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Ronald J. ComeR has been a professor in Princeton University's Department textbook Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, now in its sixth edition;. Abnormal Psychology 9E (Comer).pdf Comer Abnormal Psychology 8th txtbk textbook Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, now in its sixth edition;. Abnormal Psychology 7th Edition by Ronald J. Comer (eBook PDF)” Cancel reply - Fri, 15 Mar. GMT Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. One who systematically gathers information in order to describe, predict, and explain abnormality is a clinical: A mentalist. B legalist.
If stress levels and physical health are negatively correlated, the researcher can conclude that: A stress causes people to have poor health. B as stress increases, health decreases. C poor health causes people to experience stress.
D mental illness causes both stress and poor health. Correlation coefficients indicate: A the magnitude and direction of the relationship between variables.
B the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. C the internal and external validity between variables. D the significance and variability between variables. Which correlation coefficient is of the highest magnitude? Which correlation coefficient represents the weakest relationship? If the correlation between severity of depression and age is —0. A older people have more severe depression. B older people have less severe depression.
C younger people have almost no depression. D there is no consistent relationship between age and severity of depression. Which statement is true of the correlation coefficient? A It ranges from 0. B It ranges from —1. C It ranges from 0. D It ranges from —1. I have to take a test in two minutes. I need help remembering what kind of correlation coefficient shows a weak relationship between two variables.
A a correlation coefficient that is statistically significant B a correlation coefficient close to minus one —1 C a correlation coefficient close to zero 0 D a correlation coefficient that doesn't prove a causal relationship between the variables Page 12 Full file at https: A researcher finds a strong positive correlation between ratings of life stress and symptoms of depression.
Therefore, the researcher may be confident that: A life stress causes symptoms of depression. B symptoms of depression cause life stress. C something else causes stress and depression.
D life stress and depression are related. Which is NOT a merit of the correlational method? A It can be replicated. B It can be analyzed statistically. C Its results provide general information. D It provides individual information. Which results are MOST likely from an epidemiological study?
A The rate of suicide is higher in Ireland than in the United States. B Autism is caused by influenza vaccinations. C Child abuse is often found in the backgrounds of those with multiple personalities. D Alcoholism runs in families. The form of correlational research that seeks to find how many new cases of a disorder occur in a group in a given time period is termed: A longitudinal incidence.
B longitudinal prevalence. C epidemiological incidence. D epidemiological prevalence. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in older men seen at a clinic tells you the: A total number of older men with sexual dysfunction at the clinic. B risk of a man developing sexual dysfunction. C number of new cases of sexual dysfunction over a period of time. D rate of sexual dysfunction in the community. A longitudinal B experimental C developmental D epidemiological The number of new cases of a disorder in a population that emerge in a particular time interval is called the: A incidence.
B prevalence. D epidemiology. There were 10 new cases of schizophrenia in a small town in the Midwest this week. A risk B incidence C prevalence D epidemiology The total number of cases of a disorder in the population is called the: A risk.
B incidence. C prevalence. D rate of occurrence. A always be the same as B always be higher than C always be the same or higher than D always be lower than A case study B longitudinal C analogue D epidemiological If researchers studied Vietnam veterans for 30 years after the veterans' return from Vietnam, meeting with those veterans every two years to collect data, the study would be: A epidemiological.
B longitudinal. C incidental. D experimental. Which is an aspect of the experimental approach? A the use of confounding variables B observation of people over a period of time C a detailed interpretive description of a subject D the manipulation of a variable by the researcher A research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulation's effect on another variable is observed is called a n: A case study.
Abnormal Psychology 9E (Comer).pdf
B correlation. C experiment. D independent variable. A confounding B alternative C dependent D independent A study included 60 people suffering from an ordinary headache. Twenty received aspirin, 20 received a sugar pill that looked like aspirin, and 20 got nothing at all.
In 65 percent of the aspirin group, the headache disappeared. Other than the drug condition, the participants were treated identically. This study: A demonstrates a double-blind design. B is an experimental study. C contains an important confound. D has three dependent variables. A researcher conducted an experiment to study the causes of aggression in children.
Half the children ate a sugared cereal; the remaining half ate cornflakes. The researcher then recorded the number of aggressive acts displayed by the children in a one-hour play period after breakfast. In this experiment: A sugared cereal is the dependent variable and cornflakes is the independent variable. B breakfast is the independent variable, and the group of children is the dependent variable.
