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HIGH RISK PREGNANCY PDF

Sunday, March 17, 2019


High-risk pregnancy and high-risk obstetrics. Having a baby is one of life's most exciting experiences, but there are many things to learn when planning for. A parturient is designated as “high risk” because of the vari- ous problems that might arise in the antenatal or peripartum periods. Anesthetic management. woman who experiences a high-risk pregnancy; The care of women who experience pregnancy high risk in view of the systematization nursing care. If on one.


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Keywords: Pregnant women; Pregnancy, High-Risk; Prenatal Care; Family Health Strategy. RESUMO. Objetivo: Experiences/perceptions of women in high-risk pregnancy. Oliveira DC, Mandú ENT cittadelmonte.info 9. Silva MRC. Introduction: Approximately 22% of all pregnant women are classified as having high-risk pregnancies, which may involve feelings of vulnerability because of. PDF | Pregnancy is usually a serene time of unparalleled joy and expectation in a women's life. Some five to ten percent of pregnancies are termed "high risk.

In a high-risk at-risk pregnancy, the mother, fetus, or neonate is at increased risk of morbidity or mortality before or after delivery. Maternal mortality ratio refers to the number of women who die from pregnancy-related causes during pregnancy or within 42 days of the end of the pregnancy per , live births. In , ratios ranged from 3 Finland to Sierra Leone per , live births countries not shown. The maternal mortality ratio is higher in the US than in other Western countries. Trends in Maternal Mortality:

Certain medicines to treat autoimmune diseases may be harmful to the fetus, meaning a woman with an autoimmune disease will need to work closely with a healthcare provider throughout pregnancy.

The thyroid is a small gland in the neck that makes hormones that help control heart rate and blood pressure. Uncontrolled thyroid disease, such as an overactive or underactive thyroid, can cause problems for the fetus, such as heart failure, poor weight gain, and brain development problems. Thyroid problems are usually treatable with medicine or surgery. Being obese before pregnancy is associated with a number of risks for poor pregnancy outcomes. NICHD research also found that obesity increases the risk for sleep apnea and disordered sleep breathing during pregnancy.

There can also be problems if overweight or obese women gain too much weight during pregnancy. NICHD research has shown that an integrated approach can help obese women to limit their weight gain during pregnancy , leading to better pregnancy outcomes. The Institute of Medicine recommends that overweight women gain no more than 15—25 pounds during pregnancy and that women with obesity gain no more than 11—20 pounds. HIV can pass to a fetus during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding.

Fortunately, there are effective treatments that can reduce and prevent the spread of HIV from mother to fetus or child. Although scientists and healthcare providers have known about Zika for decades, the link between Zika infection during pregnancy and pregnancy risks and birth defects has only recently come to light. NICHD-supported research has shown that infants born to mothers who were infected with Zika just before and during pregnancy were at higher risk for different problems with the brain and nervous system.

The most noticeable is microcephaly, a condition in which the head is smaller than normal.

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Young age. Pregnant teens are more likely to develop pregnancy-related high blood pressure and anemia lack of healthy red blood cells and to go through preterm early labor and delivery than women who are older.

Teens are also more likely to not know they have a sexually transmitted infection STI. Some STIs can cause problems with the pregnancy or for the baby. Prenatal care is important because it allows a healthcare provider to evaluate, identify, and treat risks, such as counseling teens not to take certain medications during pregnancy, sometimes before these risks become problems.

Most older first-time mothers have normal pregnancies, but research shows that older women are at higher risk for certain problems than younger women, 14 including: Pregnancy-related high blood pressure called gestational hypertension and diabetes called gestational diabetes 15 Pregnancy loss 16 Ectopic pregnancy when the embryo attaches itself outside the uterus , a condition that can be life-threatening 17 Cesarean surgical delivery Delivery complications, such as excessive bleeding Prolonged labor lasting more than 20 hours Labor that does not advance Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, in the baby Lifestyle Factors.

