that the light energy is directly converted into electrical energy without intermediate involvement of mechanical or thermal energy. The reasons for waste utilization are: Photovoltaic energy converters are generally known as Solar Cells.

The demand of energy is more whereas supply is less. Coarse sand is used in road construction and in manufacture of building materials. The energy consumption is therefore shooting up. It may be noted here that vertical mobility may involve either upward or downward movement.

Another limitation of these studies is that they have concentrated heavily on the educational opportunity as a major factor influencing upward mobility. On the other hand. The problem with historical studies of mobility is that they largely provide illustrations of various types of mobilities but do not show the extent of it due to lack of data.

The horizontal mobility involves no change in the position of the individual or the group in the social hierarchy system of grades of status. Other examples can be found in the rise and fall of family business or politically influence.

On the international scale. Such historical studies do not give the actual number of individuals or families who change their position by upward or downward movement in the social hierarchy over a given period of time. The vertical mobility. The Mobility is said to be intra generational when an individual moves vertically upward or downward within his own adult lifetime. In anv discussion of mobility.

In recent years. This is due to the fact that they have been preoccupied with the question of equality of opportunity. An important example of the upward mobility of families is the emergence of new ruling dynasties raajvansh. All natural features maintain ecological balance.

If a worker becomes a wealthy businessman. When a worker moves from one factory to another. In studying the movement of individuals. Though sociologists have been mostly preoccupied with the mobility of individuals. One of the earliest writers to bring out the diverse aspects of vertical social mobility was the economist Joseph Schumpeter. In contrast to the mobility of individuals.

Modern sociologists have concentrated their attention mainly on the upward mobility. The reason is that downward mobility can clearly show the extent to which it is possible for the privileged special benefit or honour classes and groups to maintain their status and pass on to their descendants the advantages that they enjoyed.

This is an example of horizontal mobility. Such mobility of particular social groups usually occurs as a result of economic. An example of downward mobility is a member of an upper class who is dispossessed of his wealth in a revolution and is forced to enter into a manual occupation. Primary metal industries recover metals from municipal wastes. The movement in the same country from one occupation to another or from one religion to another is a kind of mobility at the national level.

This is an example of vertical mobility. Many sociologists have claimed that the lesser degree of mass consciousness in the US society. Upward social mobility has often been promoted by international movement of population. Another factor having an influence on the mobility. The movement of individuals from the working class into the upper class is generally rare in all societies. Comparisons among industrial societies show that the greater part of the vertical social mobility is a short-range mobility.

A primitive tribal society that lives by hunting or is engaged in an on-going warfare with other neighbouring tribes will naturally place a high value on physical strength. One universal factor is the occurrence of individuals with exceptional endowments something that is settled on any person or institution such as intelligence. When this stability is not maintained by any formal or legal sanctions. At a later stage. A very important example of this phenomenon is the colonial expansion of many European countries from the sixteenth century onwards.

The other side of the coin of social mobility is the argument that preoccupation with vertical movement reinforces the class system.

Another consequence of mobility is the more effective use of individual talent and ability. The extent to which an individual talent will lead to upward mobility is also limited by the general orientation of the activities of a particular society'.

Mobility is high during a revolution and after a revolution. Such differential fertility has rarely been a major influence on social mobility. It is quite likely that. Modern investigations suggest that one should be cautious in the interpretation of historical accounts of social mobility and undue prominence clearly visible. If the upper and middle classes limit their families.

In the past. Vertical social mobility resulting from exceptional personal qualities is governed by many social factors. An individual in a close system encounters many obstacles if he seeks to escape from his social position as a slave. Mobility is limited and that there are no substantial differences between different industrial societies in the extent of mobility in spite of the general belief that social mobility is greater in the United States than in the European countries.

Manifestations clearly shown of such personal qualities in exceptional amounts are quite limited and. In contrast. In the more open class systems of modem societies. Africa and America. The mobility is also affected by more gradual changes in a society.

The general changes in social structure has a profound influence on social mobility. Even in industrial societies. Page 21 Notes 3. The ideology that upholds such a system usually tends to inhibit the development of talent and ambition at the lower levels of the society. It may be noted that the widespread belief that opportunities for upward mobility are greater in the US than in other societies may itself have had an important influence on the lesser degree of class-consciousness in the US.

Should not be given to exceptional cases of upward or downward movement. In such circumstances. Certain peculiarities attach to income from labour as contrasted with income from property. A high rate of vertical mobility may produce in a society the condition that the French Sociologist Durkheim called "anomie" meaning normlessness and the resultant disorientation and anxiety a state of being anxious.

With the exception of the period of anarchy. By the same token. According to some authors. The value of an income is the value of the services. OO in a savings bank is earning Rs. In any society. Intensive vertical mobility increases plasticity arid versatility of behaviour and stimulates progress in thought. This has resulted in a higher level of living. Under services. This interpretation leads to the conclusion that the Western societies are moving in the direction of relative classlessness or that they are becoming predominantly middle class societies.

The capitalisation.

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They perform not only the educational and training functions. Thus in computing the income of a domestic help. It's direct and indirect influences on all aspects of social organisations are very potent. One important result of these principles of income calculation is the exclusion of capital gains from the income.

More complications arise due to the fact that income must be defined for the purpose of taxation. These institutions. These social changes are reflected in a decline in class conflict. Service may be defined as the creation of desirable events. Such mobility may also be disruptive having an upsetting or unsettling effect of families and local communities.

