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THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY. THE GOLDEN RULE. I. THERE is perhaps no ethical maxim which has met with such universal commendation as the Golden. Key words: golden rule, ethics of reciprocity, principle of consistency, principle .. Choice_Kirchgaessner/$FILE/ World+Economic+cittadelmonte.info; accessed Feb. The Golden Rule. Baha'i: “And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbor that which thou choosest for thyself.” Lawh'i 'lbn'i Dhib.


The Golden Rule Pdf

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Article (PDF Available) in Think 4(10) · June with 1, Reads The Golden Rule tells me to do unto others as I would have them do unto. PDF | 2+ hours read | The Golden Rule or law of reciprocity is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated. It is a maxim of. PDF | Özet Peace is something desirable and requested by all nations To this end, it introduces the golden rule (treating others as you wish.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. John Horsfield. It is a maxim of altruism seen in many human religions and human cultures. Psychologically, it involves a person empathizing with others. Philosophically, it involves a person perceiving their neighbor also as "I" or "self".

A unified Ethical Culture movement was first founded in ; its founder, Felix Adler was a former member of the Free Religious Association, and conceived of Ethical Culture as a new religion that would retain the ethical message at the heart of all religions. Ethical Culture was religious in the sense of playing a defining role in people's lives and addressing issues of ultimate concern.

Nowadays religious humanists in the United States are represented by organisations such as the American Ethical Union, and will simply describe themselves as "ethical humanists" or "humanists". Secular humanists and religious humanists organise together as part of larger national and international groupings, and differentiate themselves primarily in their attitude to the promotion of humanist thinking. Earlier attempts at inventing a secular religious tradition informed the Ethical Culture movement.

The Cult of Reason French: This early group was democratically organised, with male and female members participating in the election of the leadership and promoted knowledge of the sciences, philosophy, and the arts.

Early 20th century critics such as Ezra Pound, T. Hulme, and T. Eliot considered humanism to be sentimental "slop" Hulme [citation needed] or "an old bitch gone in the teeth" Pound [72] and wanted to go back to a more manly, authoritarian society such as existed in the Middle Ages. Davies acknowledges that after the horrific experiences of the wars of the 20th century "it should no longer be possible to formulate phrases like 'the destiny of man' or the 'triumph of human reason' without an instant consciousness of the folly and brutality they drag behind them".

For "it is almost impossible to think of a crime that has not been committed in the name of human reason". Yet, he continues, "it would be unwise to simply abandon the ground occupied by the historical humanisms.

For one thing humanism remains on many occasions the only available alternative to bigotry and persecution. The freedom to speak and write, to organise and campaign in defence of individual or collective interests, to protest and disobey: However, they stipulate that decisions about right and wrong must be based on the individual and common good, with no consideration given to metaphysical or supernatural beings.

The idea is to engage with what is human. It still remains to be seen whether the same actor can play both parts". Skinner's Behaviorism.

The approach emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self- actualization and creativity. Psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow introduced a positive, humanistic psychology in response to what they viewed as the overly pessimistic view of psychoanalysis in the early s.

Other sources include the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology. One of humanistic psychology's early sources was the work of Carl Rogers, who was strongly influenced by Otto Rank, who broke with Freud in the mids. Rogers' focus was to ensure that the developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning.

The term 'actualizing tendency' was also coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans.

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Conceptual origins The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought[9] see Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre. Eastern philosophy and psychology also play a central role in humanistic psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian philosophies of personalism, as each shares similar concerns about the nature of human existence and consciousness.

For further information on influential figures in personalism, see: Watson and B. Skinner, Abraham Maslow gave behaviorism the name "the second force". The humanistic psychology perspective is summarized by five core principles or postulates of humanistic psychology first articulated in an article written by James Bugental in [11] and adapted by Tom Greening,[12] psychologist and long-time editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.

The five basic principles of humanistic psychology are: Human beings, as human, supersede the sum of their parts. They cannot be reduced to components. Human beings have their existence in a uniquely human context, as well as in a cosmic ecology. Human beings are aware and are aware of being aware - i. Human consciousness always includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people.

Human beings have the ability to make choices and therefore have responsibility. Human beings are intentional, aim at goals, are aware that they cause future events, and seek meaning, value, and creativity. While humanistic psychology is a specific division within the American Psychological Association Division 32 , humanistic psychology is not so much a discipline within psychology as a perspective on the human condition that informs psychological research and practice.

Practical origins WW II created practical pressures on military psychologists, they had more patients to see and care for than time or resources permitted. The origins of group therapy are here. Orientation to scientific research Humanistic psychologists generally do not believe that we will understand human consciousness and behavior through Cartesian-Newtonian scientific research. For example: A human science view is not opposed to quantitative methods, but, following Edmund Husserl: Consequently, much of the subject matter of psychology lends itself to qualitative approaches e.