Alcohol use. FASDs are completely preventable: If a woman does not drink alcohol while she is pregnant, her child will not have an FASD. Currently, research shows that there is no safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant. According to one study supported by NIH, infants can suffer long-term developmental problems even with low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure. Research shows that smoking marijuana and taking drugs during pregnancy can also harm the fetus and affect infant health.

Conditions of Pregnancy. Multiple gestation. Pregnancy with twins, triplets, or more fetuses, called multiple gestation, increases the risk of infants being born prematurely before 37 weeks of pregnancy.

Both giving birth after age 30 and taking fertility drugs have been linked with multiple births. Having three or more infants increases the chance that a woman will need to have the infants delivered by cesarean section. Twins and triplets are more likely to be smaller for their size than single infants.

If infants are born prematurely, they are more likely to have difficulty breathing. Gestational diabetes can cause problems for both mother and fetus, including preterm labor and delivery, and high blood pressure. It also increases the risk that a woman and her baby will develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Many women with gestational diabetes have healthy pregnancies because they work with a healthcare provider to manage their condition. Preeclampsia and eclampsia. The condition can be fatal for both the mother and the fetus or cause long-term health problems. Eclampsia is a more severe form of preeclampsia that includes seizures and possibly coma. Previous preterm birth. Women who went into labor or who had their baby early before 37 weeks of pregnancy with a previous pregnancy are at higher risk for preterm labor and birth with their current pregnancy.

Healthcare providers will want to monitor women at high risk for preterm labor and birth in case treatment is needed. NICHD research has shown that, among women at high risk for preterm labor and birth because of a previous preterm birth, giving progesterone can help delay birth.

Birth defects or genetic conditions in the fetus.

In some cases, healthcare providers can detect health problems in the fetus during pregnancy. Depending on the nature of the problems, the pregnancy may be considered high risk because treatments are needed while the fetus is still in the womb or immediately after birth. For example, if certain forms of spina bifida are detected in the fetus, the problems can be repaired before birth. Certain heart problems that are common among infants with Down syndrome need to be corrected with surgery immediately after birth.

Knowing a fetus has Down syndrome before birth can help healthcare providers and parents be prepared to give treatment right away. Preeclampsia and high blood pressure during pregnancy.

Retrieved October 31, , from https: Polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS fact sheet. Pregnancy if you have diabetes. Retrieved February 6, , from https: Chronic kidney disease in pregnancy. BMJ, , — Retrieved February 8, , from https: Pregnancy and kidney disease. Even women whose diabetes is well under control may have changes in their metabolism during pregnancy that require extra care or treatment to promote a healthy birth.

That is another reason for women with diabetes to keep tight control of their blood sugar.

Overview of High-Risk Pregnancy

Kidney disease. Women with mild kidney disease often have healthy pregnancies. But kidney disease can cause difficulties getting and staying pregnant as well as problems during pregnancy, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Nearly one-fifth of women who develop preeclampsia early in pregnancy are found to have undiagnosed kidney disease. For example, women with lupus are at increased risk for preterm birth and stillbirth.

Some women may find that their symptoms improve during pregnancy, while others have flare-ups and other challenges. Certain medicines to treat autoimmune diseases may be harmful to the fetus, meaning a woman with an autoimmune disease will need to work closely with a healthcare provider throughout pregnancy.

The thyroid is a small gland in the neck that makes hormones that help control heart rate and blood pressure. Uncontrolled thyroid disease, such as an overactive or underactive thyroid, can cause problems for the fetus, such as heart failure, poor weight gain, and brain development problems.

Thyroid problems are usually treatable with medicine or surgery. Being obese before pregnancy is associated with a number of risks for poor pregnancy outcomes.

NICHD research also found that obesity increases the risk for sleep apnea and disordered sleep breathing during pregnancy. There can also be problems if overweight or obese women gain too much weight during pregnancy.

