HISTORY OF PAKISTAN IN ENGLISH PDF
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Chapter 3 The British in India. Chapter 4 Realism and Confidence. Part 2. The Emergence of Pakistan, Chapter 5 Muslims Organize. Pakistan. ➢ cittadelmonte.info . the history of Pakistan as a state began with independence from British India on. 14 August . English and Urdu medium candidates for SSC and HSSC from private schools Government of Pakistan (), National Curriculum; History of Pakistan.
Pakistan [b] Urdu: Pakistan has a 1,kilometre mile coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. Initially a dominion , Pakistan adopted a constitution in , becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. A regional    and middle power ,    Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status.
The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem.
The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues. Pakistan's political experience is essentially related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation. The first successful democratic transition occurred in May Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism , conservatism , and the third way.
As of the general elections held in , the three main political parties in the country are: As the Muslim world 's second most populous nation-state after Indonesia and its only nuclear power , Pakistan has an important role in the international community.
Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations. The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory.
Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world's major maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the natural resources of Central Asian countries.
History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the s, and during the Soviet—Afghan War in the s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States.
A close ally of the United States during the Cold war , Pakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.
Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel ;  nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas. Pakistan was the first country to have established formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China , and the relationship continues to be warm since China's war with India in , forming a special relationship.
Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding MoUs in for co-operation in different areas. After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries  and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim world , or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity.
Such developments along with Pakistan's creation did not get American approval, and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite.
Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco , and Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. Pakistan had wished to foment an 'Islamic Revolution' that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.
On the other hand, Pakistan's relations with Iran have been strained at times due to sectarian tensions. Maintaining cultural, political, social, and economic relations with the Arab world and other countries in the Muslim world is a vital factor in Pakistan's foreign policy.
A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Balochistan,  and three territories: The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions , which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit—Baltistan formerly Northern Areas.
In , the constitutional assignment the Gilgit—Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order awarded the Gilgit—Baltistan a semi-provincial status , giving it self-government. The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts , tehsils , and union councils , with an elected body at each tier.
Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory. Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence ISI , was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts , Federal Shariat Courts one in each province and one in the federal capital , District Courts one in each district , Judicial Magistrate Courts in every town and city , Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts.
The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs. The Kashmir —the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan.
The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in , , and The conflict in witnessed Pakistan's unconditional surrender and a treaty that subsequently led to the independence of Bangladesh.
India claims the Kashmir on the basis of the Instrument of Accession —a legal agreement with Kashmir's leaders executed by Maharaja Hari Singh , who agreed to cede the area to India. However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in establishing a Line of Control LoC that divided Kashmir between the two nations. Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations,  while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement and to the fact that elections take place regularly.
The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory ICT each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory. The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police Service , which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan.
Namely, there are four provincial police service including the Punjab Police , Sindh Police , Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police , and the Balochistan Police ; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals.
The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and forms a vital part in each provincial police service. The law enforcement in Pakistan also has a Motorway Patrol which is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's inter-provincial motorway network.
In the Punjab and Sindh, the Pakistan Rangers are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes providing assistance to the police. The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about , personnel on active duty and , reservists, as of tentative estimates in The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest principle staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the civilian government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces.
The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations and regularly export military equipment and technology transfer to Pakistan. Territorial problems eventually led to another conventional war in ; over the issue of Bengali refugees that led to another war in which resulted in Pakistan's unconditional surrender in East Pakistan.
In , the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border. Rising tensions with neighbouring USSR in their involvement in Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence community , mostly the ISI , systematically coordinated the US resources to the Afghan mujahideen and foreign fighters against the Soviet Union's presence in the region. Military reports indicated that the PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force , supported by the Afghan Air Force during the course of the conflict ;  one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy.
It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu , Somalia, in in Operation Gothic Serpent. Pakistan has deployed its military in some Arab countries , providing defence, training, and playing advisory roles. Pakistan's fighter pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the Grand Mosque 's compound.
Since the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan , mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions. Economists estimate that Pakistan was part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward. The increasing proportion of Pakistan's youth provides the country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment.
The unemployment rate among the aged 15 and over population is 5. It is South Asia's second-largest economy, representing about Pakistan's economic growth since its inception has been varied.
