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COM THEORY BOOK BASIC HARDWARE MAINTENANCE IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY Basic Hardware Maintenance COURSE CODE: CODE COM. Computer Hardware & - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read online. do the main software applications on the computer start up maintenance report the . ROM for research purposes, HTML and basic hardware and software.

Computer Hardware Maintenance Pdf

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Computer System is functional only if: users. Software. Hardware. 7. Computer Hardware Repairs and. Maintenance. Computer Hardware Maintenance. LAB Manual CE 3. Chapter 1. Introduction to Computer and its Components. Objectives. ➢ Understand the. iv Hardware Maintenance Manual . b. The power cord should be the authorized type specified for your computer. Go to:

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Jamilu Adamu. Basic Concepts 2. Bipolar junction transistor BJT

Example of an ammeter connection 2. This procedure is shown in figure 2. Adjust the meter so that when the two terminals are short circuited, the ohmmeter reads zero 2. Disconnect the resistor to be measured from the circuit why? Apply the meter leads to the resistor terminals resistor is parallel to the meter Range 4. Understanding integrated circuit and terminologies Integrated circuit Another name for a chip, an integrated circuit IC is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material.

As of , typical chips are of size 1 cm2 or smaller, and contain millions of interconnected devices, but larger ones exist as well. It contains software that is required to make your computer work with your operating system, for instance it is responsible for copying your operating system into RAM when you switch on your computer.

What is inside the IC? The IC is encapsulated within a plastic or ceramic case, and linked via gold wires to metal pins with which it is connected to a printed circuit board and the other components that make up such electronic devices as computers and calculators.

SSI small-scale scale integration: Up to electronic components per chip. MSI medium-scale scale integration: Dual in-line packages are the traditional buglike chips that have anywhere from 8 to 40 legs, evenly divided in two rows. In addition to these types of chips, there are also single in-line line memory modules SIMMs , which consist of up to nine chips packaged as a single unit. So, by popular demand, here are the internal schematics of various gates, as implemented by several different logic families.

I won't cover the internal operation of individual semiconductor devices in these pages, except to state the basic behavior of a given device under specific conditions.

More detailed coverage of semiconductor physics and internal behavior is a job for another set of pages, which will come later. There are several different families of logic gates. Each family has its capabilities and limitations, its advantages and disadvantages. The following list describes the main logic families and their characteristics. You can follow the links to see the circuit construction of gates of each family.

Diodes have the property of easily passing an electrical current in one direction, but not the other. Thus, diodes can act as a logical switch. Diode logic gates are very simple and inexpensive, and can be used effectively in specific situations. However, they cannot be used extensively, as they tend to degrade digital signals rapidly. In addition, they cannot perform a NOT function, so their usefulness is quite limited.

Resistor-Transistor Logic RTL Resistor-transistor logic gates use Transistors to combine multiple input signals, which also amplify and invert the resulting combined signal.

This combination provides clean output signals and either inversion or non- inversion as needed. RTL gates are almost as simple as DL gates, and remain inexpensive. They also are handy because both normal and inverted signals are often available. However, they do draw a significant amount of current from the power supply for each gate. Another limitation is that RTL gates cannot switch at the high speeds used by today's computers, although they are still useful in slower applications.

Although they are not designed for linear operation, RTL integrated circuits are sometimes used as inexpensive small-signal amplifiers, or as interface devices between linear and digital circuits. DTL takes diode logic gates and adds a transistor to the output, in order to provide logic inversion and to restore the signal to full logic levels. Transistor-Transistor Logic TTL The physical construction of integrated circuits made it more effective to replace all the input diodes in a DTL gate with a transistor, built with multiple emitters.

The result is transistor-transistor logic, which became the standard logic circuit in most applications for a number of years. These devices comprise the family of digital ICs. Because of this, however, these gates demand substantial amounts of electrical current to operate correctly.

Many applications, especially portable, battery-powered ones, require that the use of power be absolutely minimized.

This family uses enhancement-mode MOSFETs as its transistors, and is so designed that it requires almost no current to operate. Nevertheless, they are highly useful and effective in a wide range of battery- powered applications.