NICHD research has shown that an integrated approach can help obese women to limit their weight gain during pregnancy , leading to better pregnancy outcomes. The Institute of Medicine recommends that overweight women gain no more than 15—25 pounds during pregnancy and that women with obesity gain no more than 11—20 pounds.

HIV can pass to a fetus during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding. Fortunately, there are effective treatments that can reduce and prevent the spread of HIV from mother to fetus or child.

Although scientists and healthcare providers have known about Zika for decades, the link between Zika infection during pregnancy and pregnancy risks and birth defects has only recently come to light.

NICHD-supported research has shown that infants born to mothers who were infected with Zika just before and during pregnancy were at higher risk for different problems with the brain and nervous system. The most noticeable is microcephaly, a condition in which the head is smaller than normal.

Young age. Pregnant teens are more likely to develop pregnancy-related high blood pressure and anemia lack of healthy red blood cells and to go through preterm early labor and delivery than women who are older. Teens are also more likely to not know they have a sexually transmitted infection STI. Some STIs can cause problems with the pregnancy or for the baby.

Prenatal care is important because it allows a healthcare provider to evaluate, identify, and treat risks, such as counseling teens not to take certain medications during pregnancy, sometimes before these risks become problems.

Most older first-time mothers have normal pregnancies, but research shows that older women are at higher risk for certain problems than younger women, 14 including: Pregnancy-related high blood pressure called gestational hypertension and diabetes called gestational diabetes 15 Pregnancy loss 16 Ectopic pregnancy when the embryo attaches itself outside the uterus , a condition that can be life-threatening 17 Cesarean surgical delivery Delivery complications, such as excessive bleeding Prolonged labor lasting more than 20 hours Labor that does not advance Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, in the baby Lifestyle Factors.

Alcohol use. FASDs are completely preventable: If a woman does not drink alcohol while she is pregnant, her child will not have an FASD. Currently, research shows that there is no safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant.

According to one study supported by NIH, infants can suffer long-term developmental problems even with low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure. Research shows that smoking marijuana and taking drugs during pregnancy can also harm the fetus and affect infant health.

Conditions of Pregnancy.

Multiple gestation. Pregnancy with twins, triplets, or more fetuses, called multiple gestation, increases the risk of infants being born prematurely before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Both giving birth after age 30 and taking fertility drugs have been linked with multiple births.

Overview of High-Risk Pregnancy - Gynecology and Obstetrics - MSD Manual Professional Edition

Having three or more infants increases the chance that a woman will need to have the infants delivered by cesarean section.

Twins and triplets are more likely to be smaller for their size than single infants. If infants are born prematurely, they are more likely to have difficulty breathing. Gestational diabetes can cause problems for both mother and fetus, including preterm labor and delivery, and high blood pressure. It also increases the risk that a woman and her baby will develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Many women with gestational diabetes have healthy pregnancies because they work with a healthcare provider to manage their condition. Preeclampsia and eclampsia. The condition can be fatal for both the mother and the fetus or cause long-term health problems. Eclampsia is a more severe form of preeclampsia that includes seizures and possibly coma.

Previous preterm birth. Women who went into labor or who had their baby early before 37 weeks of pregnancy with a previous pregnancy are at higher risk for preterm labor and birth with their current pregnancy. Healthcare providers will want to monitor women at high risk for preterm labor and birth in case treatment is needed. NICHD research has shown that, among women at high risk for preterm labor and birth because of a previous preterm birth, giving progesterone can help delay birth.

Birth defects or genetic conditions in the fetus. In some cases, healthcare providers can detect health problems in the fetus during pregnancy. Depending on the nature of the problems, the pregnancy may be considered high risk because treatments are needed while the fetus is still in the womb or immediately after birth.

For example, if certain forms of spina bifida are detected in the fetus, the problems can be repaired before birth. Certain heart problems that are common among infants with Down syndrome need to be corrected with surgery immediately after birth. Knowing a fetus has Down syndrome before birth can help healthcare providers and parents be prepared to give treatment right away. Preeclampsia and high blood pressure during pregnancy.

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