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CU UN EFECTIV DE CAPRE MATCĂ. PĂDEANU I.* .. În zonele colinare şi de şes ale Banatului creşterea caprelor pentru lapte are şanse să devină o. creşterea majorităţii felurilor de fructe şi legume, cartofi, cereale ș i seminț e oleaginoase. În anul. , valoarea /eufao-fsi4dm/docs/Moldova_Highlights_April– . Oi şi Capre. pdf/ organic-> Voia S () Cresterea caprelor. Timisoara: Ed Eurobit, 12 p.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Hoda Yacoub. Najas spp. Drought conditions that extended more than ten years increase the demands for the plants, in order to compensate the reduction of available grazing areas and the lack of grazing terrestrial plants. It was noticed that Najas growth declined in many areas in Allaqi due to anthropogenic and natural factors.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Hoda Yacoub. Najas spp. Drought conditions that extended more than ten years increase the demands for the plants, in order to compensate the reduction of available grazing areas and the lack of grazing terrestrial plants. It was noticed that Najas growth declined in many areas in Allaqi due to anthropogenic and natural factors. Najas was exposed to negative conditions caused by human activities, including shores agriculture and fishing. The dense flocks of large migratory birds and the expansion of aquatic plants other species of macrophytes and epiphytes are additional factors that threat in many ways the Najas spp.

Environmental patterns were assessed over 17 abiotic parameters related to water depth, temperature, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, light transparency, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, sulphate and hydrosoil phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, organic matter. Three field samplings were performed May, July and September in the period when Najas mainly Najas horrida which is dominant starts and completes its life cycle; this period also represents the maximum human impact harvesting time of Najas by Bedouins and the period of shores cultivation covering a wide range of natural and anthropogenic conditions variations.

The temporal and spatial variation of Najas spp. CCA statistical technique was extremely useful in understanding the response of different Najas species growing in Allaqi Najas horrida, Najas marina subsp. It indicated that depth, TDS, water ammonium and hydrosoil phosphate are the key factors that control Najas growth in Allaqi, and this agreed with field observation, where Najas thrived and dominated in shallow sheltered areas with low nutrient contents.

Remarkable reduction in Najas growth was recorded at cultivated shores, due to fertilizers reaching the water, and causing high ammonium contents.

Myriophyllum spicatum known to be a sever competitor, able to grow in wide range of environmental conditions, and our study showed that Myriophyllum was more adapted to unfavourable conditions than Najas, suggesting the invasive ability of this species in the future.

Yacoub — Najas spp. Previous studies gave more attention to variables that allow prediction of abundance and biomass of several species and on testing hypothesis regarding mechanisms that cause variations in these attributes Bini et al. Such studies also provide the opportunity for species richness assessment of species richness in relation to environment in particular the factors that determine aquatic plant diversity Murphy et al.

In lacustrine environments, light was identified as the primary factor limiting macrophytes growth. Light intensity varied due to water clarity, plant self-shading and turbidity Westlake, or due to shading through riparian vegetation Dawson, Conversely, the macrophytes communities have their impacts on the aquatic habitats that influences the ecosystem functions by modifying for example, flow pattern Sand-Jensen and Pedersen, , sediment process Clarke and Wharton, , oxygen dynamics Krik, ; Uehlinger et al.

The extent to which macrophytes could affect the aquatic system is by their interaction in physical, chemical and biological process depending mainly on biomass density, composition, and species morphology Watson, ; Sand-Jensen and Mebus, It is harvested out of the lake, dried and stored to be used latter in drought periods when other resources are limited.

On the other hand, there is evidence to suggest that Najas can help to retain soil moisture for short periods before it rots down, so, ironically, it helps promoting the early growth of grass Belal et al. Natural and anthropogenic impacts put Najas spp. These circumstances threat one of Bedouins main fodder resources which they have been utilized for long time, so the central issue of present study is to evaluate the environmental conditions that positively and negatively impact the growth of Najas spp.

