VLSI DESIGN BOOK BY BAKSHI PDF
The Book uses plain, lucid language to explain fundamentals of this subject. Use of informative, self-explanatory, diagrams, plots and graphs. [PDF] Electronics Engineering By cittadelmonte.info, cittadelmonte.info Book Free U.A. Bakshi, cittadelmonte.info Link is Successfully Activated to save the Book/Material ( PDF) . The Z80 Microprocessor: Architecture, Interfacing, Programming and Design By. [PDF] Circuit Theory By cittadelmonte.info, cittadelmonte.info Book Free Download . Previous Book/Material[PDF] Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective.
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Muhammed Shaheer February 24, at 3: Thanks for sharing Telecommunication Books Online. Repeat the above example. For saturation. We will use the KVL statement. If necessary. IC implementation engineers to turn the design from a paper plan into real hardware.
Application engineers to build the reference design for customers. The role of the design leader is to lead the design team from a technical.
System or architect engineers who define the chip at the system level. IC design engineers who compose the RTL codes for the digital blocks and design tiie circuits for analog components. One of the key figures in a chip project is the design leader. In most cases. To discuss in detail about the design flow and various phases in it. Design-for-testability engineers who ensure that the chip is testable for volume production.
It includes both the logical and physical implementatioiis. The design leader is not obligated to know. Before discussing about the design flow. Software engineers to make the bare silicon chip into a useful electronic device. It mcludes verification at the system. Test engineers to write testing programs for production tests.
Verification engineers who verify the functionality at both the block and chip level. Functional or architectural 2. Logical design 4. Register transfer level module or fimctional block 3. Engineers work in all domains at various abstraction levels in the project. Physical design. SN SC processor Addeis. Let us understand the design process using Y-chart and the tabular form shown below in Fig.
VLSI Design Flow o 81 Abrtraction A very effective means of dealing with design complexity creating a model at a higher level of abstraction involves replacing details at low level with sunplifications. In VLSI design process. How fast it need to operate in order to be competitive in market? How big will it be? Circuit Cells used standard Adders. What does the chip do?
A well-tuned design flow can help designers go through the chip-creation process relatively smoothly and with a decent chance of error-free implementation. How much power will it consume? The design flow for a typical IC project is shown in Fig.
How much time it takes to design the chip? How effectively it can be tested? The parameters that impose the design constraints are speed. During a half century of IC development it has gradually become clear that there is a need for a computer language to describe the. Design is a continuous trade off to achieve the adequate results for all specifications.
A synchronous circuit consists of two kinds of elements: When designing digital integrated circuits with a hardware description language. In integrated circuit design. Register transfer level abstraction is used in hardware description languages HDLs like Verilog and VHDL to create high-level representations o f a circuit. In RTL design. Combinational logic performs all the logical fiinctions in the circuit and it typically consists of logic gates.
It allows the detailed structure of the design to be synthesized from a more abstraet specification. HDL allows the description of the structure of a hardware system.
The following example of a simple circuit in Fig. In this circuit. As an example. The synthesis tool also performs logic optimization synthesis and logic optimization are discussed later in this topic in detail. Using an EDA tool for synthesis. The behavioural-level description does not pay any attention to the implementation aspects of the design. While the gate level describes a system in a purely structural fashion. Gate-level description is primarily used. This level is called register transfer level.
It simply describes the behaviour. But RTL is the preferred why so? Using an HDL to describe a hardware system is carried out on three levels: Performing a simulation is just running that program. Modem hardware description languages are both simulatable and synthesizable.
It becomes more problematic later. It encourages the designer to focus on the functionality of the design rather than on its implementation. In many cases logic simulation is the first activity performed in the process of taking a hardware design from concept to realization.
Designing hardware today is really writing a program in a hardware description language. Compared to gate-level description. This is beneficial early in the design process. The level of effort required to debug and then verify the design is proportional to the maturity of the design.
As a matter of fact. Logic simulation is the primary tool used for verifying the logical correctness of a hardware design. The RTL level of description is somewhere in between.