The presence of such stress and strain may also give rise to a higher incidence of mental illness among the highly ambitious and highly mobile individuals. In modern industrial societies. In case of an individual. The family. The process of vertical mobility exerts a number of important influences upon social life. The total income of an individual or personal income is the total money value of the services received by him from all sources during a given period of time.

For all practical purposes. The income of society as a whole is the total money value of all the services received by the members of the society from all sources. OO a year as interest and if the depositor withdraws his interest earnings every year.

Vertical mobility makes the social structure elastic. Vertical mobility may also have some undesirable consequences. Vertical social mobility. OO a year and the principal sum of Rs.

The reason is that if the individuals are confined to the social segment in which they are born. When the individual enters an occupational institution. These changes have been interpreted in many different ways by various sociologists.

Under this condition. In sharp contrast to this interpretation. Government policies to ensure a fair distribution of personal income are among the most controversial and difficult issues of public policy. The national income must be increased. Some of the major consequences of uneven income distribution are as follows: Inequitable distribution of income and wealth has divided the society into two classes. Property is one of the major causes of the inequality of income.

Rich inheritance gives them a good start in life. Once a person earns and acquires property. Chhattisgarh and Nagaland do not offer good opportunities for employment.

This results in corruption and social injustice.

That's why some earn more and others earn less and differences in property lead to difference in income. Professional education.

Some parents die under debt leaving the burden of debt on their children while others leave huge cash and properties to their heirs. Persons who are endowed by nature with superior intelligence. Some persons are born landless. To some extent. This class conflict leads to social and political discontent 2 Political Domination: The rich dominates the political machinery and uses it to promote his own interests. The major causes of inequality of incomes in an economy are: Some persons are born with a silver spoon.

A continuous series of annual estimates of either the total or per capita national income suggest whether the nation tends in the course of time to grow richer or poorer arid how rapidly this change takes place. Some persons are lucky enough to get a good chance. Some are more gifted than others. Even socialist and communist countries. Wealth or "net worth" consists of the total value of financial and tangible capable of being possessed assets minus the amount of money owed to bankers or other creditors.

Maharashtra and Gujarat have ample opportunities. Under the system of private property. Some inherit a feeble mind in a feeble body and they are left behind. Figures for per capita income. Inequality of income is an important feature of capitalist economies. So long as the system of inheritance continues. Page 22 Notes 3.

A child may be highly intelligent. It is well known that underdeveloped regions like Uttaranchal. No two persons have the same natural qualities. Income distribution came into force during the feudal a right to the use of land.

Disposable personal income consists of the personal income minus any taxes paid on it. Page 23 Notes 3. The Minimum Wage Act was passed in India in In Many economists and statisticians have directed their attention towards testing of its validity.

Unequal distribution of income promotes monopolies. The monopolies can crush small enterprises and change unfair prices. With a view to reducing inequalities between the big and small farmers. It becomes almost impossible for the poor to retain their honesty and integrity when they see the corrupt and rich people rising in life.

An important measure for a more equitable distribution of income is the introduction of a comprehensive social security scheme assuring each citizen a minimum standard of economic welfare. It is a great social loss that highly brilliant but poor people are not able to make their full contribution to the society and the nation.

N is the number of individuals having an income equal to or larger than X and A and a are constants found from empirical statistics by fitting the data to the straight line given by the above equation. Unequal distribution of income leads to moral degradation of the society as the rich are corrupted by vice and the poor are demoralized by lack of economic resources.

It follows. Other direct taxes like the super tax. It has been found that the constant x the slope of the straight line is approximately equal to 1.

The law. The most famous attempt in the first direction is the Pareto's law. The economic inequality corrupts the rich and degrades the poor. There can be no real democracy and political equality without economic equality. The rich exploits the poor economically. After the independence.. In order to prevent the perpetuation continuation or preservation for ever of inequality from generation to generation.

It is obvious that the Pareto's law is of great importance for major questions of economic theory as well as economic policy. Social services like public parks. This can prevent to some extent the rich getting richer. The government may devise suitable means to provide equal opportunities to both the rich and the poor in getting employment or getting a start in trade or industry.

One such device is the steeply-graded i. As possible fiscal devices may be adopted to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor. Inequality of income is an important cause for social and political instability. It is not easy for a poor person to make his way in life. With this end in view. In this way. Democracy is a farce when there is a wide gulf between the rich and the poor. In pursuance of this Act. The main purpose of land ceilings is to bring about a wider ownership and use of land.

Results of such cumulative analysis have shown that. Such a social security scheme must include provision for free education up to certain level. Some of the measures to reduce inequality in the distribution of income and wealth are: The first step in the direction of a more egalitarian believing in and upholding the principle of equality among people.

The awareness of this exploitation may lead to political awakening. Planning-its objective and assessment. Technology Assessment: Historical development of science and technology Criteria for assessment of appropriate technology and technology adaptation. Natural ecosystems. Principles of eco-balance, Biosphere cycle, carbon dioxide. Causes for eco-imbalance - its effects and remedies. Environmental Degradation: Causes for degradation - its effect.

Control of air, water, soil and noise pollutions. Protection of ozone layer. Waste Management: Agricultural, urban and industrial waste. Sustainable Development: Definition and concept. Technology for sustainable energy and materials.

Preparation Strategy for Society and Environment: Ltd will be sufficient for the students. Only Jain Brothers Publishes these question papers. You can take these books and read while you travel.

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