Most logic families share a common characteristic: CMOS gates work a bit differently, but still represent a capacitance that must be charged or discharged when the input changes state.

The current required to drive any input must come from the output supplying the logic signal. Therefore, we need to know how much current an input requires, and how much current an output can reliably supply, in order to determine how many inputs may be connected to a single output. However, making such calculations can be tedious, and can bog down logic circuit design.

Therefore, we use a different technique. Rather than working constantly with actual currents, we determine the amount of current required to drive one standard input, and designate that as a standard load on any output. Now we can define the number of standard loads a given output can drive, and identify it that way. Unfortunately, some inputs for specialized circuits require more than the usual input current, and some gates, known as buffers, are deliberately designed to be able to drive more inputs than usual.

For an easy way to define input current requirements and output drive capabilities, we define two new terms: Fan-in The number of standard loads drawn by an input to ensure reliable operation. Most inputs have a fan-in of 1. Remember, fan-in in and fan fan-out out apply directly only within a given logic family.

If for any reason you need to interface between two different logic families, be careful to note and meet the drive requirements and limitations of both h families, within the interface circuitry CMOS logic is a newer technology, based on the use of complementary MOS transistors to perform logic functions with almost no current required. This makes these gates very useful in battery battery-powered powered applications.

The T fact that they will work with supply voltages as low as 3 volts and as high as 15 volts is also very helpful. CMOS gates are all based on the fundamental inverter circuit shown to the left. Their gates are connected together to form the input, and their drains are connected together to form the output.

Thus, they are complementary to each other. When off, their resistance is effectively infinite; when on, their channel resistance is about Since the gate is essentially an open circuit it draws no current and the output voltage will be equal to either ground or to the power supply voltage, depending on which transistor is conducting.

It is an open circuit, and therefore leaves aves the output line disconnected from ground. Thus, this circuit correctly performs logic inversion, and at the same time provides act active pull-up and pull-down, down, according to the output state.

The structure can be inverted, as shown to the left. Here we have a two-input two NAND gate, where a logic 0 at either input will force the output to logic 1, but it takes both inputs at logic 1 to allow the output to go to logic 0.

This structure is less limited than the bipolar equivalent would be, but there are still some practical limits.

As a result, CMOS totem poles are not made more than four inputs high. Gates with more than four inputs are built as cascading structures rather than single structures. However, the logic is still valid. The pull pull-up and pull-down down resistances at the output are never the same, and can change significantly as the inputs change state, even if the output does not change logic states. The rresult esult is uneven and unpredictable rise and fall times for the output signal. The technique here is to follow the actual NAND gate with a pair of inverters.

Thus, the output will always be driven by a single transistor, either P- P channel or N-channel. Since they are as closely matched as possible, the output resistance of the gate will always be the same, and signal behavior is therefore more predictable. One of the main problems with CMOS gates is their speed.

They cannot operate very quickly, because of their inherent input capacitance. B-series B devices help to overcome these limitations to some extent, by providing uniform output current, and by switching output states more rapidly, even if the input signals are changing more slowly.

For example, to avoid damage caused by static electricity, different manufacturers developed a number of iinput nput protection circuits, to prevent input voltages from becoming too high.

However, these protection circuits do not affect the logical behavior of the gates, so we will not go into the details here. One type of gate, shown to the left, is unique to CMOS technology. This is the bilateral switch,, or transmission gate.. That is, the drain and source connections to any individual transistor can be interchanged interc without affecting the performance of either the transistor itself or the circuit as a whole.

When the N- and P-type type FETs are connected as shown here and their gates are driven from complementary control signals, both transistors will be turned on or off together, rather than alternately. If they are both off, the signal path is essentially an open circuit — there is no connection between input and output. Understanding integrated circuit and terminologies Week8 What is truly interesting about this structure is that the signal being controlled in this manner does not have to be a digital signal.

As long as the signal voltage does not exceed the power supply voltages, even an analog signal can be controlled by this type of gate. With the rapid development of integrated circuits ICs , new problems were encountered and new solutions were developed.

