Fiction Angular Resource Pdf


Saturday, August 10, 2019

Web developers, absolute beginners, and programmers will find this book a practical, engaging, and reliable resource material for learning AngularJS. Whether. On this page, you will find a list of official AngularJS resources on various topics. Just starting out with AngularJS? Try working through our step by step tutorial or. There are two popular libraries to embed a PDF file in your Angular . a library to npm, but it's ill-prepared to put resource files into the library.

Language:English, Spanish, Portuguese
Published (Last):19.04.2016
ePub File Size:18.87 MB
PDF File Size:10.65 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Uploaded by: NICOL

The problem was with the ng-resource that returns a promise instead var file = new Blob([data], { type: 'application/pdf' }); var fileURL = URL. AngularJS $resource bindings for express in node. Contribute to pdf/node- angular-resource development by creating an account on GitHub. REST web services and how to do this using the Angular HTTP client server- side REST service determines the resource identifier (perhaps auto-generated by .

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Angular JS. George Pitts. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Online editions are also available for most titles http:

The Scenario Runner allows you to describe your application in a Jasmine-like syntax. Just as with the unit tests before, we will have a series of describes for the feature , and individual its to describe each individual functionality of the feature. As always, you can have some common actions, to be performed before and after each spec as we call a test. A sample test that looks at an application that filters a list of results might look something like the following: Either way you run them, though, you must have a web server started that serves your application refer to previous section for more information on how to do that.

Once that is done, use one of the following methods: Karma now supports running of Angular scenario tests. Add a proxies section that redirects requests to the server to the correct folder where your test files are located, for example: The manual method allows you to open a simple page from your web server and run and see all the tests.

To do so, you must: Create a simple runner. Source all your JS files which hold the specifications that you have written as part of your Scenario suite.

Start your web server, and browse to the runner. Why should you use the Angular Scenario Runner over, say, an external third party integration or end-to-end test runner?

GitHub - pdf/node-angular-resource: AngularJS $resource bindings for express in node

There are some amazing benefits that you get from using the Scenario Runner, including: Need to input some text? Check the value of a binding? Verify the state of a repeater? All can be done easily through the use of the scenario runner. No more random waits The Angular awareness also means that Angular is aware of all XHRs being made to the server, and thus can avoid waiting for random intervals of time for pages to load. The Scenario Runner knows when a page has loaded, and thus is much more deterministic than a Selenium test, for example, where tests can fail by timing out while waiting for a page to load.

With the Angular Scenario Runner, all this is possible, and much more. Compilation Compilation in the JavaScript world usually means minification of the code, though there is some amount of actual compilation possible using the Google Closure Library.

One reason is the goal of making applications that are quick and responsive for the user. That is a major reason why client-side applications took off like they did a few years ago. And the sooner you can get your application up and running, the sooner it will be responsive.

Compilation 57 www. This becomes especially important in mobile apps, where size becomes the bottleneck. There are a few ways you can minify the AngularJS code that you have written for your app, each with varying levels of effectiveness.

Basic and simple optimization This involves minifying all the variables that you use in your code, but avoiding minifying the properties. This is known as the Simple optimization pass in Closure Compiler.

The reason this works is that the compiler Closure or UglifyJS avoids renaming properties that are referenced from the templates. Thus, your templates continue to work, and only local variables and parameters are renamed. With Google Closure, this is as simple as calling: To get this level of optimization to work, you will need to handhold the compiler a bit by telling it explicitly through the use of an ex terns file which functions, variables, and properties should not be renamed.

These are generally the functions and properties accessed by the templates. The compiler will use this externs file and then rename everything else.

If done properly, this can result in a substantial reduction in the size of your JavaScript, but it does require a significant amount of work, including updating the externs file every time your code changes. One thing to keep in mind: This will not work: It is generally good practice to use the array-style injection all the time, to avoid bugs later when you start compiling the code.

These range from debugging with Batarang to actual coding and development with Yeoman. Debugging When you work with JavaScript, debugging your code in the browser is going to become second nature.

The sooner you accept that, the better off you will be. Thankfully, things have come a long way since the old days when there was no Firebug.