Research has remained part of the humanistic psychology agenda, though with more of a holistic than reductionistic focus. Specific humanistic research methods evolved in the decades following the formation of the humanistic psychology movement. Subsequently, graduate programs in Humanistic Psychology at institutions of higher learning grew in number and enrollment.

Division 32 publishes its own academic journal called The Humanistic Psychologist. Maslow was heavily influenced by Kurt Goldstein during their years together at Brandeis University. Psychoanalytic writers also influenced humanistic psychology. Maslow himself famously acknowledged his "indebtedness to Freud" in Towards a Psychology of Being[35] Other psychoanalytic influences include the work of Wilhelm Reich, who discussed an essentially 'good', healthy core self and Character Analysis , and Carl Gustav Jung's mythological and archetypal emphasis.

Schneider, and Ken Wilber. Click to enlarge. The aim of humanistic therapy is usually to help the client develop a stronger and healthier sense of self, also called self-actualization. This type of therapy is insight-based, meaning that the therapist attempts to provide the client with insights about their inner conflicts. Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslow, emphazising a hierarchy of needs and motivations; the existential psychology of Rollo May acknowledging human choice and the tragic aspects of human existence; and the person-centered or client- centered therapy of Carl Rogers, which is centered on the client's capacity for self-direction and understanding of his or her own development.

They are free to define themselves and do whatever it is they want to do. This is a type of humanistic therapy that forces the client to explore the meaning of their life, as well as its purpose.

There is a conflict between having freedoms and having limitations. Examples of limitations include genetics, culture, and many other factors. Existential therapy involves trying to resolve this conflict.

Role playing also plays a large role in Gestalt therapy and allows for a true expression of feelings that may not have been shared in other circumstances. In Gestalt therapy, non-verbal cues are an important indicator of how the client may actually be feeling, despite the feelings expressed.

Also part of the range of humanistic psychotherapy are concepts from depth therapy, holistic health, encounter groups, sensitivity training, marital and family therapies, body work, the existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss,[4] and Positive Psychology. Without this, therapists can be forced to apply an external frame of reference where the therapist is no longer understanding the actions and thoughts of the client as the client would, but strictly as a therapist which defeats the purpose of humanistic therapy.

Included in empathizing, unconditional positive regard is one of the key elements of humanistic psychology. Unconditional positive regard refers to the care that the therapist needs to have for the client. This ensures that the therapist does not become the authority figure in the relationship allowing for a more open flow of information as well as a kinder relationship between the two.

A therapist practicing humanistic therapy needs to show a willingness to listen and ensure the comfort of the patient where genuine feelings may be shared but are not forced upon someone.

Self-help is also part of humanistic psychology: Sheila Ernst and Lucy Goodison have described using some of the main humanistic approaches in self-help groups. One can only improve once they decide to change their ways of thinking about themselves, once they decide to help themselves. Co-counselling, which is an approach based purely on self-help, is regarded as coming from humanistic psychology as well. The ideal self is what a person believes should be done, as well as what their core values are.

The real self is what is actually played out in life. Through humanistic therapy, an understanding of the present allows clients to add positive experiences to their real self-concept. The goal is to have the two concepts of self become congruent. Rogers believed that only when a therapist was able to be congruent, a real relationship occurs in therapy.

It is much easier to trust someone who is willing to share feelings openly, even if it may not be what the client always wants; this allows the therapist to foster a strong relationship.

Humanistic psychology tries to be a science of human experience, focusing on the actual lived experience of persons. The role of the therapist is to create an environment where the client can freely express any thoughts or feelings; he does not suggest topics for conversation nor does he guide the conversation in any way.

The role of the therapist is to provide empathy and to listen attentively to the client. Laing , the disintegration of the capacity to love in modern consumerist society Erich Fromm ,[44] the growing technological dominance over human life Medard Boss , and the question of evil Rollo May and Carl Rogers.

In , the Association for Humanistic Psychology AHP embarked on a three-year effort to explore how the principles of humanistic psychology could be used to further the process of positive social and political change.

It proffered such ideas as moving to a slow-growth or no- growth economy, decentralizing and "deprofessionalizing" society, and teaching social and emotional competencies in order to provide a foundation for more humane public policies and a healthier culture.

For example, in California state legislator John Vasconcellos published a book calling for the integration of liberal politics and humanistic- psychological insight. According to O'Hara, both focus on developing critical consciousness of situations which oppress and dehumanize.

In addition to its uses in thinking about social change, humanistic psychology is considered to be the main theoretical and methodological source of humanistic social work. Previously the connotations of "creativity" were reserved for and primarily restricted to, working artists.

In the s, with increasing numbers of people working in the cognitive-cultural economy, creativity came to be seen as a useful commodity and competitive edge for international brands. This led to corporate creativity training in- service trainings for employees, led pre-eminently by Ned Herrmann at G. Humanistic psychology concepts were embraced in education and social work, peaking in the ss, particularly in North America.