This can be carried out through: Site description The dam was built in and heightened twice in and to increase its storage capacity. Nevertheless, the stored water was not adequate for agricultural development and great amounts of flood water were released annually into the Mediterranean Sea.

In , the construction of a rocky-filled dam started on the River Nile, 17 km south of Aswan, km from Cairo, which created one of the largest man-made lakes in Africa - the High Dam Lake. The lake has many embayments, locally called khores.

The total number of important khores is 85 48 on the eastern side and 37 on the western. Some khores as Kalabsha, Tushka and Allaqi are wide, with a sandy bottom and a gently slope; others as Singari, El-Sabakha and Korosko are steep, relatively narrow, with a rocky bottom. Khore Allaqi is located in the Eastern side of Lake Nasser and considered one of the largest in the area. Wadi Allaqi extends about km from the khore to Sudanese lands in the south.

Because of its arid environment and combination of two ecosystems extreme arid desert and the shores of Lake Nasser; Figs. Map of khore Allaqi: The vegetation survey was carried out in three trips from May to September of , when most of macrophytes species were sufficiently developed.

Sites were selected randomly representing wide range of aquatic habitats. The location of each site was determined by a Garman GPS with 12 channels. Plant species were identified after Triest , and Boulus All aquatic species were listed and the cover percentage for each species was estimated.

The cover of macrophytes species growing in shallow water was calculated using an one square meter quadrate, while the cover of species growing in deeper water was estimated using a metallic grapnel, following the technique of Murphy et al.

Specimens representing the collected aquatic plant species from khore Allaqi are kept in the Herbarium of Cairo University, Egypt.

Wadi Allaqi: Figure 3: Najas horrida characterized by spiny margins is the dominant species in Allaqi. The sites were selected according to the following criteria: Samplings were focused on: Floristic composition Plants were identified, sorted according to species, dried and finally weighted.

Depth m and transparency were measured using a Secchi disc. The Photosynthetic Active Radiation PAR represented by the light extinction coefficient k was calculated according to the formula given by Poole and Atkins Soluble reactive phosphate was determined by the molybdate blue method Allen et al.

Nitrate was determined by means of chromic acid method APHA, Sodium salicylate is added to an aliquot of filtered water samples. Hydrosoil The surface sediment was collected by a small hand held dredge in shallow waters, and by an Ekman grab in deeper waters. Five parameters were measured in hydrosoil samples suspended and soluble reactive phosphate, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia and organic matter content. The sieved hydrosoil was added to extractant at 1: Two types of extractant were used depending on the type of element to be determined: Suspended and soluble reactive phosphates were measured by the colorimetric molybdenum blue method using Olsen's reagent Murphy and Riley, Data analysis Data was depicted as two matrices: The data was normalized by logarithmation prior to analysis.

Once the ordination of the data has been produced, it is possible to correlate the distribution of the sample on the major axes, with the environmental variables.

CCA produces an ordination diagram, on which points represent the species and the sites, and vectors represent environmental variables. There eleven main areas were occupied by plants, opposed to only five in west. Table 1: Floristic composition, number of species, and mean cover percentage in Allaqi.

Roud Abu Hamboul and Wadi Quleib are richer in plant species compared with Ras El-Maia, that they occupied by high number of species reached to four, with mean cover 97 and Khore Sengaia, khore Abu Bawadi and khore Abu Hogab show similarity in their plant diversity being occupied by two plant species and showing equivalent cover values: Three Najas sp. Ex Magn.

Horn and Najas minor All. The other macrophytes species were Myriophyllum spicatum L. Benn Tab. Table 2: Cover percentage of different species of macrophytes including the total cover percentage of Najas T. Main Areas Plant species N. Maximum percentage cover for Najas horrida 98, Najas horrida remarkably reduced towards the north, recording minimum cover in Turgumi 6.

