HAGARISM THE MAKING OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD PDF
Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World. Patricia Crone & Michael Cook. Excerpt on Assyrians, pp. Assyrian International News Agency. Books Online. Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World is a book about the early history of Islam by .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version . Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World [Patricia Crone, Michael Cook] on cittadelmonte.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is a controversial study of.
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Hagarism: thr making of the Islamic world. Bibliography: p. lndudes index. 1. Islam-History. I. Cook, M. A., joint author. II. Title. BPJj.C76 '.o9' A classic revisionist work on the formation of Islam. Hagarism; The Making Of The Islamic World Crone, Cook. byPatricia Crone. Publication. Patricia Crone & Michael Cook HAGARISM The Making of the Islamic World HAGARISM THE MAKING OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD PATRICIA CRONE SENIOR .
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This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. Sep 28, Vagabond of Letters rated it it was amazing. This book is awesome. Cook and Crone was part of my outro-justification from 'later Hagarism' though the grace of God the Trinity was greater in to the wide world of ridda and the dar al-harb, and a baptism in to historical criticism in any and all of its forms and uses, though rarely have I seen such a sharp razor applied so thoroughly.
It may be inaccurate in some details, with an overly-broad mandate which is n This book is awesome. It may be inaccurate in some details, with an overly-broad mandate which is nevertheless still overreached by authors jubilant to be breaking new ground after eight centuries of Western study from the first translation of the Qur'an in to a Western language - the 12th c.
This was the first heave pulling the birth of Hagarism early 'Islamic' religion, a precursor to what would become the Islam of the Caliphates in the th 8thth centuries, in to the often-touted heretofore, incorrectly so 'full light of history', concluding, ' Thus, Islamic "history" [as it has come down to us in the documents we have is] almost completely a later literary reconstruction, which evolved out of an environment of competing Jewish and Christian sects.
May many read this book and of the many, may a few be called and raised up as new Crones, Cooks, and Wansbroughs, to carry on the work valiantly commenced herein. Jan 23, Mahmood rated it it was ok. The book has promoted that its discoveries will "destroy" the essence of Islam and its theology. In fact, the book hasn't come up with anything new.
Islam doesn't reject the idea of being the continuation of Judaism and Christianity. The Quran explicitly declare that Islam has the Judo-Christian heritage to be a part of the religion. The book didn't a The book has promoted that its discoveries will "destroy" the essence of Islam and its theology. The book didn't affect me in anyway nor affected my faith and creed as the authors suggested!. We must read the book through academic eyes not faithful eyes and try to get the best out of its numerous sources.
It added to me extra knowledge about how non-Muslims portrayed Islam at that early stage and made me aware of the non-muslim sources about Islam. View all 3 comments.
Nov 01, Baris rated it really liked it. As, generally speaking, is the case with every child who was born and raised in a Muslim country, I am more or less familiar with the life of Prophet Muhammad and with the main events in the story of the rise of Islam.
This story generally follows a pattern which, it seems, is universally accepted by Muslims, and given that Quran does not give much information about the contexts of the Revelations, it is interesting to see the similarity of the contextual information different Islamic sources w As, generally speaking, is the case with every child who was born and raised in a Muslim country, I am more or less familiar with the life of Prophet Muhammad and with the main events in the story of the rise of Islam.
Though they have some differences on specific details of the story, they all follow a general pattern, and this pattern is the reason for the universal agreement about the main lines of the beginnings of the Islamic history, until Rashidun period at least. Given the consistency of the accounts about the rise of Islam, it seems that there is not much reason to doubt the authenticity of these narratives, except one crucial feature of the Islamic sources: The lack of contemporary Islamic sources for the study of this period determines the strategy of Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World.
Patricia Crone and Michael Cook aim in this book to rewrite the early Islamic history by almost totally disregarding these later Islamic sources and by using only contemporary ones produced by the adherents of the monotheist religions present in the Near East, therefore consisting mainly of the material written in Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, Armenian and Aramaic.
The result is almost revolutionary. Crone and Cook argue that at the very beginning, the community which we call today as Muslims had not a distinct confessional identity, but rather they were believers in some sort of Judaic messianism.
The last development, making possible to create a line of Arab prophets sent to Arab people, paves the way for the future divide between Jews and the Believers, thus leading to the formation of Islam as a confessional religious identity.
In light of these observations, Crone and Cook read the name that contemporary sources give to this community of believers, that is Magaritai in Greek or Mahgraye in Syriac, as an adaptation not of the Arabic term muhajirun, but of Hagarene, the descendants of Abraham by Hagar.
Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World
Thus, as a sensational concluding remark, the writers argue that the early Muslim community did not define themselves as Muslims as we attribute it to them today, but as Hagarenes, who were participating in an enactment of the Exodus hijra to the Palestine.