However, as with whole language theory, training practice were too superficial in most institutional settings. Though humanistic psychology raised the bar of insight and understanding of the whole person, professionally it is primarily practiced today by individual licensed counselors and therapists. Outside of that humanistic psychology provides the foundation for virtually every method of Energy Medicine; yet, too little coherence exists yet in this field to discuss it easily.

Humanistic social work After psychotherapy, social work is the most important beneficiary of the humanistic psychology's theory and methodology. Humanistic Social Work. Most values and principles of the humanistic social work practice, described by Malcolm Payne in his book Humanistic Social Work: Core Principles in Practice, namely creativity in human life and practice, developing self and spirituality, developing security and resilience, accountability, flexibility and complexity in human life and practice,[56] directly originate from the humanistic psychological theory and humanistic psychotherapy practice.

Also, the representation and approach of the client as human being and social issue as human issue in social work is made from the humanistic psychology position. The First Epistle of John says that Jesus is "the propitiation for our sins and not for ours only but also for the sins of the world" 1 John 2: Adherents of unlimited atonement interpret this to mean that Jesus' redemptive role is for all people without exception, while adherents of limited atonement interpret it as being for all people without distinction—for Gentiles as well as Jews.

The first Christians also recognized Jesus' redemptive role to be unique without parallel , complete as One who conveys the fullness of salvation , and definitive beyond any possibility of being equalled, let alone surpassed, in his salvific function. In particular, his universal role means that through him the deadly forces of evil are overcome, sin is forgiven, their contamination purified, and the new existence as God's beloved, adopted children has been made available.

This New Testament sense of Christ's indispensable and necessary role for human salvation could be summarized by a new axiom: This sense of his all-determining role in the whole redemptive drama is suggested by a fact: Other worldviews such as Muslims may think that Jesus was a prophet, along with other prophets.

Hinduism depicts Christ as one among many great gurus. Many others hold Christ as a good human being and a great moral example. The truth about Christ is based primarily on the New Testament documents which have been shown elsewhere to be authentic. From these documents, we learn that numerous facets of Christ are absolutely unique. Jesus Christ was unique in that he alone, of all who ever lived, was both God and man.

The New Testament teaches the fully unified deity and humanity of Christ. All heresies regarding Christ deny one or both of these propositions. This as a claim alone makes him unique above all other religious leaders or persons who have ever lived, and it can be backed up with factual evidence. Jesus lived a miracle-filled and supernaturally empowered existence from his conception to his ascension.

Centuries before his birth he was foretold by supernatural prophecy. The Old Testament, which even the most ardent critic acknowledges was in existence centuries before Christ, predicted the where Micah 5: He would be born of a woman Genesis 3: He would come through the tribe of Judah Genesis All of these supernatural prophecies were uniquely fulfilled in Jesus Christ. This is not true of any great religious leader or person who has ever lived, including Muhammad.

Unique in Conception. Christ was not only supernaturally anticipated; he was also miraculously conceived. While announcing his virgin conception, Matthew 1: Luke, a physician, records this miraculous inception of human life Luke 1: Unique in Life. From his very first miracle in Cana of Galilee John 2: John 3: These were not healings of delusional illnesses, nor were they explainable on natural grounds. They were unique in that they were immediate, always successful, had no known re lapses, and healed illnesses that were incurable by medicine, such as persons born blind John 9.

Jesus even raised several people from the dead, including Lazarus whose body was already to the point of rotting John Jesus turned water to wine John 2: When asked if he was the Messiah, he used his miracles as evidence to support the claim saying, 'Go back and report to John what you hear and see: This outpouring of miracles was set forth ahead of time by prophets as a special sign that Messiah had come see Isaiah Nicodemus even said, 'Rabbi, we know you are a teacher who has come from God.

For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if God were not with him' John 3: Unique in Death. This included the darkness from noon to 3 p. Mark The manner in which he suffered the excruciating torture of crucifixion was miraculous. The attitude he maintained toward his mockers and executioners was miraculous, saying, 'Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing' Luke The way in which he actually died was miraculous.

As Jesus said, 'I lay down my life—only to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord' John At the very moment of his departure, he was not overcome by death. Rather, he voluntarily dismissed his spirit. Unique in the Resurrection.

It was not only predicted in the Old Testament Psalms 2, 16 , but Jesus himself predicted it from the very beginning of his ministry: But the temple he had spoken of was his body' John 2: Jesus demonstrated the reality of his resurrection in twelve appearances over forty days to more than people.

Unique in the Ascension. After commissioning his disciples, 'he was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them' Acts 1: Contrary to the view of some, this was not a 'parable' but a literal bodily ascension into heaven from which he will return in the same literal body to reign in this world Acts 1: The great Christian creeds clearly emphasize the miraculous bodily ascension of Christ.

Unique in Sinlessness. A soldier at the cross agreed saying, 'Surely this was a righteous man' Luke For a description of what those closest to Jesus thought of his character, Hebrews says that he was tempted as a man 'yet without sinning' 4: Jesus himself once challenged his accusers, 'Which of you convicts me of sin?