It has been slow during periods of democratic transition, but robust during the three periods of martial law , although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed. In Goldman Sachs predicted that Pakistan's economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become the 18th-largest economy in the world by Sharma termed it possible to transform Pakistan from a "low-income to a middle-income country during the next five years".
Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market is the 10th-largest in the world. The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture as of [update] accounts for only It accounts for A large portion of the country's manufactured exports are dependent on raw materials such as cotton and hides that are part of the agriculture sector, while supply shortages and market disruptions in farm products do push up inflationary pressures.
The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1. Land and water resources have not risen proportionately, but the increases have taken place mainly due to gains in labour and agriculture productivity. The major breakthrough in crop production took place in the late s and s due to the Green Revolution that made a significant contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice.
Private tube wells led to a 50 percent increase in the cropping intensity which was augmented by tractor cultivation. While the tube wells raised crop yields by 50 percent, the High Yielding Varieties HYVs of wheat and rice led to a 50—60 percent higher yield. Industry is the third-largest sector of the economy, accounting for Large-scale manufacturing LSM , at Pakistan's cement industry is also fast growing mainly because of demand from Afghanistan and from the domestic real estate sector.
In Pakistan exported 7,, metric tons of cement. In and , the cement industry in Pakistan became the most profitable sector of the economy. The textile industry has a pivotal position in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. In Asia, Pakistan is the eighth-largest exporter of textile products, contributing 9. Unlike the US, where mostly value-added textiles are imported, China buys only cotton yarn and cotton fabric from Pakistan. In , Pakistani textile products accounted for 3.
Services sector has The growth rate of services sector is higher than the growth rate of agriculture and industrial sector.
Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in and little over one-third of total employment. Services sector has strong linkages with other sectors of economy; it provides essential inputs to agriculture sector and manufacturing sector.
T sector is regarded as among the fastest growing sector's in Pakistan. The World Economic Forum , assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan th among countries on the 'Networked Readiness Index '.
As of [update] , Pakistan has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration. This growth is much better than that of China, whose share in services exports was 3pc and 7. By the end of , nuclear power was provided by four licensed commercial nuclear power plants. The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in the early s.
A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October , and given prominence as a counter to the US—India agreement that shortly preceded it. In Pakistan established a second commercial nuclear complex in Karachi with plans of additional reactors, similar to the one in Chashma.
The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the s and s who travelled via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan. The country continues to attract an estimated , foreign tourists annually. The country's tourist destinations range from the Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Taxila , to the 5,year-old cities of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
In October , just one year after the Kashmir earthquake , The Guardian released what it described as "The top five tourist sites in Pakistan" in order to help the country's tourism industry.
To promote Pakistan's unique cultural heritage, the government organizes various festivals throughout the year. The National Highway Authority is responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways. The highway and motorway system depends mainly on north—south links connecting the southern ports to the populous provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.
Although this network only accounts for 4. From until the s the train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions of the national highways and the economic boom of the automotive industry.
Beginning in the s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on roads after the introduction of vehicles in the country. There are an estimated airports and airfields in Pakistan—including both the military and the mostly publicly owned civilian airports. Although Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway to Pakistan, the international airports in Lahore , Islamabad , Peshawar , Quetta , Faisalabad , Sialkot , and Multan also handle significant amounts of traffic.
The civil aviation industry is mixed with public and private sectors, which was deregulated in Developments in science and technology have played an important role in Pakistan's infrastructure and helped the country connect to the rest of the world.
In chemistry , Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists. Apart from participating in Pakistan's atomic bomb project, he made major contributions in molecular morphology , physical martensite , and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics. In Pakistan was ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers. The s saw the emergence of an active space program led by SUPARCO that produced advances in domestic rocketry , electronics , and aeronomy.
The successful launch of its first rocket into space made Pakistan the first South Asian country to have achieved such a task. As an aftermath of the war with India , the clandestine crash program developed atomic weapons partly motivated by fear and to prevent any foreign intervention , while ushering in the atomic age in the post cold war era.
Pakistan is the first and only Muslim country that maintains an active research presence in Antarctica. Overall, it has the 20th-largest population of Internet users in the world.
Since the s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in supercomputing , and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing.
The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education. At the time of the establishment of Pakistan as a state, the country had only one university, Punjab University in Lahore.