One of the problems with DTL circuits wass that it takes as much room on the IC chip to construct a diode as it does to construct a transistor. Since "real estate" is exceedingly important in ICs, it was desirable to find a way to avoid requiring large numbers of input diodes.

But what could be used sed to replace many diodes? In fact, if we were to have an inverter, it would have a single input diode, and we just might be able to replace the two opposed diodes with an NPN transistor to do the same job. In fact, this works quite nicely. The figure to the left shows the resulting inverter. In addition, we can add multiple emitters to the input transistor without witho greatly increasing the amount of space needed on the chip. This allows us to construct a multiple-input input gate in almost the same space as an inverter.

The resulting savings in real estate translates to a significant savings in manufacturing costs, which in turn reduces the cost to the end user of the device. The transistor actively pulls the output down to logic 0, but the resistor is not active in pulling the output up to logic 1.

Due to inevitable factors such as circuit capacitances and a characteristic of bipolar transistors called "charge storage," it will take a certain amount of time for the transistor to turn completely off aand nd the output to raise to logic 1 level. This limits the frequency at which the gate can operate. The number of inputs may vary — a commercial IC package might have six inverters, four 2-input 2 gates, three 3-input input gates, or two input gates.

An 8-input input gate in one package is also available. But in each case, the circuit structure remains the same. For corporations and organizations with hundreds even thousands of PCs, this investment is that much higher. But after the money is spent and the PC is in our home or office, few PC users ever take the time to maintain their PC. Proper routine maintenance can also help to avoid costly visits to the repair shop U.

Businesses can save a substantial amount of money by assigning technicians to perform regular maintenance. This chapter provides you with a comprehensive, step-by-step procedure for protecting and maintain-ing a personal computer investment. But if the drive fails, that precious data is usually lost along with the hardware. Months perhaps years of records and data could be irretrievably lost.

Backups ensure that you can re- cover from any hardware glitch, accidental file erasure, or virus attack. STEP 1: Before you proceed with any type of system checks, consider performing a file backup see Chapter 52 for more detailed information on backups.

The actual choice of backup drive is really quite open. Tape drives, such as the Iomega Ditto drive http: Just be sure that the backup drive and backup software are compatible with one another. Types of backups Backups generally fall into two categories: Both types of backups offer unique advantages and disadvantages. This takes much longer and uses a lot more media, but restores are easier. Many PC users use a combination of complete and incremental backups.

For example, you might start with a complete backup on January 1, then make incremental backups each week until the end of February. Backup frequency Perhaps the most overlooked issue with backups is the fre-quency— how often should backups be performed? Major corporations with busy order-entry systems might backup several times each day, but individual home users might not even consider backups to be necessary.

The standard that I use is this: Can you afford to lose the data on this drive? Table sum- marizes the recommended periods for preventive maintenance procedures. File backup tips Regardless of how you choose to handle file backups, some tips will help you get the most from your backup efforts: STEP 2: If this battery goes dead, CMOS contents can be lost.

In most cases, this will prevent the system from even starting until you reconfigure the CMOS setup from scratch. By making a backup of the CMOS setup, you can restore lost settings in a matter of minutes. Because every BIOS is written differently, be sure to check for sub-menus that might be buried under each main menu option.

Try CMOS. Process of Fault diagnosis Before getting into the troubleshooting details, it is important to know about what goes on during the startup process. The reason is, there are actually quite a few steps that occur in between switching the power ON and hearing the familiar Windows 95, 98 or Windows ME. In fact, there are a whole series of files that are automatically loaded one after the other when you turn your computer on. The trick with troubleshooting startup problems is trying to figure out which of those files or what step in the process causes a specific problem in the computer.

If we know approximately where in the startup process the problem occurs Computer gets stuck , we can diagnose the problem easily. This chapter explains the various problems that occur in a computer and the troubleshooting procedures. The BIOS is essentially a combination of software and hardware in that it consists of software, but the contents of that software is stored in a hardware chip. The POST is a built-in diagnostic program that checks the hardware to ensure that everything is present and functioning properly, before the BIOS begins the actual boot.