Najas horrida is growing in sites recording Distribution of macrophyte species in khore Allaqi. Table 3: Presence and frequency of macrophytes species in Allaqi. Plant species Presence no. Najas marina presence concentrates in Jebel Abu Seif where it is found in 36 stations Najas minor was rare in Allaqi compared to other species growing in only four sites from khore El-Agebabe 2. Bedouins from Allaqi collect and utilize Najas spp.

It was essential to calculate the total cover percentage of Najas spp. Myriophyllum spicatum is the most frequent species occupying sites in Allaqi and recording a It forms pure stands in many areas in northern parts of Allaqi and on the shores of Abu Markh Fig.

No Myriophyllum spicatum was found in middle Allaqi, nor in the area south of Turigumi to khore El Agebaba. Aquatic macrophytes The table 4 summarize the mean Dry Weight of Standing Crops DWSC and standard deviation of aquatic macrophytes in Allaqi, in order to represent its spatial variation, while table 5 shows the temporal variation in macrophytes species between the three samplings. The spatial variation of aquatic macrophytes was more obvious than the temporal or the standard deviation low in most sites.

July was the best month for Najas horrida: It was noticed that Abu Zeiraa and Turgumi do not support the growth of N. Although Myriophyllum spicatum was the most frequent species in Allaqi it occupies most of the selected sites , it showed relatively low growth ranging from 3.

Maximum mean DWSC It was noticed that the growth of the plant increased toward the north, recording relatively high DWSC Myriophyllum spicatum was the dominant species in only three sites: Maximum growth of M.

Potamogeton schweinfurtii showed low growh in Allaqi in relation to other plant species the plant occupying few sites with low DWSC. The highest mean DWSC The variation of plant growth between the three sampling months was not clear, showing slightly higher growth in July. Fart and small Turgumi 5.

Turgumi 7. Turgumi 0 0 0 The temporal and spatial variations in water depth were clear and highly related to lake water level. Water depth showed a slight variation between July and May, while the variation was higher in September compared with other sampling months.

Water temperature did not varied significantly due to location. In general, lower temperature was recorded in sites located south of Allaqi, characterized by shallow water and occupied by dense macrophytes growth, such as Raas El-Maia and Qulieb 1 Maximum mean value of water temperature In most sites, pH values were higher in July than in other sampling months. Total dissolved salts ranged between There is no certain pattern of spatial variation, but in general it shows reverse variation from pH.

Total dissolved salts showed lower values in July compared with other sampling times, especially in sites with intensive plant growth in south of Allaqi. The variation in water conductivity was highly related to water dissolved salts. July is the period with low conductivity for most sites. Figure 5: Dense growth of epiphytes restricts the growth of Najas spp. The spatial variation of water parameters in selected sites in Allaqi M - mean; SD - standard deviation.

Turgumi 2. TDS Cond. Turgumi Turgumi 4. Turgumi 0. Fart and small 1. Turgumi 1. West Bank 1. Locations TDS Cond. Fart and small 0. West Bank 2. West Bank 0. Stem elongation is the adaptation feature in Myriophyllum spicatum for low light penetration.

Water dissolved oxygen showed clear spatial variation. Oxygen content ranged between 4. It was observed that site m North of Jebel Abu Seif which recorded lowest oxygen content, 4. In most sites, the highest dissolved oxygen values were recorded in July, and the lowest was in May. In most sites, low variation in light penetration was observed between July and May.

Water phosphate showed low spatial variation with mean values varying between 0. It was noticed during the field work that the two sites of minimum phosphate content were characterized by high epiphytic growth, forming a layer on the macrophyte species.

Clear difference in water phosphate was recorded between the three samples. High phosphate content was in July with few exceptions, such as Um Farat Island no difference between the three samplings: Values of water nitrate varied between the lowest of 0.

Najas marina growth was low compared with N. The maximum mean DWSC was Jebel Abu Seif and the surrounding area have relatively high growth of N. Similar to Najas horrida, Najas marina grew more dense in July compared to the other sampling months.