This being the case, the impeccable character of Christ gives a double testimony to the truth of his claim. To a perfect degree he manifested the best of virtues. He also combined seemingly opposing traits. In Exemplifying Virtues. He alone lived perfectly what he taught in the Sermon on the Mount Matthew 5—7. He did not retaliate against his enemies; instead, he forgave them. He rebuked his disciples for misusing the sword Matthew Jesus was the perfect example of patience, kindness, and compassion.

He had compassion on the multitudes Matthew 9: In Combining Seemingly Opposite Traits. One of the unique things about Christ is the way he brought together in his person characteristics that in anyone else would seem impossible. Yet he made bold claims to deity, such as, 'I and the Father are One' John Exodus 3: The claim, 'I am meek and lowly in heart' Matthew Jesus was known for the virtue of kindness, yet he was severe with hypocrites who misled the innocent Matthew Life and Teaching.

As Jesus himself declared, the substance of what he taught finds its roots in the Old Testament Matthew 5: He condemned meaningless traditions and misinterpretations of the Old Testament Matthew 5: Though the essence of what he taught was not new, the form and the manner in which he taught it was unique.

The Sermon on the Mount employs a fresh teaching method. The vivid parables, such as the good Samaritan Luke 10 , the prodigal son Luke 15 , and the lost sheep Luke By drawing on the lifestyles of the people to illustrate the truths he wished to convey, Jesus communicated truth and refuted error.

Also, by speaking in parables he could avoid 'casting pearls before swine. While the use of allegories and parables themselves was not unique, the manner in which Jesus employed parables was. He brought the art of teaching eternal mystery in terms of everyday experience to a new height. The manner in which Jesus taught was unique. The Jewish intellectuals admitted, 'No one ever spoke the way this man does' John 7: As a lad, he impressed even the rabbis in the temple. For 'Everyone who heard him was amazed at his understanding and his answers' Luke 2: Later, he confounded those who attempted to trick him so that 'No one could say a word in reply, and from that day on no one dared to ask him any more questions' Matthew Christ is Unique Jesus Christ was unique in every way.

From his complete deity to his perfect humanity; from his miraculous conception to his supernatural ascension; from his impeccable character to his incomparable teaching—Jesus stands above all other religious or moral teachers.

Christ Is Unique to Moses. As a Jew himself, Jesus had no argument with Moses, the prophet who brought the Jewish law and led the Israelites out of Egyptian bondage to freedom as an independent nation.

Moses and Jesus were prophets of the same God, and Jesus said that he did not come to abolish the law found in the writings of Moses but to fulfill it Matthew 5: However, in many respects, we find that Jesus is unique to Moses. Christ is a unique prophet to Moses. In Deuteronomy Anyone who did not believe this prophet would be judged by God.

This passage has been traditionally interpreted as referring to Messiah. Genesis 3: While Moses set up the moral and social structures which guided the nation, the law could not save anyone from the penalty of their sins, which is death. As Paul says, 'by the works of the law no flesh will be justified in his sight; for through the law comes the knowledge of sin' Romans 3: Moses is the greatest of the Old Testament prophets, but Jesus is more than a prophet.

As the Epistle to the Hebrews says, 'Moses was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken later; but Christ was faithful as a Son over his house' Hebrews 3: While Moses served God, Jesus was declared to be the Son of God with the right to rule over all servants.

Moses lifted the bronze serpent to give healing to those who would look, but in this he was merely following instructions. He never made the blind to see, or the deaf to hear. Moses never made a claim to be God and did nothing other than fulfill his role as a prophet. Jesus did claim to be God and predicted his own resurrection to prove it.

Christ Is Unique to Muhammad. Muhammad, the founder of Islam agreed with Jesus and Moses that God is one, that he created the universe, and that he is beyond the universe. After this, the Bible focuses on Isaac while Islam is concerned with what happened to their forefather, Ishmael. The teaching of Muhammad may be summarized in the five doctrines: Allah is the one true God.

Allah has sent many prophets, including Moses and Jesus, but Muhammad is the last and greatest. There are many intermediate beings between God and us angels , some of whom are good and some evil. The way to gain salvation includes reciting the Shahadah several times a day 'There is no God but Allah; and Muhammad is his prophet. Christ offers a unique message. Jesus made unique claims to those made by Muhammad. Jesus claimed to be God. Muhammad claimed only to be a mere man who was a prophet.

If Jesus, then, is not God, he is certainly no prophet. Jesus offered a unique confirmation for his claims. Jesus performed numerous miracles. Only Jesus died and rose from the dead. Christ offers a better way of salvation. Unlike the God of Islam, the God of the Bible reached out to us by sending his Son to earth to die for our sins. Christ provided all that is needed to get us to heaven in his death, 'For Christ also died once for all, the just for the unjust, in order that he might bring us to God' 1 Peter 3: Christ offers a unique model life.

Muhammad spent the last ten years of his life at war. As a polygamist he exceeding even the number of wives four he had prescribed for his religion. He also violated his own law by plundering caravans coming to Mecca, some of whom were on pilgrimage. He engaged in retaliation and revenge, contrary to his own teaching.