The POST runs very quickly, and you will normally not even noticed that it is happening--unless it finds a problem. You may have encountered a PC that, when turned on, made beeping sounds and then stopped without booting up. That is the POST telling you something is wrong with the machine. The speaker is used because this test happens so early on, before the video is activated! These beep patterns can be used to diagnose many hardware problems with the PC.

These are the contents of a typical BIOS start up screen: The date of the BIOS can be important in helping you determine its capabilities. The key or keys to press to enter the BIOS setup program. This is normally located at the bottom of the screen. Since BIOSes are highly customized to the particular motherboard, this serial number can be used in many cases to determine the specific motherboard and BIOS version you are using.

Over time, these accumulations can jam keys or cause repeated keystrokes. Attach the long, thin nozzle to your can of compressed air and use the air to blow through the hori-zontal gaps between key rows. Be careful. This will kick up a lot of dust, so keep the key-board away from your face. Afterward, use a clean cloth lightly dampened with ammonia solution to remove dirt or stains from the keys and keyboard housing.

STEP 7: Moni-tors rely on vent openings for proper cooling. Use your vacuum cleaner and carefully re-move any accumulations of dust and debris from the vents underneath the case, as well as those on top of the case.

Be sure that none of the vent openings are blocked by paper or other objects this can restrict ventilation and force the monitor to run hot. Active circuitry is directly under the top vents, so under no circumstances should you spray cleaner directly onto the monitor housings.

Do not use ammonia or any chemicals to clean the CRT face. The CRT is often treated with anti-glare and other coat-ings, and even mild chemicals can react with some coatings. Instead, use clean tap water only to clean the CRT face. Be sure to dry the CRT face completely. STEP 8: Loosen the retaining ring and remove the mouse ball. Clean the mouse ball using a clean cloth and an ammonia solution. Dry the mouse ball thoroughly and set it aside with the re-taining ring.

Use a clean cloth, dampened with ammo-nia solution, to clean all of the rollers completely.

These keys are held in place by metal brackets that are extremely difficult to re-attach once the key is removed. Only the most experienced technicians should work with these keys. Gather a small regular screwdriver i. If your system uses a tape drive, arrange to have a tape-drive cleaning kit also. If you cannot locate the appropriate cleaning kits, you can use isopropyl alcohol and long electronics-grade swabs. A hand-held degaussing coil is recommended, but might not be necessary.

These checks should be performed every four months three times per year or as re-quired. Systems operating in clean office envi-ronments might only need to be checked once or twice each year.

STEP 9: You should examine each cable and verify that it is securely connected. If the cable can be se-cured to its connector with screws, be sure that the cable is secured properly. As a mini-mum, check for the following cables: Understanding Diagnostics in Corrective Maintenance Trouble shooting the process of searching for fault in order to correct it. It could be Hardware or software troubleshooting the following is the procedure in locating fault: The Universal Troubleshooting Process Regardless of how complex your particular computer or peripheral device might be, a de- pendable troubleshooting procedure can be broken down into four basic steps Fig.

If you have not solved the problem, start again from Step 1. Before you open your tool box, you must have a firm understanding of all the symptoms.

Think about the symptoms carefully—for example: Is the disk or tape inserted properly? Is the power or activity LED lit? Does this problem occur only when the computer is tapped or moved? By recognizing and understanding your symptoms, it can be much easier to trace a prob- lem to the appropriate assembly or component. Take the time to write down as many symptoms as you can. This note-taking might seem tedious now, but once you have be-gun your repair, a written record of symptoms and circumstances will help to keep you fo-cused on the task at hand.

It will also help to jog your memory if you must explain the symptoms to someone else at a later date. As a professional troubleshooter, you must of-ten log problems or otherwise document your activities anyway. In many circumstances, this will be fairly obvious, but some situations might appear ambiguous i. Always remember that a PC works because of an intimate mingling of hardware and software.

A faulty or improperly configured piece of software can cause confusing system errors. Chapter 3 touched on some of the problems that operating sys- tems can encounter. Because this book is designed to deal with sub-assembly troubleshooting, start your diagnostics there. When you have identified a potential problem area, you can begin the actual repair process and swap the suspect sub-assembly.