Water nitrite concentrations showed little variation in their mean values. In general nitrite content was low, ranging between 0. No temporal variation was observed between the sampling months.

Ammonia concentrations showed a much clearer spatial variation than both water nitrate and nitrite contents. Water ammonia content in ranged between the lowest of 0. Low water ammonia was founded in sites occupied by dense macrophytes growth, such as Raas El-Maia, Qulieb 1, the area between Um Farat and small Island and Qulieb 2, with undetectable contents of ammonia.

Water from the area with cultivated shores is characterized by higher ammonia content compared to other sites Abu Zeiraa and Turgumi are recording 0. The temporal variation was not as clear as the spatial one, but a significant observation was the higher content of ammonia from September at Abu Zeiraa and Turgumi compared with other two sampling months.

The sulphate content in the studied water varied between 3. Similarly, as with ammonia, water sulphate was lower in sites with high growth of macrophytes as were Raas El-Maia, Qulieb 1, Qulieb 2 and the area between Um Farat and small Island, recording 4.

High sulphate concentrations were found in the studied sites with damaged and decayed macrophytes either due to dense growth of epiphytes or to shore cultivation as Jebel Abu Seif and Turgumi areas, recording 22 and In most sites, sulphate content of the water showed higher values in summer, in the month of July. The spatial variation indicates that most hydrosoil parameters, including phosphate, nitrate and ammonia are having lower values in the southern area of Allaqi, opposed to the sites from the north.

Phosphate content in hydrosoil ranged between the lowest of 0. Low concentrations were detected in southern sites, particularly those occupied by high growth of macrophytes as Raas El-Maia, the area between Um Farat and small Island and at 2 km North of Jebel Abu Seif, recording 0. The lowest hydrosoil phosphate content was in July, with values ranging from 0. Hydrosoil nitrate did not show a certain pattern of variation between sites.

Maximum nitrate content 2. Hydrosoil nitrate variation was not high between the sampling months. Nitrite content in the hydrosoil was low. The nitrite values were between the lowest of 0. Raas El-Maia, Quleib 1 and in Qulieb 2, and the highest of 0.

In contrast to nitrate, the temporal variation of nitrite was clear, with lower values in July. It was noticed that most of the sites with no ammonia are located in the southern part of Allaqi. Low ammonia 0. The temporal variation of this element was not very clear. The organic matter from the hydrosoil ranged between the highest value of 4. High content of organic matter was also detected at 50 m distance of South of Jebel Abu Seif and at 10 m North of Abu Hamboul, recording 3.

Higher organic matter content was recorded in the month of July between 0. Spatial variation of hydro soil sample M - means, SD - standard deviation.

The temporal variation in hydrosoil characteristics in selected sites in Allaqi. The mean values of environmental variables for three sampling months May, July and September were applied in Canonical Correspondence Analysis since there was less temporal variation in comparison with the spatial one. The first two Axes in CCA model were significant and together explain The Pearson correlation between species and environment are relatively high and significant for the two Axes 0.

The ordination of environmental factors showed that successive eigenvalues of the four Axes the analysis was carried out on all 22 sites decreased from 0. Table The summary of CCA on plant communities and species including eigenvalues variance and correlations. Axis 1 was correlated with water depth, water ammonia, hydrosoil organic matter and water phosphate, recording correlation values of 0.

The species-environmental variables biplot Fig. The ordination diagram of CCA displays sites, species and environmental variables.

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The position of species and sites represented by points in the ordination shows the variation in species composition over sites and their distribution over the gradient of environmental variable.

The environmental variables are represented by arrows which points into the direction of maximum change across the diagram and their length is proportional to the rate of change in this direction. The CCA ordination diagram suggested that water depth, water ammonia and hydrosoil organic matters were the environmental variable that significantly affect the distribution of plant species in Allaqi. Shallow water with high light penetration is the favorable condition for Najas horrida growth.