C the type of cereal is the dependent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the independent variable.
D the type of cereal is the independent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the dependent variable.
A psychologist was interested in the effect of hunger on psychological disturbances. The psychologist deprived half of a group of healthy volunteers of food for one day and fed the other half normally, then administered the MMPI-2 to all the participants. What was the independent variable? Tim required half of a group of healthy volunteers to study a reading passage for 1 hour.
The other half of the participants studied for 15 minutes. Tim then administered a test of participants' memory of details from the passage. What was the dependent variable? A the study time B the volunteers C the reading passage D the results of the memory test Page 14 Full file at https: Factors other than the independent variable may also act on the dependent variable.
A irrelevant variables B confounds C blind methods D controlled variables A research study on a group of children with autism will compare treatment delivered by parents at home to treatment delivered by teachers at school.
If the study finds that the treatment delivered at school is more effective, which item is the BEST example of a confound? A the treatment B the children C the diagnosis D differences between the parents and teachers A control B confound C dependent D experimental One hundred psychiatric patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups.
One group received a new drug in pill form. The other group was given identical-looking placebo pills. A panel of psychiatrists, who did not know which pill each participant received, evaluated all participants for level of agitation. What is the control group? A the new drug B the level of agitation C the ones who got the placebo D the psychiatric evaluation The BEST way to select a random sample of 10 students from a class would be to: A choose the first 10 who enter the classroom.
B choose the last 10 who leave the classroom. C write each student's name on a piece of paper, put the papers in a pile, close eyes, and pick 10 papers. D ask students their ethnicity, grade point average, and academic major, and then be sure the sample reflects all of these student characteristics.
Not all participants are the same. A a control group B random selection C random assignment D an experimental group To accomplish random assignment, one could assign participants to groups by: A placing all the participants sharing an important characteristic in the same group. B making sure there is only one participant in each group. C flipping a coin to determine group assignment.
D asking participants to choose the group they prefer. In this study, how was experimenter bias reduced? A by having experienced psychiatrists evaluate agitation B by having researchers who don't know who got which pill C by adding another placebo condition D by adding a therapy group Russ wants to be a good participant.
He knows that his professor is an environmentalist, so his answers on the survey reflect a pro-environment position. This is an example of: A participant bias.
B a placebo effect. C random variation. D experimenter bias. Page 15 Full file at https: A placebo. B confound. C random variable. D dependent variable. A researcher's expectations about a study can affect its outcome. The type of research design used specifically to address this problem is a n: A experiment.
B random-assignment design. C matched control group design. D blind design. A researcher trying to eliminate the Rosenthal effect would be sure to: A use a blind design. B use a quasi-experimental design. C randomly assign participants to two groups.
D randomly assign participants to three or more groups. The Rosenthal effect: C is found primarily in natural experiments. D is found only in correlational designs. In preparation for a study of the effectiveness of an antipsychotic drug, an assistant puts all drugs into capsules of the same color and codes them.
The assistant will have no part in administering the drug. Neither the subjects nor the experimenter will know who receives which drug.
This is an example of a: A single-blind design. B double-blind design. C triple-blind design. D quasi-experimental design. A therapist believes so strongly in her approach that she finds improvement even when none exists. Which design would prevent this problem? A longitudinal B double-blind C epidemiological D experimental The function of the double-blind design is to guard against: A participant and experimenter biases.
B imitation therapies. C subject bias. D the Rosenthal effect. Which statement distinguishes a quasi-experimental study from a true experiment? A The quasi-experiment does not use a control group. B The quasi-experiment uses multiple groups for comparison.
C The quasi-experiment does not use any experimental control. D The quasi-experiment does not randomly assign participants to groups. To study some gender differences, a researcher selected a group of 10 men and 10 women and treated all participants exactly the same.
Each participant was given a test of psychological function. This study is an example of a n: B analogue study. C correlational study. D quasi-experimental study. Studies that are structured like experiments but use groups that already exist instead of randomly assigning participants to control and experimental groups are called: A quasi-experiments.