REPLACE Because computers and their peripherals are designed as collections of sub-assemblies, it is almost always easier to replace a sub-assembly outright, rather than attempt to trou- bleshoot the sub-assembly to its component level.

Even if you had the time, documenta-tion, and test equipment to isolate a defective component, many complex parts are proprietary, so it is highly unlikely that you would be able to obtain replacement compo- nents without a significant hassle. The labor and frustration factor involved in such an en-deavor is often just as expensive as replacing the entire sub-assembly to begin with perhaps even more expensive.

On the other hand, manufacturers and their distributors often stock a selection of sub-assemblies and supplies. During a repair, you might reach a roadblock that requires you to leave your equipment for a day or two, or maybe longer. This generally happens after an order has been placed for new parts, and you are waiting for those parts to come in. Make it a point to reassemble your system as much as possible before leaving it.

Gather any loose parts in plastic bags, seal them shut, and mark them clearly. If you are working with electronic circuitry, be sure to use good-quality anti-static boxes or bags for storage. Partial re-assembly combined with careful notes will help you remember how the unit goes together later on. Another problem with the fast technological progress we enjoy is that parts rarely stay on the shelf long.

That video board you bought last year is no longer available, is it? How Assembling and repair of computer system Assembling the entire system might be a little tricky if you've never done it before.

Some things you will want near you while doing this, is a cold drink, plenty of light, computer screws, all the manuals that came with the hardware you purchased, a screw driver and of course, your sanity. Oh and a word about static electricity. Make sure you de-static yourself by touching your computer's power supply or wearing a very expensive anti static bracelet , and it would be a good idea to work in a non-static area, such as on a table, or a kitchen counter, and away from carpet.

Whatever you do, be very careful not to zap your components. Configuring the jumpers is the first thing that needs to be done. What you will want to do is consult your motherboard manual on how to set everything correctly. There are just to many motherboards out there that I can cover in this article. Most jumpers listed in your motherboards manual are already set up for you. The main ones you will have to configure are: This is where you specify what bus frequency your CPU is at.

Look at the little box that contained your CPU, it will show you the exact ratio should be a number like 2x, 3. Inserting the CPU.

This one is really easy. Take the CPU, and hold it with your right hand. Look on your motherboard for the CPU socket. With your left hand hold the motherboard with a firm grip while you insert your CPU.

Then connect your CPU fan. Easy isn't? Screwing the motherboard to the computer case. This process can be a little frustrating. A good thing to do would be to remove the piece where the motherboard screws too, which is a large panel within your computer case. Next you should have little plastic looking screws. Use these to secure all four corners of your motherboard. Don't worry if you can't secure each corner, more often than not you will only be able to get 2 to 3 corners.

Finally, you will see holes in the middle of the motherboard. You should be able to insert two screws to secure the middle of your board. Screw these in, but make absolutely certain that you have those little red rubber looking washers. This will protect your board from damage that the metal screws can cause. Like the corner screws, it's really no big deal if you can only screw in one center support screw.

Inserting your RAM. Here you will discover exactly how easy it is to perform the dollar job that CompUSA and other stores will charge you. Look up in your motherboard manual exactly in what sockets your RAM has to go into.

Then insert your RAM slowly, but firmly into its socket. DIMMs can only be inserted in one way. In the lower right part of your case you will see a bunch of cords ending with black heads.

If they are not labeled, then good luck trying to figure out which goes where. I've actually had the chance of trying to figure that out Anyhow, take a hold of those cords, look up in your manual where the proper connectors go to, and plug them in. Connecting your power supply to the board. You should refer to your computer manual as to how exactly the power supply cords should be connected to your board, but generally the black cords of the two power supply strips will be found in the center of the two connecting power supply outlets on your motherboard.

On the outer edge of your motherboard, usually near the keyboard connector, you will have 3 outlets. The first two will be close together and are of the same size small. Not to far from these you will see an outlet that is just a little bigger, and this is your LPT outlet. Consult your board manual to find the exact location. These gray ribbons then go to a little metal bracket that holds another connector that looks exactly like your printer port.