According to CCA diagram, Najas horrida was very sensitive to high nutrients contents in both water and hydrosoil particularly water phosphate, ammonia and nitrate. Najas marina was more tolerant to nutrients contents than Najas horrida but the well aerated water seemed to be essential factor for its growth. Ranking the three species of Najas according to their ability to survive in reverse conditions represented by high nutrients, low under water light and low oxygen content showed that Najas horrida is the most sensitive species, highly affected by un- normal conditions mainly high total dissolved salts followed by Najas marina, which is more adapted with such conditions and able to grow in deeper water than Najas horrida.

Najas minor is the species most capable to flourish in unfavorable conditions, but deep water is the factor that may limit its development. Myriophyllum spicatum is the macrophytic species which shows maximum ability to survive in low light conditions and eutrophicated water high concentrations of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate in both water and hydrosoil. In contrast, Potamogeton schweinfurthii was so sensitive to high nutrients contents. Fishing patterns in khore Allaqi H.

Shallow water fishing L. Low fishing activity L. No fishing eggs laying H. CCA biplot ordinates diagram of 14 environmental represented by arrows: Five macrophytes species: The difference in macrophytes assemblage between the two shores is mainly associated with the natural and physical features of the shores.

The small embayments distributed along the eastern shores form sheltered habitats and create favourable conditions for the growth of macrophytes Duarte and Kalff, ; Gasith and Gafny, ; Gafny and Gasith, In contrast, most of the western shores are opened rocky bed areas with deep water, forming conditions that reversely affect the aquatic plants. The nature of the shores is not the only factor that causes the spatial variation of aquatic macrophytes, and the distribution pattern of Najas spp.

The spatial variation between Najas species was very clear in Allaqi, Najas horrida dominating the southern areas: This could be because of good habitat conditions for Najas horrida including: Najas marina was found to be more resistant to reverse conditions created due to human impacts as shores cultivation and fishing including high nutrient inputs and low underwater light, this explaining its dominance in northern areas of khore Allaqi.

These findings agree with Agami et al. The light independent case may extend for months and, as soon as the reserves were depleted, the plant starts to lose weight and the present of light will be essential.

Najas minor was previously identified in Lake Nasser Ali et al. According to field results, Najas minor was detected only in Jebel Abu Seif at relatively high nitrate and ammonia contents. The temporal variation between the sampling months was also obvious: The occasional floods disturbance occurred in September, destroying the vegetation succession and leading to decline of the aquatic macrophytes density and diversity, while in July the water conditions are more stable and favourable for plant development.

White Pelican, Cormorants, White Stork and Flamingo, migratory water birds, are one of the causes of aquatic plants decline. The migratory birds are fairly common visitors to Allaqi, usually coming from eastern and southern Europe Baha El-Din et al. Although previous studies indicated the positive role of water birds on the aquatic habitat e. Our results support those of Agami and Waisel , who found that Najas marina is eaten and exposed to damage by water birds, such as Gallinala chloropus Linnaeus and Fulica atra Linnaeus , causing a serious reduction on plant growth, explaining minimum macrophytes from May density compared to other sampling months.

On the other side, migratory birds may have a positive role that grazing of Najas enhance the seeds germination following exposure to bird's digestive system supporting the high coverage from July. Such results are not exclusive related to seeds of aquatic macrophytes, but also to the ones of terrestrial plants Koller and Cohen, The natural ones include dense growth of epiphytes, invasion of other plants as Myriophyllim spicatum, and the impact of water birds.

The study showed that the dense growth of epiphytes reduced the photosynthesis ability of the plants and caused a decline in macrophytes Fig.

Its inhibition becomes severe in areas with turbid water and near the bottom, where the light intensity is already low. The shading effect was larger in shallow water, particularly when the epiphytes are present in large part of the water surface McRoy and Goering, ; Mathiesen and Mathiesen, ; Sand-Jensen, ; Malderij, The detrimental role of epiphyton is not caused only by competition for light, but also for nutrients Jones and Sayer, and by carbon dioxide at the surface of the leaves; the epiphytes may generate high day time pH and dissolved oxygen adjacent to the leaf surface, thereby exacerbating the inorganic carbon depletion and elevated dissolved oxygen values, adding to those already created by macrophytes through photosynthesis Jones et al.