Now, regardless of the choice of browser, there is generally something you can use to step in to your code, analyze your errors, and figure out the state of the application. A few further tips to help you out when debugging your application: Other Awesome Tools 59 www. They allow you to check the state of your application, its models, and everything in between at a given point in time. The debugger will halt when an exception occurs, and highlight the line causing it.

Batarang And then, of course, we have Batarang. Have you ever wondered what the current state of your AngularJS application is? What each model, each scope, and each variable currently contains? How is the performance of your application? And when you do, Batarang is there for you!

There are four main useful additions in Batarang. Model tab Batarang allows you to dig into the scope, from the root downwards. You can then see how scopes are nested and how models are attached to them as shown in Figure You can even change them in real time and see the changes reflected in your application. Model tree in Batarang Performance tab The performance tab must be enabled separately, as it injects some special JavaScript juice into your application.

Once you enable it, you can look at various scopes and models, and evaluate the performance of all the watch expressions in each scope as shown in Figure The performance also gets updated as you use the app, so it works in real time as well!

Other Awesome Tools 61 www. Batarang is there for you, filling this very hole, as it gives you a clean, simple way of visualizing your service dependency chart as shown in Figure This is shown in Figure Other Awesome Tools 63 www. AngularJS properties within Batarang Yeoman: Optimizing Your Workflow There are quite a few tools that have sprung up to help optimize your workflow when developing web applications.

Yeoman, which we touched upon in previous sections, is one such tool that boasts an impressive set of features, including: For Windows, or if you run into any issues, go to https: Starting a Fresh AngularJS project As previously mentioned, even a simple AngularJS project has quite a bit of seeding that needs to be done, from the templates, the basic controllers, and the library dependencies, to everything else that needs to be structured.

You could do it yourself manually, or use Yeoman to do it for you. Simply create a folder for your project the name of the folder will be taken as the project name by Yeoman , and then run: But with Yeoman, you get a built-in server that is pre-configured and has some nice added benefits. You can start the server using: Optimizing Your Workflow 65 www. In the end, just two commands were needed to run all your unit tests. Yeoman makes it easier if you can believe it. Anytime you generate a file using Yeoman, it also creates a testing stub for you to fill out.

Yeoman alleviates some of this by allowing you to: Dependency management and creating deployment packages are top worries for any sizable project. Thankfully, in the recent past, tools like RequireJS have emerged, which allow you to define and manage your JS dependencies, as well as hook them into a simpler build process. For the purpose of this example, we will provide a sample setup that we have found to work nicely, and in a systematic, easy-to-follow way.

This folder hosts all the app code that is displayed to the user. Contains images for our project c. The main AngularJS codebase. AngularJS controllers go here ii. AngularJS Directives go here iii. AngularJS filters go here iv. AngularJS services go here d. The HTML partials for the views and the components used in our project 2. Contains Karma configs for unit and scenario tests 3. Contains the unit and scenario integration tests for the app a.

Contains the unit tests, mirroring the structure of the JS folder in the app directory b. This defines our AngularJS app, and tells it that it depends on all the controllers, services, filters, and directives we define. There is one module each for controllers, services, filters, and directives, and thus it is sufficient to just define those as our dependencies. That way, you can just slip in a fakeBootstrap and a fakeApp into your application. Now, your main index. The RequireJS shim around the file says that my ngbkFocus.

It then uses the injected directives module to add on its own directive declaration. You could choose to have multiple directives, or a single one per file. It is completely up to you. One major note: But how does this affect my tests, you ask? The good news is that Karma does support RequireJS. Just install the latest and greatest version of Karma using npm install -g karma.

Once you have done that, the Karma config for the unit tests also changes slightly. The following is how we would set up the unit tests to run for the project structure we have previously defined: Put all libs in RequireJS 'paths' config here included: The final thing to get all this working is main. Again, this will have to be maintained manually. Of course there is a slight change when it comes to writing your unit tests.

Pull in angularMocks, which gets us angular, angularResource, and of course, angularMocks. If your test depends on some other service or controller, make sure you also define the RequireJS dependency, in addition to telling AngularJS about it. This kind of approach can be used with any test, and you should be good to go. A sample config follows, assuming that the server that runs your app is running on http: Rather than continuing with similarly deep dives into individual features, Chapter 4 will look at a small, real-life application.