You will have to screw these brackets into your case. Diagnostics in Corrective Maintenance Installing an Operating System OS Probably one of the easiest steps of all is to get your newly built computer set up with an operating system. You have a very wide choice of operating systems: I'll be very honest right now. First, you will need to create yourself a system disk. Grab yourself a new or used floppy disk, insert it into your current machine and format it.

To format, go to your desktop, open up the "My computer" icon, then right click on your Floppy drive icon.

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Then select format. Make sure you select "full", and the "Copy system files" option. Then hit start. Once done, you may want to perform the following. With your floppy disk still in your drive, go to a dos prompt. If you don't know how to go to a DOS prompt, or if you have no clue what it is, well I'm sorry to inform you, that setting up an OS on your new computer will be nearly impossible. Take an hour or two to learn about DOS Net of course. Anyhow, once you get to your DOS prompt, simply type in: SYS A: You can then exit your DOS prompt.

You will want to search for the following items no need to be in order: Once both programs are copied, your all set to boot up your new computer again. Make sure your BIOS is set to read your floppy drive first for the boot up sequence.

Once everything is done starting, you will be at a DOS prompt, that will look like this: This will start the software required to prepare your hard drives. The software is fairly easy to use with step-by-step instructions.

If it allows it, I suggest that you enable large hard drives. This will save you the hassle of having to split up your large hard drive into smaller partitions. Make sure you keep the system disk in your floppy drive. Once the system is done rebooting, and you find yourself to the great colorful A: Next task is to format your hard drive s. Simply type: You will then want to reboot take the system disk out of your floppy drive.

Once you reboot, if all went well, you will now see a C: You will probably have to reboot again, which is okay, since it will be one of the last times. After you reboot, and you're back to the C: EXE replace the D: If the Windows setup starts, then you're all set, the rest is real easy stuff! SYS file that will load up that memory device.

If this occurs, you will not be able to access the file written in the damaged sector. Any sectors that check bad will be marked in the FAT and avoided in the compression process. The clus- ters that are used to hold a file become scattered around a disk, rather than positioned con- tiguously. When clusters become scattered, the drive has to work much harder to locate and reach each part of the file. Defragmentation re-arranges the files on your disk so that the clusters associated with each file are contiguous.

You should thoroughly defragment your disk prior to compression. After compressing the disk, check that at least 1. Each lost cluster is recovered as a root directory file with a.

CHK extension. You can then simply delete all. CHK files before continuing.

If cross-linked files are indicated, note the names of those cross-linked files. Copy those files to new files and delete the originals—this should clear the cross-link conditions, but one or both of those files are now likely to be defective, so restore all cross-linked files from the system backup or original installation disks. This compression utility should be loaded into the upper memory area if possible. Otherwise, it will consume precious conventional memory, which might prevent other memory-hungry DOS applications from running.

If little or no upper memory is free, you will have to free sufficient memory by removing other drivers or TSRs, or seriously consider the impact of leaving the compression utility in conventional memory this is highly undesirable. For specific installationand operation information, you should refer to the detailed instructions that accompany each product.

Fortunately, creating a compression- compatible boot disk is a simple matter. Understanding Installation Procedure Computer site preparation When computer is about to be installed the plan has to properly designed for the optimum benefit of the computers it should be located in a well ventilated area the wiring system has to be checked as a wrongly wired house may cause fire outbreak Troubleshooting Modular Approach The concept of modular testing is the approach which divided computer components and each it treated as an entity and one independent of the other but interrelated if make troubleshooting easier Installation,Upgrading, and Optimizing System Performance Most of this chapter has focused on the installation and performance of specific computer components.

This section focuses on the performance of the computer system as a whole. In this section, you will learn how to upgrade your computer by replacing special subsystem components, such as the BIOS.

Additionally, you will learn how to extend the abilities of your computer by installing specially designed components, such as portable system PC cards. Desktop Computers The procedures described here can be performed on almost all desktops. Memory As you know, one function of RAM is to provide the processor with faster access to the information it needs. Within limits, the more memory a computer has, the faster it will run. One of the most common computer upgrades is the installation of more RAM.