B analogue experiments. C correlational experiments. D developmental experiments. Page 16 Full file at https: Which would MOST appropriately be studied using a quasi-experimental design? A the effects of running and weight lifting on mood B the effects of parents with schizophrenia on children's adjustment C the effects of a parental training program on children's achievement D the effects of a support group in helping people lose weight A natural B matched-control C analogue D single-subject A the effects of premarital abstinence on later sexual functioning B the effects of war on children in Kosovo C the effects of a plant closing on community cohesiveness D the effects of a particularly harsh blizzard on depression Which would be the BEST design to study the effects of disasters on survivors?
A an experiment B a quasi-experiment C a natural experiment D a double-blind strategy Which might be an example of an analogue experiment? Which item is an analogue study? A studying children in their classrooms B studying the effects of stress in nonhumans C studying the effects of metaphors on memory D studying the elderly in nursing homes A researcher is interested in the effects of a new drug for treating anxiety and decides to study it in rats by conditioning in them the fear of a high-pitched noise and then testing the rats' reactions with and without the drug.
This is an example of a n: A natural experiment. B analogue experiment. C quasi-experimental study. A analogue B case C epidemiological D quasi-experimental In an ABAB reversal design study, a researcher is measuring level of depression with and without the addition of an exercise program.
A healthy eating habits B exercise C no exercise D depression The MOST accurate summary of what has happened in the United States in the last 50 years to protect the rights of human research participants would be that: A there has been important progress, but concerns remain. B recent changes in legal and ethical regulation of human research have virtually eliminated potential problems.
C the current situation is as bad as it has ever been. D colleges and universities, but not governmental agencies, have made important progress in protecting human rights. For people to decide about participating in psychological research, they must be given full knowledge of the nature of the study and their rights.
This principle is called: A risk disclosure. B benefit analysis. C informed consent. D privacy. The principle of informed consent assumes that: A there is compensation. B the benefits outweigh the risks. C the participant can understand the explanation. D there are no risks in the study under consideration. A recent study of informed consent forms showed that: A most research participants don't receive them.
B most research participants are insulted by them. C many research participants don't understand them. D research participants generally already know their rights. Ken is so anxious that his anxiety by itself causes him to suffer. Colleen is so afraid of open spaces that she cannot leave her house to go to work and is now in danger of losing her job.
Heather has been feeling depressed and has begun to feel helpless and hopeless and is considering committing suicide. Page 18 Full file at https: Jason met with a researcher several times. He was interviewed, he took tests, and he was physically evaluated. In addition, the researcher studied his school and employment records and interviewed key people in his life.
Tall people tend to have larger feet than do short people. The more television one watches, the lower that person's grades in school are likely to be. Page 19 Full file at https: Sammi agreed to be in the study of memory, but she had not anticipated how she would feel about returning to the lab every other year for 10 years.
Jack was doing a study on anxiety. Members of one group were asked to estimate how many years each had to live. Members of the other group were asked to estimate how many months until their next vacation. Jack then gave each of his participants a test that measured anxiety and scored them. Ian made the participants in one of his groups anxious by making loud noises but kept the participants in the other group in quiet surroundings.
Han did his experimental manipulation and then tested his experimental group at 9 A. Pliny did NOT tell her subjects which group what level of the independent variable they were in.
Genie was isolated from human contact and language by her badly disturbed parents for most of the first 13 years of her life. The effects of early language deprivation could easily be seen and studied. Then provide an example of a time when each aspect of abnormality would not be considered abnormal. You're taking abnormal psych—what do you think? Why or why not? Include the essential features of therapy in your answer. What is demonology?
How does demonology stand in the way of a more complete understanding of the causes and treatment of psychological abnormality? Discuss the contributions of three individuals to the treatment of abnormal psychology.
Be sure to include when and where each lived. Create a time line on which you place five major events in the history of abnormality. Briefly describe why each event is important to an understanding of abnormality. Define and contrast the somatogenic and psychogenic perspectives regarding abnormal psychological functioning, and provide at least one example of evidence supporting each perspective.
Assume that Benjamin Rush and Dorothea Dix suddenly appeared in the twenty-first century, about 50 years after the U. What suggestions might they make for changes in our policy of deinstitutionalization? Page 20 Full file at https: According to your text, deinstitutionalization has resulted, in part, in large numbers of people with severe psychological disturbances either becoming homeless or ending up in jail or prison. Is deinstitutionalization an ethical and appropriate strategy for the treatment of mental illness that the United States should continue to follow?