The Application GutHub is a simple recipe management application, which we designed both to store our super tasty recipes and to show off various pieces of an AngularJS application. The application: The main view is on the right, which gets changed—depending on the URL—to either the list of recipes, the details of a single recipe, or an editable form to add to or edit existing recipes. We can see a screenshot of the application in Figure Relationship Between Model, Controller, and Template Before we dive into the application, let us spend a paragraph or two talking about how the three pieces of our application work together, and how to think about each of them.

The model is the truth. Just repeat that sentence a few times. Your entire application is driven off the model—what views are displayed, what to display in the views, what gets saved, everything!

The view will get updated automatically through the use of data bindings, so the focus should always be on the model. The controller holds the business logic: The responsibility of validation, making server calls, bootstrapping your view with the right data, and mostly everything in between belongs on your controller.

Finally, the template represents how your model will be displayed, and how the user will interact with your application. It should mostly be restricted to the following: Analyzing an AngularJS App www. Instead, the view is the compiled version of the template that gets executed. It is a combination of the template and the model.

What should not go into the template is any kind of business logic or behavior; this information should be restricted to the controller. Keeping the template simple allows a proper separation of concerns, and also ensures that you can get the most code under test using only unit tests. Templates will have to be tested with scenario tests. But, you might ask, where does DOM manipulation go?

It goes into AngularJS directives but can sometimes be used via services, which house DOM manipulation to avoid duplication of code. The Model We are going to keep the model dead simple for this application.

There are recipes. Everything else builds off of it. Each recipe has the following properties: Dead simple. Everything in the app is based around this simple model. The best kind", "ingredients": Controllers, Directives, and Services, Oh My!

Now we finally get to sink our teeth into the meat of this delicious application. In this file, we instantiate three AngularJS services. There is a recipe service, which returns what we call an Angular Resource. Furthermore, each recipe object has the following methods built in: This is because delete is a keyword in IE. Of the the previous methods, all but query work with a single recipe; query returns an array of recipes by default.

Notice the: It basically says that when you make any query say, Recipe. That is, calling Recipe. What about that second object? Say we have a recipe object, which has the necessary information already stored within it, including an id. Then, we can save it by simply doing the following: The id tells it to pick the id field from its object and use that as the id parameter. These are used when we hook up our routes.

At their cores, both of them behave very similarly. The flow of both these services is as follows: Make a call to the server. Resolve the deferred object when the server returns the value.

Return the promise that will be used by the routing mechanism of AngularJS. Promises in an AngularJS land A promise is an interface that deals with objects that are returned or get filled in at a future point in time basically, asynchronous actions. At its core, a promise is an object with a then function.

To showcase the advantages, let us take an example where we need to fetch the current profile of a user: The resultant code is an indentation nightmare, especially if you have to chain multiple calls. Errors reported in between callbacks and functions have a tendency to be lost, unless you handle them manually at each step. You have to encapsulate the logic of what you want to do with currentProfile in the innermost callback, either directly, or through a separate function.

Promises solve these issues. You are assured that the previous function call is finished before the next function in the chain is called. Each then call takes two arguments both functions. The first one is the success callback and the second one is the error handler. In case of errors in the chain, the error will get propagated through to the rest of the error handlers.

So any error in any of the callbacks can be handled in the end. What about resolve and reject, you ask? Well, deferred in AngularJS is a way of creating promises. Calling resolve on it fulfills the promise calls the success handler , while calling reject on it calls the error handler of the promise.

There will be two directives in the app: It will hook into the route-changing mechanism and automatically hide and show whatever is within its tag ,based on the state of the page. We will dive deeper into how you can create your own directives in Chapter 6, but for now, all you need to know is the following: Directives go through a two-step process. In the first step the compile phase , all directives attached to a DOM element are found, and then processed. Any DOM manipulation also happens during the compile step.

At the end of this phase, a linking function is produced. In the second step, the link phase the phase we used previously , the preceding DOM template produced is linked to the scope. Also, any watchers or listeners are added as needed, resulting in a live binding between the scope and the element. Thus, anything related to the scope happens in the linking phase.