It defines the system behaviour by describing how the data. Any hardware design can be simulated. As the design matures. That is. The only limits are time and computer resources. Model Sim. The test bench has become an integral part of the IC design process. It stimulates the module device under test and observes its behaviour.
The test bench is the driver that provides the stimulus to activate the device. Logic Sim and Logisim. Its aim is to ensure that the HDL module is sufficiently tested or no known bug exists. The St famous of which is Verilog.
It also captures the behaviour of this device under this set of stimuli to evaluate its performance. If the results match. If the test result does not agree with what is expected. A test bench is an entity constructed in HDL. Boolean functions. Withm each functional group. Another obvious goal of logic synthesis is that the resultant circuit should occupy as little silicon area as possible to maximize profit margins. DC reads the RTL code of die design and using the timing constraints.
A schematic. The third concern in logic sjmthesis is power consume tion. For successful implementation into real circuits or logic gates. The optimization targets of a logic synthesis task are speed.
Based on circuit representation 1. Two-level logic optimization 2. Logic synthesis is one major aspect of electronic design automation.
The functionality of this netlist should agree with what is described in the ongmal RTL code.
VLSI Design by K.lal Kishore
To achieve better power control. With the advent of logic synthesis. During the optimization process. Multi-level logic optunization ' Based on circuit characteristics 1. ADDi representation of the circuit. They check for logical functions of a design by comparing it against the reference design.
A functionally equivalent representation in multi level can be: Dynamic simulation methods can only probe certain paths of the design that are sensitized. POSs product-of-sum.
A number of EDA tool vendors have developed the formal verifica ion tools. Formal verification techniques perform validation of a design using mathematical methods without the need for technological considerations. In short. In comparison. This means that the original netlist that goes into the layout tool is modified. What comes out of the layout is obviouSly the clock free inserted netlist.
This is usually performed for designs that are subject to frequent changes in order to accommodate additional features. When these features are added to the source RTL. In a synchronous digital circuits. The RTL to gate-level verification is used to ascertain that the logic has been synthesized accurately by DC. In this instance. The formal technique is used to verify the logic equivalency of the modified netlist against the original netlist.
To prevent this. This too is a significant step for the verification process. The main goal of static timing analysis is to verify that despite these possible variations.
STA is capable of verifying every path. This is enforced by synchronizmg elements such as flip flops or latches. The last part involves verifying the gate-level netlist against the gate-level netlist. These delays consist of the net capacitances and interconnect RC delays.
Floor planning is the first major step in physical design. If the timing for all critical paths is acceptable. It is closely linked with the placement and routing of the chip.
The advantage of STA is that it performs timing analysis on all possible paths. This constraint file in SDF format specifies the timing between each group of logic that the layout tool uses.
PrimeTime uses the wire load models specified in the library to estit mate the net delays. The static timing is performed both for the pre and post-layout gate-level netlist. Similar to synthesis. During this. It has provea efficient only for fully synchronous designs. The foil placement of the prime input and output cells will dominate the physical size of this chip.
The key tasks in this step include analyzing the die size. Delivering the clock signals reliably to the needed elements is a necessity m physical design. In this chip. These pins. For a package-limited design. Figure 3. In addition to IR drop. This network is called the power plan. This is the IR drop problem. About one-third of them are power and ground pins. This task is conunonly called clock tree synthesis CTS. Among many issues. In a VLSI chip.
After the placement of cells. This is the elecfa-omigration EM problem. This is done after placement. In a block-limited design. After a lengthy period of such action.
All of the storage elements flip-flops. The two most critical problems associated with a power network are the IR drop and EM. The selection is based on a number of factors.
After the package has been fixed. Package selection is another major issue that affects the physical design. Poor placement generally leads to a difficult. This floorplan is the starting point for the subsequent place and route steps. It is a crucial task because poor placement consumes more area. Processor li I i o i. A further object of high-performance design is minimizing the total delay of the circuit by minimizing the.