Back up your answer with specific examples. Increasingly, people seeking treatment for mental health reasons are members of managed care programs. How are managed care programs changing how psychological services are provided? Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage of such programs.
Clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and clinical researchers are mental health professionals that work in the area of psychological abnormality. Describe what each does and how they differ from each other. What are important differences between case studies and single-subject experiments?
Be sure to mention advantages and disadvantages of each. Case studies can be used to help more than just the one being studied. Briefly describe three ways one could use information gathered from a case study besides helping the one being studied.
Describe three hypothetical correlations: A major shortcoming of a correlational study is that even when a correlation between two variables is statistically significant, one cannot infer causation.
For example, a significant correlation exists between life stress and depression, yet one cannot say for sure that life stress causes depression. Given this major shortcoming, what are some specific reasons one might still wish to conduct a correlational study, as opposed to an experimental study from which one might infer a cause-and-effect relationship?
Assume that a researcher wishes to do research designed to pinpoint early-childhood events related to later development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. What type of investigation might the researcher use? What would be potential strengths and weaknesses of that type of investigation?
Finally, are there any ethical concerns the researcher ought to address? Design an experiment to test the hypothesis that older women who take estrogen are less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Be sure to identify the control group, experimental group, independent variable, and dependent variable. A researcher wishes to use experimentation to study the effect of stress on the development of abnormal behaviors. Describe how the researcher might conduct that study, using either natural or analogue experiments.
Which term is NOT used to describe behavior that is psychologically abnormal? A psychopathology B disturbed C mental instability D mental illness The role of a clinical practitioner in abnormal psychology is to: A detect, assess, and treat abnormal patterns of functioning. B research, detect, and assess abnormal functioning. C research, assess, treat, and speak about abnormal functioning. D research about abnormal functioning. Page 21 Full file at https: A geography B specific circumstances C politics D our health care system Which three essential features are included in all forms of therapy?
A a patient, a physician, and an insurance company B a client, an insurance company, and treatment goals C a sufferer, a healer, and a series of contacts between healer and sufferer D a sufferer, a healer, and managed care A trephine is: A a trick used in hypnosis. B an instrument used to remove blood from the veins. C an instrument used in a twentieth-century lobotomy. D a stone instrument used to cut away a circular section of the skull. Which was one of the different early names for a mental disorder that was characterized by extreme sadness and immobility?
A melancholia B anorexia C dyspareunia D bulimia According to ancient views of abnormality, if a standard exorcism failed to rid a person of abnormal behaviors, which step would be taken? A The shaman would perform a more extreme exorcism, such as whipping or starving the person. A bats B wolves C tigers D spiders A bedlam B hysteria C furor D turmoil A psychiatric surgery centers B American asylums C state hospitals D clinical practices The Boston schoolteacher who made humane care a public and political concern in nineteenth-century America was: A Margaret Meade.
C Carrie Nation. D Mary Baker Eddy. Page 22 Full file at https: General paresis, an irreversible disorder that causes physical and mental symptoms that include paralysis and delusions of grandeur, was found to be caused by: A the HIV virus.
B tuberculosis. C syphilis. D gonorrhea. A a public policy of providing free medication to those who suffer from mental illness. B a political policy of preventing those who suffer from mental illness from reproducing. C a private policy of linking mental illness to religion for the purpose of promoting a different religion. D the practice of diagnosing all patients with the same illness, regardless of symptoms, so that insurance companies will provide payment for services.
The treatment mechanism associated with touching a troubled area of a patient's body with a special rod was: A trephination. B exorcism. C mesmerism. D lycanthropy. The policy of releasing patients from public mental hospitals was known as: A moral treatment. B the community mental health model. C the managed care model. D deinstitutionalization. Before the s, almost all outpatient care for psychological disturbances took the form of: A hospitalization.
B private psychotherapy. C treatment at community mental health centers. D treatment by social services agencies. Insurance parity laws are concerned with: A government payment for mental health care.
B licensing health care providers. C providing equal coverage for mental and medical problems. D providing malpractice insurance for clinical mental health practitioners. A nomothetic B deistic C universal D idiographic A scientific B nomothetic C meta-analytical D case If a research study concludes that the less coffee you drink, the less anxiety you experience, the researchers MOST likely used: A the experimental method. B case studies.