Recall that most computers can use another type of RAM, called cache memory. Cache memory chips can be accessed even faster than regular RAM, so their presence can help speed up the computer.

Within limits up to 1MB , the more cache a computer has, the faster it will run. Cache that can be installed on the system board is called L2, Level 2, or external cache. Cache located within the processor itself is called L1, Level 1, internal, or on-board cache and cannot be added or upgraded unless you replace the processor. Hard Drives Throughout the operation of the computer, the hard drive will be accessed over and over again.

Information will be read from, saved to, and moved from one place to another on the drive. Its operation is critical to the perceived efficiency of the computer.

Computer Hardware & Maintenance.pdf

However, the more the hard drive is used, the less efficient it tends to become. The next two subsections describe common hard drive problems and how to resolve them.

System Booting Now it's the moment of truth. Connect your monitor, mouse, keyboard and power cord to the computer.


Don't screw the exterior case cover just yet, because you might have to fix something that doesn't work let's hope not. If you see something on your screen that matches your CPU speed, then a Memory test that matches your amount of RAM, then you got it done!

Sure you may have to fix some problems, but you can rest assured you got the core stuff done. If you don't see nothing, then you probably omitted one of the steps above, or you didn't do it right. Consult your hardware manuals! They will explain to you exactly how everything needs to be connected. Setting up your BIOS. Whatever the key, press it to enter your BIOS. First thing you will want to do in your BIOS is set up your hard drive. More than likely you will have an option labeled "Auto-detect IDE devices".

Use this to configure your BIOS to use your hard drive s. You may also want to screw around with other items. I can't really help you there, but grab your motherboard manual, and read what it says about your BIOS. That's it! You're all done! Well at this point, if everything worked great, you deserve a good pat on the back. It sure isn't an easy task to build your own computer.

Some people tend to "rush build" their PCs. Well unless it's a dire emergency, I don't recommend this. You're better off taking each step one at a time, and to make sure everything is securely screwed and connected. Installing an Operating System OS Probably one of the easiest steps of all is to get your newly built computer set up with an operating system.

The software is fairly easy to use with step-by- step instructions. Understanding Installation Procedure Computer installation and Assembling Assembling the entire system might be a little tricky if you've never done it before. Configuring the motherboard jumpers. Once your board is securely inserted within your case, you will want to pop in the RAM.

Installing your floppy drive. Next, take your floppy drive, insert it into an available bay in the upper right hand corner of your case. Connect a power supply to the drive, which will be a thin cable coming out of your power supply.

Next, take your floppy drive gray ribbon it's the only one that will connect to the floppy drive. Connect one end to the floppy drive, and the other to the board.

Look in your manual if you're not sure where this is located. Installing the IDE drives. Before putting them in their respective bays, make sure you have their jumpers set up right consult their documentation.

You will need your hard drive to be set as a master, or slave depending on how many hard drives you have. Then connect the IDE gray ribbon it's the only one that will fit to the IDE drives to the drives themselves and then to the motherboard. Finally, connect the power supply to the drives. Inserting your expansion cards. Next you will want to insert your expansion cards into your motherboard.

These are the sound cards, video cards, modems, etc. Slowly but firmly insert the card into the slot.

You will know when it's all the way in. These slots are the smaller white ones. These are the longer black slots. Understanding Installation Procedure Booting up for the first time. Now it's the moment of truth. Now turn the power on. Related Papers. By Murali Rajan. By Guero Teo. The Art Of Electronics -2nd Edition. By prathap chauhan. By romika romika. Logic families. By Sateesh Babu. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Failure to submit an assignment as at when due will earn you zero for that assignment.

It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures and also participate in all practical exercises. Upgrading and Repairing PCS. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities such as texting. Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity. Practical exercise will involve opening up a desktop PC to examine the components and specify their functions. Students should be able to install.

Trouble shooting guide to personal computers and be able to identify: Practical exercise will involve opening up coupling a personal computer. Practical exercise will involve troubleshooting a personal computer. Fundamentals of security will be reviewed especially in the perspective of this course. Students should be able to perform preventive maintenance on the operating systems.

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