In spite of this religious affinity between Jews and the Believers at the early stages of rise of Islam, as the writers propose, there was a sudden change in this relationship after the major success of Arab conquests in Palestine and Syria, which caused the collapse of the Eastern Roman order in this area.
Now holding the Promised Land, the Believers no longer needed Jewish messianism as an impetus to make Jews as well as the Believers participate in this venture. Given that, however, their messianism was the defining attribute of their religion and it was deeply connected to the quest for Canaan, which made this messianism Jewish, the Believers needed now to break this connection.
Even though Crone and Cook accept that such a solution was not sustainable in that it would have resulted with the conversion of the believer to the Christianity, it still does not seem reasonable to accept that the Believers exhibited such openness or, rather, pragmatism in giving away or embracing some essential tenets of other monotheist religions.
Now deprived of its messianic fervour, the Believer community found a solution in making an image of Muhammed as not a mere parochial warner sent to restore the religion of Abraham in line with the Arab non-Scriptural prophets such as Salih and Hud in Quran, but a Mosaic prophet who has a Scripture. This formulation forms the basis for the second controversial claim in the book, which is that a figure of a Prophet who individually received the Revelations from God was only a later projection among the Believers.
Now seeing their prophet in the mirror of Moses, the Believers also needed a context, a sacred geography in which Quran was revealed to Muhammad, in other words, they needed to create their own Mount Sinai. I must admit that some of these discussions are very enjoyable to read. Even though most of their arguments are disputable, the order of their account of early history of the Believers is well structured, and in some points the arguments are well documented. Aug 29, Luis Dizon rated it it was amazing Shelves: In Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, Michael Cook and Patricia Crone provide an alternative interpretation of the rise of Islam and the circumstances leading to it.
In doing so, they have attracted some controversy due to their methodology, and the conclusions that flow from this. Their basic premise is that of scepticism: The traditional Islamic sources cannot be trusted, and early Islamic history has to be rewritten from to other sources. To this end, the authors have researched quite In Hagarism: To this end, the authors have researched quite extensively on the topic, as indicated by the fact that of the pages comprising the book, 75 pages are dedicated to endnotes, and 22 pages are dedicated to the bibliography.
The main text of the book is comprised of fourteen chapters that are divided neatly into three main parts: It is here that the authors present their thesis that there are no cogent grounds for accepting the historicity of the Islamic tradition, and that because of the unreliability of these traditions, it is necessary to step outside of them and start over with non-Islamic sources, such as the writings of Jews and Christians living around the time of the conquests pg.
What is notable here is that the Jews and Arabs are presented as having a close kinship and are not yet regarded as having two distinct religions. However, due to danger of being assimilated into Christianity, they attempt to create an autonomous religion of Abraham with its own scripture and prophet.
These two chapters are a survey of the near eastern world prior to the rise of Islam, including the various cultural, philosophical religious aspects of the lands that would eventually become part of the Islamic world.
These two chapters serve to provide a brief background on these lands and their intellectual and religious climates prior to the Islamic conquest. Part two is relatively straightforward and uncomplicated, although it is not always clear how some of the ideas connect to the making of the Islamic world.
This is a fascinating section of the book, as it depicts the struggles that took place and continue to take place within the Muslim world over what to do with the pre-existing ideas that were present in the lands they conquered.
A wide variety of results come about, which range from an outright rejection of certain pre-Islamic ideas to an absorption of others into Islamic thought as seen for example in the case of Iranian political ideas. Of the three parts that comprise the book, it is the first part that receives the most attention and controversy from reviewers of the book.
However, there is always the risk of placing too much emphasis upon influences from earlier sources, which makes it seem that Islam is nothing more than a mixture of old ideas, and has not contributed anything original. After all, when ideas from different places are brought together, new doctrines and practices must necessarily be developed to hold all of these beliefs together.
Furthermore, it must be admitted that something original whatever it may have been must have developed in the Arabian peninsula; something which would meld with existing ideas to form Islam as it is known today. Their rationale for rejecting the Islamic sources is that they come in during the eight century, at a time when religious ideas are emerging in the Islamic world which required historical sources to buttress them. Hence they are biased towards ideas that developed after the events described cf.
However, this explanation does not take into account two facts: These are hardly the kinds of traditions that would be created in an atmosphere that required traditions that can neatly justify existing viewpoints over and against other views. Furthermore, it is interesting to note the kinds of sources that they do prefer. That being said, however, it must be remembered that these are sources written by outsiders peering in, which will always inevitably introduce a level of misapprehension of what exactly is going on.
Also, while the authors may claim bias for the Islamic sources, this is true of all documents, including the non-Muslim sources that the authors rely so heavily upon. For this reason, it is necessary to balance out what the Jews, Christians and Pagans have to say about early Islam with what the early Muslims have to say about themselves.