Hilt and Gross , show that Najas marina is among the ten most common macrophytes species in Germany that it is able to suppress the epiphytes and phytoplankton growth through production and release of allelopathically active substances, this result is in contradiction with our results. The inconsistent results may return to variation in the nature between the lakes in Germany and the Lake Nasser, which effect in return the epiphyte- macrophytes interaction mechanisms.

The two areas may be varied in light availability, nutrients contents, water temperature, the species of macrophytes and epiphytes … etc. In fact, the potential role of allelopathy by macrophytes on the algae in the field is still unclear and controversial Forsberg et al. Although Najas horrida was the dominant species in Allaqi, Myriophyllum spicatum was the most frequent one, being detected in Myriophyllum dominates the sites from northern Allaqi, creeping towards to south.

This seemed to be logic since Myriophyllum is known to adapt better on disturbed conditions Adams et al. There is an entrance on the north on khore Allaqi Fig. The adaptation of macrophytes towards the depth and wave exposure is usually related to their morphological plasticity response, and, in such circumstances, Myriophyllum tends to produce taller plants, with fewer and longer stems, to stretch towards the water surface and take benefit of the light Fig.

Myriophyllum followed the same reaction in shallow sheltered areas with dense growth of periphyton, to maximize its photosynthesis process Tobiessen and Snow, ; Standard and Weisner, The anthropogenic impacts caused a significant variation in water conditions, limiting the growth of many species and providing the opportunity for Myriophyllum spicatum to compete with native species.

This conclusion is in consistence with Agami and Waisel , , who found that the competitive relationship between Myriophyllum spicatum and Najas marina developed as a result of resources exploitation and environment deterioration, and the competition between the two species is usually in the benefit of Myriophyllum, causing the reduction of Najas marina.

Myriophyllum showed a higher flexibility toward unfavourable conditions, making the plant more qualified to survive in such conditions than Najas spp. The extensive agriculture from the shores of Abu-Zeiraa and Turgumi alter the soil chemistry due to chemicals fertilizers and pesticides that spreaded on the fields and found its way to water, causing nutrient enrichment.

The study results indicated high levels of ammonia and sulphur used in tomato fields to make the crops reddish in the water at cultivated shores, limiting the growth of most species from Allaqi. Anderson and Kalf confirmed the present results, indicating the great productive potential in N-media of Myriophyllum; Laskov et al. CCA output confirmed that Myriophyllum spicatum can be an indicator for eutrophicated conditions represented by high concentrations of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate in both water and hydrosoil, while Najas horrida was very sensitive to high nutrients and can be an indicator for oligotrophic waters.

Although Najas marina and Najas minor were more tolerant to such conditions compared with Najas horrida, their adaptability to deep and eutrophicated waters was lower than that of Myriophyllum spicatum. Fishing is another form of human activity that creates a destructive impact on macrophytes from Allaqi. Fishing in Allaqi has three patterns, based on season and associated conditions, such as water level and air temperature. My study concerns with shallow water fishing Najas spp. The results showed a low growth of Najas spp.

Boating also affects the aquatic habitat by elevated turbidity reducing light availability and uproots plants Murphy and Eaton, ; Anthony and Downing, ; Eriksson et al. Fishers also manually harvest the plants in shallow waters, in order to make paths for their boats, preventing plant interlace with boats propellers; this activity puts in critical situation the Najas species in many areas from Allaqi. Accordingly, one can suggest that Allaqi is exposed to constrains, mainly from anthropogenic disturbance, which caused a decline in density and diversity, not only to Najas spp.