The butterbar directive can be used as follows: Every time a route change begins, it shows the element by changing its class , and every time the route has successfully finished changing, it hides the butterbar again. All directives directly hook into the AngularJS dependency injection system, so you can inject your services and whatever else you need into them. The final thing of note is the API for working with the element. In case you do end up using the full jQuery library in your project, you should know that AngularJS uses that instead of the jQlite implementation it has built-in.

The second directive focus is much simpler. It just calls the focus method on the current element. You can call it by adding the focus attribute on any input element, like so: Controllers With directives and services covered, we can finally get into the controllers, of which we have five. Instead, it is handed a list of recipes already fetched. Just keep that in the back of your mind. With the List Controller under our belts, the other controllers are pretty similar in nature, but we will still cover them one by one to point out the interesting aspects: Instead of showing and hiding fields or something similar, this controller relies on AngularJS to do the heavy lifting as should you!

The edit function simply changes the URL to the edit equivalent for the recipe, and lo and behold, AngularJS does the rest. AngularJS recognizes that the URL has changed and loads the corresponding view which is the same recipe in edit mode. The save function on the scope does what you would expect it to. It saves the current recipe, and once it is done saving, redirects the user to the view screen with the same 86 Chapter 4: The callback function is useful in these scenarios to execute or perform some action once you are done.

There are two ways we could have saved the recipe here. This is only possible because recipe is a resource object that was returned by the RecipeLoader in the first place. Otherwise, the way you would save the recipe would be: Next, we have the New Controller: In fact, you could look at combining the two into a single controller as an exercise. Everything else remains unchanged. Finally, we have the Ingredients Controller. But the Ingredients Controller is special. The controller itself does nothing too interesting or unique.

It just adds a new ingredient to the array of ingredients present on the recipe, or removes a specific ingredient from the list of ingredients on the recipe. With that, we finish the last of the controllers. The only JavaScript piece that remains is how the routing is set up: The previous piece of code sets up the Guthub AngularJS module, as well as the routes and templates involved in the application.

For each route, we specify the URL, the controller that backs it up, the template to load, and finally optionally , a resolve object. This resolve object tells AngularJS that each of these resolve keys needs to be satisfied before the route can be displayed to the user. For us, we want to load all the recipes, or an individual recipe, and make sure we have the server response before we display the page.

So we tell the route provider that we have recipes or a recipe , and then tell it how to fetch it. This links back to the two services we defined in the first section, the MultiRecipeLoad er and the RecipeLoader.

If the resolve function returns an AngularJS promise, then AngularJS is smart enough to wait for the promise to get resolved before it proceeds. That means that it will wait until the server responds. Finally, the otherwise function denotes the default URL redirect that needs to happen when no routes are matched. We reused the edit template. Depending on which controller is associated, different elements are shown in the edit recipe template. With this done, we can now move on to the templates, how these controllers hook up to them, and manage what is shown to the end user.

The Templates Let us start by taking a look at the outermost, main template, which is the index. This is the base of our single-page application, and all the other views are loaded within the context of this template: This is the same module name we gave in our angular.

This is how AngularJS knows to hook the two together. Ideally, this should be done at the bottom of the body. Butterbar Aha! Our first usage of a custom directive.

Link href Values The hrefs link to the various pages of our single-page application. In our controllers section, we defined our routes. When AngularJS detects a route change, it loads the template, attaches the controller to it, and replaces the ng- view with the contents of the template. One thing that is conspicuous in its absence is the ng-controller tag.

Most applications would have some sort of a MainController associated with the outer template. Its most common location would be on the body tag. There are only two points of interest here. The first one is a very standard usage of the ng-repeat tag. It picks up all the recipes from the scope, and repeats over them. The second is the usage of the ng-href tag instead of href.

This is purely to avoid having a bad link during the time that AngularJS is loading up. The ng-href ensures that at no time is a malformed link presented to the user.

Always use this whenever your URLs are dynamic instead of static.

Of course you might wonder: There is no ng-controller defined, and there really was no Main Controller defined.