Jesus Is Unique to Hindu Gurus. In Hinduism a guru is a teacher. The Hindu scriptures cannot be understood by reading; they must be learned from a guru. These holy men are worshiped even after their deaths as supposed incarnations of the gods.

What they teach is that humans need liberation from the endless cycle of reincarnation samsara which is brought on by karma, the effects of all words, deeds, and actions in the present and all former lives.

Liberation moksha is obtained when the individual expands his being and consciousness to an infinite level and realizes that atman the self is the same as Brahman the one absolute being from which all multiplicity comes. In other words, each Hindu must realize personal godhood.

Such a realization can only be achieved by following Jnana Yoga— salvation by knowledge of the ancient writings and inward meditation; Bhakti Yoga— salvation by devotion to one of the many deities; Karma Yoga— salvation by works, such as ceremonies, sacrifices, fasting, and pilgrimages, which must be done without thought of rewards. Each of these methods will to some extent include Raja Yoga, a meditation technique involving control over the body, breathing, and thoughts.

Hinduism as it is actually practiced consists largely of superstition, legendary stories about the gods, occult practices, and demon worship. Christ teaches a unique worldview. Jesus teaches a theistic worldview. But pantheism, the realization of godhood, is the heart of Hinduism. Orthodox Hinduism insists that suffering people be left to suffer, because it is their destiny, as determined by karma.

Jesus said, 'Love your neighbor as yourself. Also, many, if not most, gurus use their esteemed position to exploit their followers financially and sexually. The Beatles became disenchanted with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi when they learned that he was much more interested in the body of one of the women in their party than with any of their spirits. They admitted, 'We made a mistake. Jesus gives a unique path to enlightenment. While the gurus are necessary to understand the sacred writings of Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads, there is no esoteric or hidden truth in the Bible that must be explained apart from ordinary understanding.

Christian meditation is not an effort to empty the mind, but rather to fill it with the truth of Scriptural principles Psalm 1. Inward meditation is like peeling an onion; you keep tearing off layer after layer until, when you reach the middle, you find that there is nothing there.

Christ teaches a better way of salvation. The Hindu is lost in the karmic cycle of reincarnation until he reaches moksha and is left to work the way out of this maze alone. Jesus promised that we would be saved by faith Ephesians 2: Christ Is Unique to Buddha. Siddhartha Gautama Buddha is a title meaning 'enlightened one' is inferior to Christ.

Buddhism began as a reformation movement within Hinduism, which had become a system of speculation and superstition. To correct this, Gautama rejected the rituals and occultism and developed an essentially atheistic religion though later forms of Buddhism returned to the Hindu gods. His basic beliefs are summed in the Four Noble Truths: Life is suffering.

Suffering is caused by desires for pleasure and prosperity. Suffering can be overcome by eliminating desires. Desire can be eliminated by the Eightfold Path.

The Eightfold Path is both a system of religious education and the moral precepts of Buddhism. It includes 1 right knowledge 'Four Noble Truths' , 2 right intentions, 3 right speech, 4 right conduct no killing, drinking, stealing, lying, or adultery , 5 right occupation which causes no suffering , 6 right effort, 7 right mindfulness denial of the finite self , and 8 right meditation Raja Yoga.

Christ fills life with more hope. Jesus taught that life is a gift of God to be enjoyed John Furthermore, he promised hope in the life to come John The Buddhist also teaches reincarnation as the means of salvation. However, in this form the self or individuality of the soul is eradicated at the end of each life. So even though you live on, it is not you as an individual who has any hope of attaining nirvana.

Jesus promised hope to each man and woman as an individual John Jesus is a better Christ. Jesus claimed and proved to be God in human flesh. Buddha was a mere mortal man who died and never rose again. Jesus, however, rose bodily from the grave. Gautama simply wanted to bring his 'enlightenment' to others to help them to nirvana, where all desires and individual existence is lost.

Christ Is Unique to Socrates. Although Socrates never started a religion, he has attracted a great following. Plato presents Socrates as a man convinced that God has appointed him to the task of promoting truth and goodness by making humans examine their words and deeds to see if they are true and good.

Vice, in his opinion, was merely ignorance, and knowledge led to virtue. Like Christ, Socrates was condemned to death on the basis of false accusations from authorities who were threatened by his teaching.

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He could have been acquitted if he had not insisted on making his accusers and judges examine their own statements and lives, which they were unwilling to do. He was content to die, knowing that he had carried out his mission to the end, and that death, whether a dreamless sleep or a wonderful fellowship of great men, was good. Christ has a unique basis for truth.

Jesus, like Socrates, often used questions to make his hearers examine themselves, but his basis for knowing the truth about human beings and God was rooted in the fact that he was the all-knowing God. He said of himself, 'I am the way, the truth, and the life.

Likewise, as God, he was the absolute Goodness by which all other goodness is measured. He once asked a young man to examine his words by saying, 'Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone.