The previous study of Ali et al. Najas marina, Najas horrida, Nitella hyalina and Zanichellia palustris; in my study, small communities dominated by Myriophyllum spicatum were detected in Turgumi, and a very low growth of Najas marina and Najas horrida.

The two other species, Nitella hyalina and Zanichellia palustris were not found in khore Allaqi. Adams M. Agami M. Najas marina L. Ali M. Invasive capacity and habitat stability, Aquatic Botany, Allen S. Methods in Plant Ecology, P. Moor and S. Chapman eds. Anderson M. Anthony J. Baha El-Dein S. Belal A. Bini L. Birket C. Boulus L.

Chambers P. Clarke S. Dawson F. The role of marginal vegetation, Environment Management, 6: Duarte C. Margalef R. Eriksson B. Forsberg C. Gafny S. Gasith A. Tilzer and C. Serruya eds. Ecological Structure and Function, Springer, Berlin. Green A. Ham S. Hilt S. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9: Horppila J. Jones J. Ecology, A pH microelectrode investigation, Aquatic Botany, Koller D.

Israel, 7D: Krik J. Lacoul P. Laskov C. Little E. Madsen T.

Malderij G. Mathiesen H. Randers Fjord, Kap. McCreary N. McRoy C. Murphy J. Murphy K. Poole H. NS , Rasch L. Rolon A. Rossum J. Sand-Jensen K. Scheffer M. Sheen R. Standard J. Stelzer D. Svensson L. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. Ter Braak C. Software for Canonical Community Ordination Version 4. Thomas J. Titus J. Tobiessen P. Torn K. Triest L. Najadaceae in Africa and surrounding islands, Mem. Outre-Mer, Cl.

East Afr. Balkema, Rotterdam. Uehlinger U. Van Donk E. Watson D. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology. Dairy Ext. Topics of profitable feeding and milking of dairy goats. Hoard's Dairyman Tatiana Sichigea Small ruminant production systems in South and Southeast Asia. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document.

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Malik Muhammad Ali. Sergio Peralta Rojas. For a secondary phalange, the calculus of the distal index The horse is represented by at least 2 individuals: Canis familiaris dog has 1. From this species we have 5 fragments 1 canine tooth, 1 radius, 1 metacarpus III, 1 calcane- us and 1 metatarsus IV , probably from a single adult individual. Cervus elaphus red deer takes first place when it comes to wild animals but its frequency is very small, of only 2.

Six fauna remains from this species have been identified 2 insignificant horn fragments, 1 isolated upper-jaw molar, 2 scapu- lar fragments and a distal radius fragment. It is possible that all these remains come from a single individual over 4 years old male, because of the horns. Capreolus capreolus roe deer has been identified based on 1 pelvis fragment from a single individual whose age cannot be estimated.

This value, rather small, could indicate a female wild boar but also a mixed, intermediate pig — wild boar resulting from mixed breeding of the domestic pig with the wild one. Lepus europaeus hare is represented by a proximal ulna fragment, with the ossification limit of the olecranon tuberosity visible, indicating an immature individual.

Since roe deer, wild boar and hare are represented by only one fragment each, they register the lowest percentages: In the table representing the frequency of species the 43 rib fragments were put separately due to the difficulty of establishing the species.

A number of 19 rib frag- ments come from large animals bovines, horse, red deer and 24 belong to medium or small sized animals sheep, goat, pig, roe deer, etc. Part of the fauna remains was completely or partially burned. If we compare the burnt fragments to the whole batch we get a small percentage of 1. Out of the 19 burnt bone fragments 9 could not be specifically determined, a large number being attributed to large animals. With just one exception — a calcinated fragment — the bones were burnt black either integrally or had black burning spots.

From the sam- ple of determined fauna material 10 fragments had traces of fire contact, as follows: We can consider the following three pieces to be bone objects: P , fragment from the proximal side with symphysis, incisor tooth socket and foramen mentale. At the distal end of the piece the mandible wall is cut in a zigzag shape. It is possible that this object was used to decorate ceramics. There are no wear traces resulting from contact with a hard surface.