This is where route mapping comes into play. Thus, when any references are made to variables and the like, it is within the scope of the List Controller. Now we move on to something with a little bit more meat: The first is the pretty standard ng-repeat. The recipes are again in the scope of the View Controller, which is loaded by the resolve function before this page is displayed to the user.

This ensures that the page is not in a broken, unloaded state when the user sees it. The next interesting usage is that of ng-show and ng-class to style the template. Now, the starred icon is shown only when the recipe is a featured recipe as denoted by the recipe.

That is a very common usage, to display one thing and hide another on a given condition.


That adds some special highlighting to make the title stand out even more. The final thing to note is the ng-submit directive on the form. The directive states that the edit function on the scope is called in case the form is submitted.

The form submission happens when any button without an explicit function attached in this case, the Edit button is clicked. Again, AngularJS is smart enough to figure out the scope that is being referred to from the module, the route, and the controller and call the right method at the right time.

Now we can move on to our final template and possibly the most complicated one yet , the recipe form template. In fact, a lot of it is simple, repetitive boilerplate to show editable input fields for editing recipes: This ensures that when the user navigates to this page, the title field has focus so the user can immediately start typing in the title. We see a list of ingredients being displayed, and the container tag is associated with an ng-controller. As it turns out, the Ingredients Controller is created as a child controller of the Edit Controller, thereby inheriting the scope of Edit Controller.

That is why it has access to the recipe object from the Edit Controller. Why would you want to do this? This is the best way to separate your concerns. But now what do you do with it? For that, we jump down to the Save button. Notice the ng-disabled directive on it, which says recipeForm.

The recipeForm is the name of the form which we have declared. AngularJS 94 Chapter 4: So if our Recipe Title is empty, recipeForm. We can also set the max and min length of an input, as well as a Regex pattern against which an input field will be validated.

Furthermore, there are advanced usages that can be applied to show certain error messages only when specific conditions are met. Let us diverge for a bit with a small example: We can use this to selectively show error messages to the user, depending on the type of input error he is making, as we do in the previous example.

Jumping back to our original template—Recipe form template—there is another nice usage of the ng-show highlighted within the ingredients repeater scope. Finally, we have the last ng-click, which is attached to the second button, used for deleting the recipe. Notice how the button only shows if the recipe is not saved yet. The Tests 95 www. This tests that the controllers and directives, and services that you have developed are correctly structured and written, and that they do what you would expect them to.

Before we dive into the individual unit tests, let us take a look at the test harness that surrounds all of our controller unit tests: Initializes the module that our app uses GutHub in this case. Adds a special matcher that we call equalData.

Remember to add the special matcher called equalData any time we want to do assertions on ngResource returned objects. This is because ngResource returned objects have additional methods on them that will fail normal expect equal calls. Only written this way to 96 Chapter 4: You could write a test for it, but it seems kind of silly we still did it, because tests are awesome! Instead, the more interesting aspect is the MultiRecipeLoader service. This comes from the angular-mocks. Just injecting it into your beforeEach method is enough for you to start setting expectations on it.

In our second, more meaningful test, we set an expectation for a server GET call to recipes, which will return a simple array of objects. We then use our new custom matcher to ensure that this is exactly what was returned.

Note the call to flush on the mock backend, which tells the mock backend to now return response from the server. You can use this mechanism to test control flow and see how your application handles before and after the server returns a response. We will skip View Controller, as it is almost exactly like the List Controller except for the addition of an edit method on the scope.

Let us now jump to the Edit Controller, which has two points of interest that we should be unit testing. The resolve function is similar to the one we saw before, and can be tested the same way. Instead, we now want to see how we can test the save and the remove methods. The second test is even simpler. We simply check to ensure that calling remove on the scope removes the current recipe, then redirects the user to the main landing page.

The rest of the unit tests for the controllers follow very similar patterns, so we can skip over them. At their base, such unit tests rely on a few things: While unit tests assure us that every small piece of JS code is working as intended, we also want to ensure that the template loads, that it is hooked up correctly to the controllers, and that clicking around in the template does the right thing. The Tests 99 www. It allows you to: Well, first of all, before we get started on the actual test, we need to do some groundwork.