VLSI DESIGN BOOK BY BAKSHI PDF
The analog DAC is also located in one comer to achieve maximum isolation from the rest of the digital blocks. All of the analog blocks DAC. As the name suggests. Users may opt to use more traditioual methods of routing the clock network. The timing driven placement method forces the layout tool to place the cel is according to the criticality of the timing between the cells. After the placement of cells.. RC delays of the interconnect wires.
Some'layout tools provide direct interface to DC to perform this step. At this stage an additional step is necessary to complete the clock tree insertion. The quality of placement work is judged primarily by three factors: As technologies shrink. Optimal cell placement location. This implies using wires metals to connect the related terminals within each net. The small rectangular-shaped blocks are various standard cells d' different widths.
Finding the best possible route is very difficult computationally. The standard cells in a libraiy aie often laid out with the same height. The estimated delays are back annotated to PrimeTime for analysis. In general-purpose designs. From the figure. The objective of the routing process depends on the nature of the design. The next step is to physically complete the interconnections defined in the netlist. Detailed routing is the final step that is performed by the layout tool.
The process of finding the geometaic layouts for the nets is called routing. If the cell placement is not optimal. In high-performance designs. There is indeed a certain amount of empty space available after the placement process. Special-purpose nets. As seen in the figure. The layout tool generally performs routing in two phases—global routing and detailed routing.
Bad placement also affects the overall timing of the design. A VLSI chip might contain millions of transistors. After placement. However the actual metal routing is not accomplished in this step. Metal 1. Those rules insttaict the extraction tool on how to recognize p and N transistors. A chip layout consists of millions of geometries of many layers. Certain types of extraction tools are needed to extract the circuit components from these pure geometties.
It is extremely important for each component used in the chip to be LVS clean at. If the design fails timing requirements. This is especially true for large chip designs in which there are millions of components on board. If the design passes static timing analysis. LVS is this exttaction process. These extraction tools depend solely on specific rules to compose the circuit components from those polygons.
These steps are iterative and depend on the timing margins of the design. Design rules are often specified in terms of a scalable parameter. The logic aspects of the design are verified by simulation or hardware emulation. Unlike in some of the previous implementation steps. In DRC. To improve die yields. These rules are called Lambda-based rules. Design rules are specific to a particular semiconductor manufacturing process.
In most designs. A design rule set specifies certain geometric and connectivity restrictions to ensure sufficient margins to account for variability in semiconductor manufacturing processes. The timing aspect of the design is guaranteed by gate-level simulation with back-aimotated parasitic delay or by static timing analysis. After the physical design is finished. It is the time at which the design is fiilly qualified and ready for manufacturing.
DRC is a computationally intense task. It focuses on the physical aspects of the design. Unlike the DRC check. The percentage of devices that pass the packaging assembly line. Digital design produces components such as microprocessors. Analog design typically refers to the design of such components as op-amps. In general. As we know. IC design is divided into the categories of digital and analog design.
When properly mterconnected. IS son til mask shop to generate photomasks. In detail. The percentage of dies that pass the electrical test. The percentage of wafers that survive the manufacturing process. Analog designs. In digital designs. More precisely. RTL level. In some cases. As process geometry gets smaller. Before the design is sent to manufacturing. Because layout geometries are smaller now.
In both cases. Electromigration decreases the reliability of ICs. Verification can be performed at different levels dxuing these stages: Electromigration EM is another design integrity issue. The task of verification must be carried out throughout chip development: This interference between different signal paths certainly degrades signal quality.
It is a never-ending process canied out xmtil the chip is ready for production. It leads to the eventual loss of one or more circuit connections and. This task of power distribution over the chip is achieved by the power grid made of metals on the chip.
During IC design and the implementation stage. Such occurrences could damage the gate structure and cause the chip to fail. ESD events occur only among insulated objects that can store electric charge. It is the sudden and momentary electric current that occurs when an excess of electric charge finds a path from an object at one electrical potential to another object at a different potential.