P whose usage is difficult to say; anatomically it could be a proximal metapodial fragment from a large- sized animal, polished on the external face both at the articulation and at the extraarticulation, with drilling traces, almost completely burnt black. The metric data of the fauna remains from Palatca are included in Annex 1. Exploitation of animals in the Palatca habitation The archaeozoological study realized on the fauna material from Palatca reveals the fact that the main occupation of the inhabitants of this settlement was animal husbandry.

The increased frequency of domestic mammals, of The reduced importance of hunting in obtaining meat is proven by the very low percentage of wild animals, 3. Ratios calculated based on the number of fragments set domestic bovines in first place which due to their high percentage Cattle are followed by caprovines with a percentage of The facts are distorted if we take into account percentages calculated after the minimal number of individuals.

This discrepancy is in our opinion an effect of the low frequency of jaw remains, key element in estimating the number of individuals. Thus in this case we consider the group of bovines to be undervalued with regards to the estimated number of individuals. Taking into account the fact that the fauna sample we analyzed is numerically small, these percentages NMI can be relative, the reason why, in our opinion, domestic bovines were the main group used by the prehistoric community from Palatca along which caprovines and pigs had an impor- tant place.

Frequency of mammals in the Palatca site. Distribution of the main domestic species whose usage was based on age groups fig. This repartition indicates the growth of these species both for their main animal product — meat as well as secondary products milk, skins, agricultural work , and identifying the three pieces manufactured from bone and described earli- er, most likely obtained from cattle bones most likely a mandible proves the use of skeletal remains as primary resources for making different objects.

Age group repartitions of individuals from the main domestic mammals used in the Palatca settlement. We notice a complete lack of animals sacrificed between 1—2 years. The high rate of animals older than 2 years that were sacrificed suggests a usage of caprovines mostly for secondary products and for reproduction. Usage of hard materials from small horned animals in manufacturing activities can be suggested, since the horn from the male goat shows signs of an attempted sectioning at the base.

The strategy for exploiting pigs, as reflected by the slaughtering age is typi- cal for this species, raised exclusively for meat and fat. Also a reproductive batch was kept. The percentage of individuals under 1 year slaughtered is Animals over 3 years were absent.

5.Plan de Afaceri 60 Capete Rasa Saanen

The importance of hunted mammals was, like we stated earlier, very small. This time we have an overvaluation of hunted mammals, due to the fact that we attribute a single determined fragment of roe deer, wild boar and hare to an individual.

Thus, an overvaluation we cannot avoid, because of the inconveniences of the estimation method for the establishment of the minimal number of individuals. Hunting wild birds, fishing and gathering shells seem to have had an insignificant role in the economy of the Palatca settlement.

Sus ferus; C. Estimated meat quantity obtained from exploited or hunted species at Palatca. The very important role played by domestic species in insuring meat consump- tion fig. Even more so, the quantity of meat provided by 7 sheep or goats is much smaller than that of 2 horses Red deer meat has a percentage of 3.

Frequency of main domestic mammals in Late Bronze Age settlements. Similarities with other Bronze Age settlements Archaeozoological analysis done on fauna materials from Late Bronze Age in Transylvania is scarce. The most representative sample comes from the site from Zoltan11, belonging to the Noua culture. There are 2 other samples dating from late Transylvanian Bronze Age, though small in number of pieces: These sites present however a trait common to all Late Romanian Bronze Age settlements: Domes- tic pigs have a smaller percentage at Palatca, The horse is highly present in Late Bronze Age settlements: As for wild mammals, generally they are very poorly represented in the Late Bronze Age fig.

Frequency of the main wild mammals in settlements belonging to the Late Bronze Age. Aurit— Otom.

DALIA from Kansas
I do relish reading books gratefully. Browse my other posts. I have always been a very creative person and find it relaxing to indulge in drag boat racing.