For the scenario test to work, we will need a working web server that is ready to accept requests from the GutHub application, and will allow storing and getting a list of recipes from it. Once we have a server up and running, and serving our application, we can then write and run the following test: Together, this allows you to build some sleek, sexy apps, but they are restricted mostly to the client side.

In this chapter, we will talk about how AngularJS allows you to communicate with your server, both at the lowest levels of abstraction and with the nice wrappers that it provides.

Furthermore, we will go into how AngularJS can help you speed up your application with its built-in caching mechanism. It goes something like this: If you want to do it repeatedly, you will likely end up creating wrappers or using a library.

As XHRs are asynchronous method calls, the response from the server will come back at an unknown future date and time hopefully almost immediately! The Promise interface guarantees how such responses will be dealt with, and allows consumers of the Promise to use them in a predictable manner. Communicating with Servers www. This could be because you want to: In the prior example, we used the config object to specify optional URL parameters.

The barebones method call would look something like: If we use an object, instead of a string or a number, for the value, the object will be converted to a JSON string.

This step is usually done in the config part of setting up your app. The same custom header can be passed to a GET request as part of the second parameter, which also takes your URL parameters: It comes disabled for all requests by default, but to enable caching for your requests, all you need to do is: The cache is also smart, so even if you make multiple simultaneous requests for the same URL, only one request is made to the server and the response is used to fulfill all the requests.

However, this might be jarring from a usability standpoint, as a user would first see the old results, then the new results would suddenly show up. For example, a user might be about to click on an item, and it might change under him. In other words, expect your code to behave as it did when it first made the request. These include: Request transformations If the data property of the requested config object contains an object, serialize it into JSON format.

When would we use these? Let us assume that we have a server which is more attuned to the jQuery way of doing things.

While we could make this change at every request, or add a transform Request call individually, for the purpose of this example, we are going to add a general transformRequest, so that for all outgoing calls, this transformation from JSON form to a string happens.

But what about writing some unit tests to ensure that it actually works? As we have mentioned repeatedly, AngularJS was designed with testing in mind, so of course it has a mocked backend that allows you to test whether the right requests are being made, and even to control how and when the response is handled, right from your unit test.

Let us explore how you would unit test a controller that makes a request to your server, fetches some data from it, and sets it on the scope to be displayed by the view in some particular format. Our NamesListCtrl is a very simple controller that has one purpose for its existence: In our unit test, we would like to ensure that: While we could construct a controller in our test, and inject a scope and fake HTTP service into it, let us instead construct the test the same way AngularJS would in its production code.

But in a majority of cases, we deal with objects and object models that are encapsulated with certain properties and methods, like a person object with his details , or a credit card object. If we could just edit the properties of this object, say save or update, and the state would get persisted on the server?

AngularJS resources allow us to define object models, and in a descriptive manner, to specify: For the case of a credit card, which we will be using as an example in this part of the chapter that entails: The ngResource is a separate, optional module. To use it, you need to: Table Notice that the URL parameter is parametrized the: If the parameter is not passed, then it will be replaced by an empty string.

The second parameter takes care of the default parameters to be passed along with each request. In this case, we pass in the userId as a constant The cardId parameter is more interesting. We say cardId is " id. The third argument is other methods we would like to expose on our custom resource. In this case, we specify a method charge.

This can be configured by passing in an object, with the key being the method name to be exposed. Once that is done, you are free to start calling Credit Card. Take a look at the CreditCard. With an asynchronous server request, will that code even work? You would be correct to worry about whether the code will work, but the code is actually correct and will work. In the meantime, the object will remain empty.

Since the most common flow with AngularJS apps is to fetch data from the server, assign it to a variable, and display it in the template, this shortcut is nice. In your controller code, all you have to do is make the server-side call, assign the return value to the right scope variable, and let the template worry about rendering it when it returns.

This approach will not work for you if you have some business logic you want executed on the return value. In such a case, you will have to depend on the callback, which is used in the CreditCard. Simplified Server-Side Operations Regardless of whether you use the shortcut return type or the callback, there are some other points you should note about the returned object.

Thus, you already know how to unit test it. This expectation is smart enough to ignore the additional methods that the ngResource adds to an object.