Christ gives more certain knowledge. While Socrates taught some true principles, he often was left to speculate about many important issues, such as what happens at death.

Jesus gave a sure answer to such questions, because he had certain knowledge of the human destination John 5: Where reason Socrates has insufficient evidence to make a definite conclusion, revelation Jesus gives answers which might never be anticipated. Socrates died for a cause and did so with courage, which is certainly to be commended.

However, Jesus died as a substitute for others Mark Not only did he die for his friends, but also for those that were, and would remain, his enemies Romans 5: Such a demonstration of love is unequaled by any philosopher or philanthropist.

Rational proofs are good when there is sound evidence for their conclusions. Pagan prophets and prophetesses, such as the Oracle of Delphi, do not compare with the precise biblical prediction and miracles. Christ is unique to Lao Tse Taoism. Modern Taoism is a religion of witchcraft, superstition, and polytheism, but it was originally a system of philosophy, and that is how it is being presented to Western culture today.

Lao Tse built this system around one principle which explained everything in the universe and guided it all. That principle is called the Tao.

There is no simple way to explain the Tao. The world is full of conflicting opposites—good and evil, male and female, light and dark, yes and no. All oppositions are manifestations of the conflict between Yin and Yang. But in ultimate reality Yin and Yang are completely intertwined and perfectly balanced.

That balance is the mystery called the Tao. To understand the Tao is to realize that all opposites are one and that truth lies in contradiction, not in resolution. Taoism goes beyond this to urge living in harmony with the Tao. A person should enter a life of complete passiveness and reflection on such questions as, 'What is the sound of one hand clapping?

This system of philosophy has many similarities with Zen Buddhism.

The Golden Rule and Natural Law

Christ brings unique freedom. Jesus allows humans to use their reason. In fact, he commands them to do so Matthew Taoism engages in the claim that 'Reason does not apply to reality. It is either true or false about the way things really are, and not contradictory, yet it claims that ultimately truth lies in contradiction.

Jesus commanded: This is the great and foremost commandment' Matthew God says, 'Come now, and let us reason together,' Isaiah 1: Peter exhorts us to 'give a reason for the hope that you have' 1 Peter 3: Jesus encouraged the use of freedom to choose, never imposing himself on the unwilling Matthew Taoism asks each follower to set will on the shelf; to give up the power to change things. Jesus says that each person has a choice and that this choice makes the difference.

Each chooses to believe or not believe John 3: Jesus allows each person the freedom to be saved. Taoism offers only a way to resign oneself to the way things are. Christ offers a way to change both who we are and what we are, so that we might know the joys of life.

Rather than accepting death as an inevitable end, Christ provides a way to conquer death by his resurrection. Lao Tse can make no such claim. Conclusion Christ is absolutely unique among all who ever lived. He is unique in his supernatural nature, in his superlative character, and in his life and teaching. No other world teacher has claimed to be God. Even when the followers of some prophet deified their teacher, there is no proof given for that claim that can be compared to the fulfillment of prophecy, the sinless and miraculous life, and the resurrection.

No other religious leader except some who copied Christ offered salvation by faith, apart from works, based on acting to take away the guilt for human sin. No religious or philosophical leader has displayed the love for people that Jesus did in dying for the sins of the world John Jesus is absolutely unique among all human beings who ever lived.

Sources J. Bushnell, The Supernaturalness of Christ N. Geisler, The Battle for the Resurrection ——— and R. Brooks, When Skeptics Ask M. Harris, From Grave to Glory C. All rights to this material are reserved. Materials are not to be distributed to other web locations for retrieval, published in other media, or mirrored at other sites without written permission from Baker Publishing Group.

As one who believes in the authority and inspiration of the Scripture there is the hope and conviction that the return of Christ is not only imminent, but that even those momentous events described in Matthew 24 and Revelation cannot be far away.

The world, for the most part, however, does not hold to such a belief. The world celebrates Christmas without Christ and this grows more blatant as the years go by. And not only that, but many today resent the singing of carols or any sort of religious emphasis during the season of the year.

Some have even suggested changing the name of the season to some secular, nondescript name. In fact, do we not now live in a age in which only one prejudice is tolerated—anti-Christian bigotry? Michael Novak, the eminent columnist, once said that today you can no longer hold up to public pillorying and ridicule groups such as African-Americans or native Americans or women or homosexuals or Poles, and so on. Today, the only group you can hold up to public mockery is Christians.

Attacks on the Church and Christianity are common. The world view, which more and more Americans have opted for, even if by default, is that of secular humanism with its hope in mankind, not the God-man, Christ Jesus.

Ironically, coupled with this world view is a certain despondency, disappointment, and discontentment with the job mankind is doing.

This has opened the door for the New Age movement and its confidence in mankind, but also its belief in what amounts to demonic powers, the powers that are behind all the religions of the world, the cults, and occult. The world has always had its religious leaders and false messiahs.