C a focus group. D the correlational method. If a research study concludes that the more activities a person participates in, the less likely that person is to be depressed, the conclusion would be expressed as: A a positive correlation. B a fantasy. C a negative correlation. D a causal relationship. Which statistic represents the greatest magnitude of correlation? A longitudinal B high-risk C epidemiological D case A research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulation's effect on another variable is observed is known as a n: B epidemiological study.
C factorial study. D incidence study. A digital B analogue C scientific D zoological A natural experimental B experimental C quasi-experimental D single-subject experimental To ensure that subjects know what they are getting into when they sign up for a study, researchers must obtain: A institutional agreement.
B informed consent. C human rights assent. D quasi-permission. A clinical phenomenologists B clinical scientists C clinical practitioners D clinical psychometrists A deviance, dysfunction, disturbance, and danger.
B danger, dread, deviance, and disturbance. C deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger. D dysfunction, disturbance, delirium, and danger. Roman is a loner. He lives in a cabin in the woods with no running water or electricity. While he manages to survive this way, living so far from the closest city makes it very hard for him to get and keep gainful employment. He is often unhappy with his situation, yet he feels that he can do nothing to change it and has lived this way for years. Which term could NOT be used to describe Roman's behavior?
Hippocrates believed that abnormal behavior was caused by: A evil spirits. B blood clots. C bone splinters. D imbalance in bodily fluids. One of the most prominent forerunners to the modern community mental health program was at Gheel, which was located in: A Belgium. B Germany. C Spain. D England. A purificado.
Abnormal Psychology 9E (Comer).pdf
B chastenette. C tarantella. D sanctifica. Which German physician was the first to specialize in mental illness and is now considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology? Which nineteenth-century perspective held the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes?
A psychogenic B somatogenic C psychotropic D moral A moral B somatogenic C psychogenic D positive Trying to correct the social conditions that give rise to psychological problems and identifying individuals who are at risk for developing emotional problems is known as: B trephination. C triage. Today, the dominant form of insurance coverage for mental health patients is: A Medicare.
B managed care. C private insurance. D Social Security. The area of psychology concerned with the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities is: B Gestalt psychology. C positive psychology. D humanistic psychology. Page 25 Full file at https: A federal parity law, requiring insurance companies to provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems, was enacted in the United States of America in: Before the s, psychotherapy was offered only by: A neurologists.
B hypnotists. C psychiatrists. D psychotherapists. At present, which single viewpoint dominates the clinical field as the psychoanalytic perspective once did? A gestalt B behavioral C cognitive D No one perspective dominates the clinical field. What percentage of current psychology graduate students are female? A 40 percent B 28 percent C 72 percent D 37 percent The main difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist is that: A a psychiatrist is usually a psychoanalyst, while a psychologist is usually a behaviorist.
B a psychologist is a medical doctor, while a psychiatrist is a researcher who studies illnesses. C a psychiatrist is a medical doctor who can provide therapy, while a psychologist is not a medical doctor but can provide therapy. D a psychiatrist works exclusively in hospitals, while a psychologist works exclusively in mental health clinics. If a study found that there was a perfect correlation between two variables, which correlation coefficient would describe that relationship?
A — When an unusual problem does not occur often enough to permit a large number of observations, it might be studied using a n: A ABAB study. B experimental study. C case study. D correlational study. A incidence; prevalence B prevalence; incidence C epidemiology; longitude D longitude; epidemiology A case B epidemiological C experimental D longitudinal A dependent B confound C random D independent An imitation treatment that looks or tastes like the real therapy but has none of its key ingredients is: A a confounding variable.
B considered to be experimental fraud. C known as a placebo. D controlled by the FDA. A double-blind B biased C blind D triple-blind A experimental B epidemiological C quasi-experimental D longitudinal Which facet of experimental research is missing in a quasi-experimental design?
A double-blind design B reliability C predictive validity D random assignment C Page 28 Full file at https: C Page 29 Full file at https: Thomas Szasz Hippocrates Gheel Philippe Pinel Dorothea Dix MD or DO An example of deviance that would not be considered abnormal is a person who sleeps outside when camping.