At its base, the Promise proposal dictates the following for asynchronous requests: These functions are called with the result, or the reason for the rejection. You might ask the question: The asynchronous nature of returns competes with the synchronous needs of the program, leading to multiple nested functions, making it that much harder to keep track of the current context. In addition, there is also the matter of error handling. What is the best way to handle errors?

Do you do it in each step? That also gets messy. To fix this, the Promise proposal offers the concept of then, which takes the functions to execute in case of a success, on one hand, and error on the other, each of which can also be chained. This mechanism also allows us to do something very cool: Response Interception We have covered making calls to the server, handling responses, wrapping the responses nicely in abstractions, and dealing with asynchronous calls.

Response Interceptors allow you as the name would suggest to intercept responses before they make it to the application, and apply your transformations, error handling, and everything else, including the kitchen sink.

AngularJS does provide some assistance when it comes to two common attack vectors, which we will cover in the following sections.

Response Interception www. Because you are still logged in, the malicious site uses your credential to request the JSON information, and gets it.

You might wonder how, because that information is still on your client, and the server cannot get a handle on that information. And usually, JSON objects returned as a result of sourcing a script will cause an error, though arrays are an exception. In this vulnerability, the array constructor gets redefined, and in this redefinition, the malicious website can get a handle on the data, and send it to its own server.

There are two ways to prevent this vulnerability: AngularJS allows you to prevent this vulnerability in both of these ways. Furthermore, you can configure your server to prefix: Thus, a normal response of: Consider the following example of an XSRF attack: So how does AngularJS help prevent this? It provides a two-step mechanism to prevent XSRF vulnerabilities.

Since only your requests from your domain could have read and set the token, you can be assured that the XHR came from your domain. Of course the token must be unique to every user, and must be verifiable by the server to prevent the JavaScript from making up its own tokens. Security Considerations www. The ones that come with Angular provide basic functionality, but you can create your own to do things specific to your application.

But first, a few notes on the syntax for using directives. Examples include ng-repeat, ng-view, and ng-controller. Here, the ng portion is the namespace for Angular, and the part after the dash is the name for the directive. To support these, Angular lets you invoke any directive in several ways.

The following syntaxes, laid out in Table , are all equivalent to allow for your preferred validator to work properly: For example, ng-repeat is found under the title ngRepeat. API Overview A basic pseudo-code template for creating any directive follows: Directives www.

Directive definition options Property Purpose restrict Declare how directive can be used in a template as an element, attribute, class, comment, or any combination. If false or unspecified, append this directive to the current element. Your compile function can also return link functions to modify the resulting element instances.

If you work at SuperDuper MegaCorp, you could choose super-, superduper-, or even superduper-megacorp-, though you might choose the first option just for ease of typing. As previously noted, Angular uses a normalized naming scheme for directives and will make camel-cased directive names available in templates in the five different validator- friendly varieties.

In templates, you could then use it as super-date-picker, super: API Overview www. In fact, there are no hard requirements and you can construct useful directives out of many subsets of the parameters. You can specify one or more declaration styles using a character to represent each of them from the set in Table If you omit the restrict property, the default is A, and your directive can be used only as an attribute.

If you plan to support IE8, attribute- and class-based directives are your best bet, as it requires extra effort to make new elements work properly. Higher numbers run first. Needing to set priority will likely be a rare occurrence. One example of a directive that needs to set priority is the ng-repeat.

When repeating elements, we want Angular to make copies of the template element before other directives get applied. Without this, the other directives would get applied to the canonical template element rather than to the repeated elements we want in our app. For example, if you were to create a set of tabbed views in your UI, you would render something like Figure Your HTML then does a much better job of expressing the intent of your template.

The end result could look like: You specify the replacement DOM elements either through the template or the tem plateUrl properties. If you were to remove the replace: The template property is usually only useful for very small templates.

Writing as templateUrl is useful, as these templates are cacheable by setting the appropriate headers. We could rewrite our hello directive example like so: You can do this by running Chrome from the command line as chrome --allow-file-access-from-files Loading these files through templateUrl will, however, make your user wait until they load to see the directive.

If you want to have the template load with the first page, you can include it as part of the page in a script tag, like so: This version will load just fine without a server, as no XMLHttpRequest is necessary to fetch the content. When set to true, the directive will delete the original content, but make it available for reinsertion within your template through a directive called ng-transclude.