Christ warned that in the last days many false messiahs would arise, which, as John tells us will culminate in the Antichrist 1 John 2: Of the religions of the world, Christianity is unique because it stems from the uniqueness of Jesus Christ, the greatest man who ever lived.

In Jesus, we have One who has virtually changed every aspect of human life, but sadly, most people are completely oblivious to the reality of how He has so completely impacted the world.

How tragic it is that people have forgotten Him to whom they owe so very much. Jesus says in Revelation No one else is qualified or capable to meet the needs of fallen humanity or restore that which was lost by Adam in the fall of man. A striking illustration of this is seen in Revelation 5: A careful study of the context and content of Revelation suggests that the seven-sealed book, which only Christ can open, contains the story of mankind losing his lordship over the earth to Satan, the usurper, and its recovery through the God-man Savior, the Lion who is also the Lamb.

Thus, as we consider the uniqueness of Christ, we also need to recognize this uniqueness demands our allegiance and commitment as believers. It demands that we rearrange our priorities and stand as luminaries in a dark and dismal world holding forth the message of the unique Christ, the God-man Savior of the World.

In the person of Jesus Christ, we have one so unique that His life cannot be explained by natural processes. His person and life defy the natural. Other religions are centered in the ethical and religious teachings of their founders, but Christianity is built on the great events of creation and redemption. Not one of these is based on the observation of historical data or facts, but on the teachings and theories of men. Remember, evolution is based on theory—not on observable data.

Christianity, however, is founded, not on what Jesus taught and this distinction is vital to grasp but on who Jesus is and on what Jesus accomplished. Of course, as Christians, we stand firmly on His teachings. This gave the teachings of Christ authority and placed them alone in the category of absolute truth. The truthfulness of Jesus and His teachings stand on the validity of historical records which are subject to investigation and examination.

All other beliefs are based on the teachings and ideas of those who were nothing more than mere men. No matter how brilliant, charismatic, or powerful they may be, there is no guarantee of their objectivity, accuracy or ultimate ability to deliver what they have promised.

The uniqueness of Christianity, however, ultimately depends on the uniqueness of its central figure—the Lord Jesus Christ. Some try to place Christ among the great religious leaders of history, as one among many, but this is grotesque and absurd. But there is another evidence of the uniqueness of Christianity as an outgrowth of the life, death, and resurrection of Christ.

It is the awesome impact of Christ through the church on mankind and history. Following this overview, he develops this in great detail. Here are a few highlights: This has helped to preserve the human race, and it has spared many from heartache. The inspiration for the greatest works of art. Such happened because of the spiritual change that Christ brings into the hearts of men.

After summarizing these contributions, Kennedy concluded: When Jesus Christ took upon Himself the form of man, He imbued mankind with a dignity and inherent value that had never been dreamed of before. Whatever Jesus touched or whatever he did transformed that aspect of human life. The coming of Jesus Christ was prophesied in minute detail regarding His lineage, nature, place of birth, where He would be raised, His career, purpose, the specific manor and nature of His death, His resurrection, and many other fulfilled prophecies.

And all of these prophecies were made hundreds of years before His birth or first advent. The Nature of His Birth His birth was, of course, the most unique birth in all of human history. Though ancient mythology was filled with tales of demi-gods who were supposed to be the progeny of lustful unions between women and gods demons , there was nothing even close to the narrative of the birth of Jesus Christ.

He was the God-man Savior—not a God-indwelt man. He was both true and genuine humanity and undiminished deity united in one Person forever. No other birth was like this in fact or fiction. As a result of this unique birth, Christ was able to bypass the curse of sin and the curse of Jeconiah so that He was uniquely qualified as the sinless One to both go to the cross to die as the Lamb of God and to reign on the throne of His father David as the Lion of the tribe of Judah Rev.

As God He created all things Jn. He is the most unique Person of the universe. No other religious leader has ever seriously made such a claim for no other could support it by their life.

The Uniqueness of His Life His life is unparalleled in beauty, scope, character, and effect. No one ever spoke like Jesus Christ, did the things He did, or made the claims He made. Modern skeptics try to attribute his miracles and claims to simply the character of his life. But they do this simply because of their prejudice against the light truth and against the miraculous, not because there is a lack of bona fide historical evidence. Second, it is unique because of the manner in which he died, displaying his sinless and holy character.

And third, because of the miracles surrounding his death—the darkness, the earthquake, and the opening of the graves. They approach history with a preconceived notion and then adjust the evidence accordingly. In other words, before they even begin their historical examination they have determined the content of their results. Many historians approach history with certain presuppositions and these presuppositions are not historical biases but rather philosophical prejudices.

The response will often be: In discussing the Jesus Seminar, Strobel quotes Dr. Luke Timothy Johnson and writes: It is a self-indulgent charade. The virgin birth of the Son of God, the incarnation, the birth of the God-man.

Only the virgin birth can give an adequate answer to the phenomena of the uniqueness of Jesus Christ. He also declared His purpose—to die for our sin. He bore our sin in His sinless body on the tree.