While sleeping outdoors is not the norm in our society, we make exception for this behavior under this specific circumstance. An example of when distress would not be considered abnormal would be a situation in which a parent experiences distress because his or her child is serving in the military in a war zone. The feelings of distress inherent in a daughter or son serving abroad would not be enough to label someone as abnormal in functioning.
An example of when dysfunction would not be considered abnormal would be if someone voluntarily engaged in a hunger strike out of protest. Often these individuals are considered heroic rather than dysfunctional. An example of when dangerousness would not be considered abnormal could be during times of military service in combat. Individuals in combat are sometimes called on to harm others, and in acts considered heroic, some soldiers sacrifice their own lives for the safety of their group.
According to my text, I have not provided psychological therapy. Clinical theorist Jerome Frank stated that all therapy has three essential features. One is a sufferer who seeks relief from the healer.
The second feature of true therapy is that it must be administered by a trained, socially accepted healer who has expertise in what the individual struggles with. The third essential element of therapy is that there should be a series of contacts with the sufferer to produce changes. In this example the second and third criteria have not been satisfied. As such, psychological therapy has not taken place. Demonology is the view that psychological dysfunction was caused by Satan's influence. In Europe during the Middle Ages, members of the clergy had great power, and their religious beliefs and explanations dominated education and culture.
Due to its influence, the Church controlled how psychological phenomena were interpreted, and alternative scientific explanations were dismissed.
Abnormal Psychology 9E (Comer).pdf - PDF Drive
Answers may include any of the following, or other figures discussed in the text: Referred to as the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates contributed the belief that illnesses had natural causes, and he saw abnormal behavior as arising from physical problems. Emil Kraepelin: Kraepelin was a German researcher who published a textbook in stating that physical factors such as fatigue were responsible for mental dysfunction.
He also developed the first modern system for classifying abnormal behavior using symptoms, as we do today.
Dorothea Dix: Boston, Massachusetts, U. Dix was a schoolteacher who called for mental health treatment reform by speaking to both state legislatures and the U. Congress about the horrors she witnessed at asylums. Her campaign led to improved laws and funding, specifically to set up state hospitals to care for the mentally ill.
Philippe Pinel: Paris, France. Friedrich Anton Mesmer: Mesmer was an Austrian physician who set up a clinic in Paris. He used hypnotism to heal those with hysterical disorders, showing that a person sometimes holds the keys for healing him- or herself.
Mesmer's hypnotism paved the way for later psychoanalytic explanations using the unconscious. Benjamin Rush: Pennsylvania, U. Considered the father of American psychiatry, Rush developed humane treatment approaches to mental illness, even hiring sensitive attendants to work with patients he treated.
William Tuke: Tuke founded a rural retreat for those with mental illness using methods of rest, talk, prayer, and work to assist healing. His moral treatment inspired others, such as Benjamin Rush, to treat patients humanely and with respect. The five major events in the history of abnormality in the order of their occurrence would be: The belief that evil spirits or dark forces created psychological dysfunction permeated the belief about mentally ill individuals and their treatment for years.
Demonology led to some of the greatest atrocities committed against those who were mentally ill and may still be a factor in the stigma many feel against the mentally ill today. Our text, for example, notes that 43 percent of people still believe that those with mental illness have brought it on themselves.
The Rise of Asylums. The unspeakably cruel ways in which the mentally ill have been treated should not be forgotten. The asylums began with good intentions but eventually became a national shame.
Asylums reflect the ways in which we viewed those who struggled with mental illness. Moral Treatment. Figures such as Tuke, Pinel, Rush, and Dix were essential to revolutionizing the way in which those who struggled with mental illness were treated and represent a turning point in the history of how those with mental dysfunction were viewed and treated.
By framing mental dysfunction as an illness to be treated, it set the stage for those like Freud to develop theories that framed clients and their treatments with humanity. Comer by Ronald J. Comer PB Acceptable. Comer A readable copy. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. Pages can include considerable notes-in pen or highlighter-but the notes cannot o Comer , Paperback, Condition is Very Good.
You will receive in the pictures. For more information and instructions, also f Condition is Acceptable. By Ronald J.
Comer published by Worth Publishers Macmillan Learning. God Bless! There are some scratches, however, it has never been used and the importance is that the code is there and will work. Take this book, list it on Amazon FBA andmake cash yourself. So forth and so on….
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