We could change our example to use transclusion: The compile and link functions are named after the two phases Angular uses to create the live view for your application. Script loads Angular loads and looks for the ng-app directive to find the application boundaries. Compile phase In this phase, Angular walks the DOM to identify all the registered directives in the template. The result is a compiled template function, which will invoke the link functions collected from all of the directives.

Link phase To make the view dynamic, Angular then runs a link function for each directive. The link functions typically creates listeners on the DOM or the model. These listeners keep the view and the model in sync at all times. Along these lines, the primary difference between the compile and link functions in directives is that compile Chapter 6: It is in this second phase that scopes are attached to the compiled link functions, and the directive becomes live through data binding.

These two phases are separate for performance reasons. Compile functions execute only once in the compile phase, whereas link functions are executed many times, once for each instance of the directive. Instead, you want to compile once, then link. For compile, we have: You do, however, have the ability to return link functions from the compile function. These link functions do have access to the scope. Notice also that both compile and link receive a reference to their DOM element and the list of attributes for that element.

The difference here is that the compile function receives the template element and attributes from the template, and thus gets the t prefix.

This distinction only matters when the directive is within some other directive that makes copies of the template. The ng-repeat directive is a good example. So, if API Overview www. You will also notice that the compile function receives a transclude function as a property. Lastly, compile can return both a preLink and a postLink function, whereas link specifies only a postLink function.

Similarly, postLink runs after all the child element directives are linked. This means that if you need to change the DOM structure, you will do so in postLink. Doing it in the preLink will confuse the attachment process and cause an error.


Scopes You will often want to access a scope from your directive to watch model values and make UI updates when they change, and to notify Angular when external events cause the model to change. Evaluate Angular expressions passed into your directive as attributes. This scope will be shared with any other directives on your DOM element that request this kind of scope and can be used to communicate with them. An isolate scope that inherits no model properties from its parent.

You can create these scope configurations with the following syntax: Scope Type Syntax existing scope scope: You can, however, specify that you want specific attributes passed into your directive.

You can think of these attribute names as parameters to the function. You can pass specific attributes from the parent scope to the isolate scope by passing a map of directive attribute names. There are three possible ways to pass data to and from the parent scope. The syntax without aliases is in the following form: Binding strategies Symbol Meaning Pass this attribute as a string.

It would look like Figure when closed. Expander in closed state It would look like Figure when opened. Expander in open state We would write it as follows: We could set this up with a controller like so: Functions of elements Function Name Description restrict: EA Invoke this directive as either an element or attribute.

We could have written scope: But in case other directives also have a title attribute, it makes sense to disambiguate our title in the API and just rename it for local use. Also notice here that the naming uses the same camel-case expansion as the directive names themselves do. Also note that transcluded content gets access to the parent scope, not the scope of the directive enclosing it. If we think it would make more sense to define the expander title in the template rather than in the model, we can use the string-style attribute passing denoted by an symbol in the scope declaration, like this: For many applications, you can do everything you need with this API alone.

If you need direct access to the raw DOM element you can get it by accessing the first element of the object with element[0]. You can see the full list of supported APIs in the Angular docs for angular. It includes functions like addClass , bind , find , toggleClass , and so on. Again, these are all the most useful core functions from jQuery, but with a much smaller code footprint. Angular specific functions on an element Function Description controller name When you need to communicate directly with a controller, this function returns the controller attached to the element.

If none exists for this element, it walks up the DOM and finds the nearest parent controller instead. The name parameter is optional and is used to specify the name of another directive on this same element.

If provided, it will return the controller from that directive. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. The myServices Task will, by default, now support get, save, query, remove and delete. The required endpoints can simply be routed via express by using the angular-resource module:. This will bind the required endpoints through to task.

Note that both 'delete' and 'remove' are routed to the 'remove' method. In the example above, if you don't want to support remove then just define task. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 31 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

Sign up. Find File. Download ZIP. Sign in Sign up.

DELORAS from Iowa
I do like reading books greatly . Look through my other articles. I have always been a very creative person and find it relaxing to indulge in racewalking.