True, most of these narratives do not crystallize until at least the eighth centuries. However, the Islamic tradition has ways of preserving what was passed on from previous generations, and whatever flaws these systems may have, they are to a certain degree effective in ensuring that genuine traditions get passed on. Overall, Hagarism provides an interesting albeit somewhat skewed interpretation of the events surrounding the making of the Islamic world.
Granted, the conclusions of this book are also totally unacceptable to any Muslim who values their traditions and beliefs. Also, there are few historians who would accept their thesis today, and even the authors themselves have had to revise their views in later years as new research becomes available.
Hagarism; The Making Of The Islamic World Crone, Cook
Nonetheless, this book is good to read in order to get a glimpse of this chapter in the development of Islamic historiography. Also, the authors are evidently well acquainted with the relevant works that were available at that time, as evidenced by the extensive bibliography and citations in the book.
It is always helpful in determining what primary sources to use in studying early Islamic history. It should just be remembered that one need not agree with Cook and Crone in their analysis of the aforementioned primary sources. Finally, there has been much development in the area of historiography in the three and a half decades that have elapsed since the publication of this work, and it would be helpful to balance this work out against more recent publications that deal with the same areas, as such publications would have more up to date research and are built upon the foundations laid by earlier works in the field.
Feb 18, Dmitri rated it really liked it Shelves: This book presents an alternate version of history almost as radical and perhaps as wrong as ancient alien visits from Chariots of the Gods. Authors Patricia Crone and Michael Cook have retracted some of the arguments in this book since it was published in It had already propelled a sea change whose aftershocks resonate even now, to a lesser extent.
For many Muslims, this book is unacceptable because it questions the basic doctrines shown in the Quran and Hadith. Although it does not dimini This book presents an alternate version of history almost as radical and perhaps as wrong as ancient alien visits from Chariots of the Gods.
Although it does not diminish the historical role of the Prophet, it interprets his life in a way that is heretical to the Islamic faith. For scholars of religion and history, it challenged an earlier lack of inquiry on the historicity of Arabic sources. The main thesis of the book is that Arabs were co-opted by Jews in order to regain Palestine from Roman Christians at the time of the Islamic conquests. To do this they appealed to their desert brethren's shared Abrahamic heritage and set into motion a monotheistic movement by Muhammad and his followers that would start to sweep the world in Serjeant claimed that: Its superficial fancies are so ridiculous that at first one wonders if it is just a 'leg pull', pure 'spoof'.
Eric Manheimer, reviewing the work in the American Historical Review , commented that, "The research on Hagarism is thorough, but this reviewer feels that the conclusions drawn lack balance. The weights on the scales tip too easily toward the hypercritical side, tending to distract from what might have been an excellent study in comparative religion. The evidence offered by the authors is far too tentative and conjectural and possibly contradictory to conclude that Arab-Jewish relations were as intimate as they would wish them to have been.
John Wansbrough , who had mentored the authors, reviewed the book, specifically the first part, in the Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. He begins by praising the book claiming, "the authors' erudition is extraordinary their industry everywhere evident, their prose ebullient. My reservations here, and elsewhere in this first part of the book, turn upon what I take to be the authors' methodological assumptions, of which the principal must be that a vocabulary of motives can be freely extrapolated from a discrete collection of literary stereotypes composed by alien and mostly hostile observers, and thereupon employed to describe, even interpret, not merely the overt behaviour but also intellectual and spiritual development of the helpless and mostly innocent actors.
Where even the sociologist fears to tread, the historian ought not with impunity be permitted to go. Oleg Grabar described Hagarism as a "brilliant, fascinating, original, arrogant, highly debatable book" and writes that " Brown wrote that Hagarism , "illustrates in an ominous way the politics of Orientalism", and citing Grabar's review, added that, "The Western tradition of urbane condescension has degenerated into aggressive, unscrupulous even, calumny".
Michael G. Morony remarked that "Despite a useful bibliography, this is a thin piece of Kulturgeschichte full of glib generalizations, facile assumptions, and tiresome jargon. More argument than evidence, it suffers all the problems of intellectual history, including reification and logical traps.
Fred M. Donner, writing in the Middle East Studies Association Bulletin in , commented on the negative press the book initially received. The rhetoric of these authors may be an obstacle for many readers, for their argument is conveyed through a dizzying and unrelenting array of allusions, metaphors, and analogies. More substantively, their use or abuse of the Greek and Syriac sources has been sharply criticised. In the end, perhaps we ought to use Hagarism more as a 'what-if' exercise than as a research monograph.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Making of the Islamic World Cover of the first edition. The Middle East Quarterly. September Volume VI: Number 3. Speculum, Vol. Cambridge University Press, Essays from Middle East Report.
Hagarism - Wikipedia
Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. A History of the Jews of Arabia. Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Michigan State Law Review, , p. Also available at Washburn Law , p.
University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved August 22, The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April Retrieved Albany, NY, U. The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 November Serjeant, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society The American Historical Review , Vol. Speculum , Vol.
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