He died as our substitute, and took our judgment. It proved Him to be the unique God-man. As ordained in the eternal counsels of God, historically for man, it all began in the fullness of time Gal. But this was no ordinary birth. Rather, it was the result of the power of the Holy Spirit Matt. Though anticipated in the prophets for hundreds of years, it all began with that first Christmas when the Son of God became flesh and began to dwell among men.

Luke 2: Now in those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus to register all the empire for taxes. One Solitary Life10 He was born in an obscure village, the child of a peasant woman. He grew up in another village, where He worked in a carpenter shop until He was thirty. Then for three years He was an itinerant preacher. He never wrote a book. He never held an office. He never had a family or owned a home. He never visited a big city. He never traveled two hundred miles from the place where he was born.

He did none of the things that usually accompany greatness. He had no credentials but Himself. He was only thirty-three when the tide of public opinion turned against Him.

His friends ran away. One of them denied Him. He was turned over to His enemies and went through the mockery of a trial. He was nailed to a cross between two thieves. While He was dying, His executioners gambled for His garments, the only property he had on earth. When He was dead, He was laid in a borrowed grave through the pity of a friend.

Nineteen centuries have come and gone, and today He is the central figure of the human race. All the armies that ever marched, all the navies that ever sailed, all the parliaments that ever sat, all the kings that ever reigned, put together, have not affected the life of man on this earth as much as that one solitary life. Are They Reliable? Wilkins and J. Many more could be cited. Christology, Christmas, Apologetics Jesus as a unique revolutionary All religions claim exclusivity on the matter of objective truth but what makes the saviour Jesus unique among other religions and a true revolution of the human heart?

There are roughly 4, religions in the world. The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. So what makes Jesus Christ a unique saviour and revolutionary of the human heart? This description of the perfect state of man and his fall including the origin of sin and evil remains a convincing starting point for the biblical principle that we can never be good enough to be in the presence of a perfect, holy God.

Galatians 3 describes the purpose of the Law. God provided a substitute— Jesus Christ—who obeyed the Law perfectly for us and act as a living sacrifice for our own sins and by doing so and through faith in him we are justified and made righteous. Here is the crucial difference between Christianity and all other religions.

As to the second point, Christianity is not a religious system, but a relationship with God, one that He initiated and maintains. Christians believe that mankind was created specifically to have a relationship with God, but sin separates all men from Him Romans 3: Christianity teaches that Jesus Christ walked this earth, fully God, and yet fully man Philippians 2: After His death on the cross, Christ was buried, He rose again, and now lives at the right hand of the Father, making intercession for believers forever Hebrews 7: The intimacy of this relationship is revealed in two poignant pictures.

No other religion makes assertions that even begin to approximate this incredible truth. Another thing that makes Christianity unique is its source of information. All religions have some sort of basis of information that outlines its beliefs and practices, but none have one source of information that makes the claims Christianity does about the Bible—it is the written Word of God, and it is infallible and inerrant and all that is necessary for faith and practice 2 Timothy 3: The portrayal of the people in the bible are human with faults and failings resulting in a clear presentation of their own lamentations, praise and experience which I always found meaningful and personal.

For example, Jesus himself fulfilled over prophecies regarding his own role as saviour. Perhaps the most defining principle of Christianity that makes it truly unique in every way and provides its fundamental basis is the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

It was Jesus' resurrection that changed the lives of the disciples. After Jesus was crucified, the disciples ran and hid. But when they saw the risen Lord, they knew that all Jesus had said and done proved that He was indeed God in flesh.

And after receiving the holy spirit at Pentecost their lives were transformed and they became a new being reflected in their actions in proclaiming the truth and apologetics worldwide. No other religious leader has died in full view of trained executioners, had a guarded tomb, and then rose three days later to appear to many people.

The resurrection is proof of who Jesus is and that He did accomplish what He set out to do: Buddha did not rise from the dead. Muhammad did not rise from the dead.

Confucius did not rise from the dead. Krishna did not rise from the dead. Only Jesus has physically risen from the dead, walked on water, claimed to be God, and raised others from the dead.

He has conquered death. Without the resurrection, there is no Christian. None of the original Apostles became rich and famous by becoming Christians. Most of the original apostles were tortured and executed. It is inconceivable that the Apostles would live a life of depravation, then face torture and death to perpetuate a myth.

Rules are based on these values rather than in the Old Testament, where values were based on the rules. It just made them boastful. Unlike Islam, which spread by the sword, Christianity spread through voluntary conversion and after the first years, was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire - without ever firing a shot.

Although some countries forcibly converted people to the Catholic faith, these forced conversions were isolated and today are universally condemned. Throughout the year history of Christianity, Christians have often been persecuted and martyred which still occurs frequently worldwide today. All of the original 12 apostles were persecuted and most were martyred. It is inconceivable that the thousands of Christians martyred over the centuries willingly gave their lives to perpetuate a myth.

Other religions offered earthly rewards for converting to their faith. Christianity is the only religion that states that no one is good enough to get into Heaven. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues.

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