Manufacturers and users of integrated circuits must take precautions to avoid this problem. Electrostatic discharge ESD also is a serious issue in solid-state electronics. This voltage difference is referred as the IR drop. The problem of latch-up also falls into the design integrity category. Worst of all. L ay e rs o f in su la tin g o x id e s th a t surround both the nMOS and the pMOS transistors can break the parasitic structure between these transistors and thus prevent the latchiip.
Simulation tools at the transistor level. Synthesis tools that translate and map the digital RTL code to real library cells. Power analysis tools.
Extraction tools. EDA tools have kept pace with the design complexity explosion reasonably well. Design integrity tools. By utilizing these tools.
Package design and analysis tools. Place and route tools. Logic verification tools. Physical verification tools. As the integration level rises and chip size decreases. Each of them targets a ispeciiic application. RTL level and system level. With continuous innovations from the EDA industry and aided by ever-improving computing hardware.
Design fo r testability tools.
Back annotation is the process of adding the extra delay caused by the paiasitic components back into the original timing analysis. Back-annotated static timing analysis is a step that must be performed before the chip can be taped out for manufacturing. In the past. Gate-level logic verification is the last verification step before the design is shipped for manufacturing. When the design is in its early stages. Delay calculation has two parts: As a consequence. After the cells are placed.
This netlist will be physically implemented in layout and eventually. In practice. After the parasitic exttaction process. This conversion process is called delay calculation. After logic synthesis. After the parasitic extraction process. Let the basic building block be a simple adder. This process is repeated until the basic building blocks are reached so that they can be designed and analyzed independently of the rest of the circuits.
This work can be carried out in parallel with domain-to-domain comparison ensuring that the representations are consistent. The use of the standardized regular structures simplifies the design process. We are left with different sub-modules. Methods for formally proving the correctness of a design may be aided by regularity. Again modules are divided into sub-modules. It can be used as basic unit that can repeated in the circuit. A VLSI structure should be divided into modules.
This adder can be modelled as a subroutine function in behavioural domain. At the system level it may consist of identical processors. Gate-level verification can be performed by gate-level simulation.
Regularization can reduce the number of different modules that need to be designed and verified. We already studied that a design can be expressed in terms of these domains namely structural domain. Each sub-module is standardized. Regularity allows an improvement in productivity by reusing specific designs in the number of places. This manual work consumes lot of time similarly at logical level. Structural domain which specifies how modules are connected together to effect the prescribed behaviour.
For instance increasing locality means local common clock. The design idea refined into a set of requirements is known as specification. Interfeces are iware subroutmes.
Next step is to concentrate on critical paths in each module. The logic correctness of the RTL description is checked by simulation by applying test vectors or by running test bench program. These four properties are sttuctured design strategies for designing an IC.
VLSI DESIGN BOOK BY BAKSHI PDF
The first way of ensuring time locality is to pay attention to clock generation and its distribution network. Modularity helps the designer to clarify and document an approach to a problem and allows a design system to more easily check die attributes of a module as it is constructed. If they are designed well. Static timing analysis 9. Simulation 3.
Power Clock trees synthesis. Reduction 7. Synthesis 4. Placement is the process of placing the cells. Routing is related to physically complete the interconnections defined m the netlist. Verification 8. Power 5. ASIC library 6. Uday A. Ahmed H. This book includes contemporary developments like cable and satellite television, MAC packets with Bagad - - Microwave measurements - No preview available Propagation Through WaveguidesRectangular waveguide, Solution of wave equation in rectangular co-ordinates, Derivation of field equations for TE and TM modes degenerate and dominant mode, Power transmission and power loss, Excitation of Senior John M.
No preview available 3 Reviews - Write review. Lal Kishore , V. Prabhakar - - Limited preview Aimed primarily for undergraduate students pursuing courses in VLSI design, the book emphasizes the physical understanding of underlying principles of the subject.
It not only focuses on circuit design process obeying VLSI rules but also on Bagad - - Limited preview 2 Reviews - Write review.
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