Pakistan has a large network of both public and private universities, which includes collaboration between the universities aimed at providing research and higher education opportunities in the country, although there is concern about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools. Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: Some students choose to take the O-level and A level exams conducted by the British Council.
As a result of initiatives taken in , the English medium education has been made compulsory in all schools across the country. According to Provisional results of Census in Pakistan , the total population in Pakistan was At the time of the partition in , Pakistan had a population of In Pakistan's fertility rate was estimated to be 2.
Life expectancy at birth was 67 years for females and 65 years for males in More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a number of provincial languages. The Punjabi language , the most common in Pakistan and the first language of Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is well understood in Sindh and Balochistan. Brahui , a Dravidian language, is spoken by the Brahui people who live in Balochistan.
The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan. It declares in article 31 No. Even after partition in , Indian Muslims continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the s and s, and these migrants settled mainly in Karachi and other towns of Sindh province. The Pakistan Census excludes the 1. Pakistan is home to one of the world's largest refugee populations.
They are claimed to be from other areas such as Myanmar , Iran, Iraq, and Africa.
Experts say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese Rohingya to Pakistan started in the s and continued until Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the Pakistani Bengali Action Committee, claims that there are settlements of Bengali-speaking people in Pakistan, of which are in Karachi. Thousands of Uyghur Muslims have also migrated to the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, fleeing religious and cultural persecution in Xinjiang, China.
The population is dominated by four main ethnic groups: Punjabis , Pashtuns Pathans , Sindhis , and Balochs. Since achieving independence as a result of the partition of India, the urbanisation has increased exponentially, with several different causes. One analysis of the national census highlighted the significance of the partition of India in the s as it relates to urban change in Pakistan.
Inevitably, the rapid urbanisation caused by these large population movements has also created new political and socio-economic challenges. The state religion in Pakistan is Sunni Islam. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan , which provides all its citizens the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion subject to law, public order, and morality.
The population of Pakistan follow different religions. Most of Pakistanis are Muslims There are also people in Pakistan who follow other religions, such as Sikhism , Buddhism , Jainism and the minority of Parsi who follow Zoroastrianism.
In addition, some Pakistanis also do not profess any faith such as atheists and agnostics in Pakistan. According to the census, people who did not state their religion accounted for 0. About Pakistan has the second-largest number of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. The Ahmadis , a small minority representing 0.
In , Ahmadiyya places of worship were banned from being called "mosques". Sufism , a mystical Islamic tradition, has a long history and a large following among the Sunni Muslims in Pakistan, at both the academic and popular levels. Popular Sufi culture is centered around gatherings and celebrations at the shrines of saints and annual festivals that feature Sufi music and dance.
Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore c.
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There are two levels of Sufism in Pakistan. The first is the 'populist' Sufism of the rural population. This level of Sufism involves belief in intercession through saints, veneration of their shrines, and forming bonds with a pir saint. Many rural Pakistani Muslims associate with pirs and seek their intercession. Hinduism is the second-largest religion in Pakistan after Islam, according to the census. At the time of Pakistan's creation the 'hostage theory' gained currency. According to this theory, the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India.
I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be. Some Hindus in Pakistan feel that they are treated as second-class citizens and many have continued to migrate to India. Christians formed the next largest religious minority, after Hindus, with a population of 2,,, according to the census.
The influence of atheism is very small, with 1. Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life.
The basic family unit is the extended family ,  although for socio-economic reasons there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families. The Shalwar Kameez is the national dress of Pakistan and is worn by both men and women in all four provinces: Each province has its own style of Shalwar Kameez. Pakistanis wear clothes in a range of exquisite colours and designs and in type of fabric silk, chiffon , cotton, etc.
The fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. Since Pakistan came into being, its fashion has evolved in different phases and developed a unique identity. Today, Pakistani fashion is a combination of traditional and modern dress and has become a mark of Pakistani culture.
Despite modern trends, regional and traditional forms of dress have developed their own significance as a symbol of native tradition. This regional fashion continues to evolve into both more modern and purer forms. Pakistan's first fashion week was held in November Pakistan now has a large network of domestic, privately owned hour news media and television channels. While Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from until , they have remained an important part of popular culture.
In the s—s, British influenced rock music appeared and jolted the country's entertainment industry. Pakistani music ranges from diverse forms of provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern musical forms that fuse traditional and western music.
The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has stimulated interest in Pashto music, although there has been intolerance of it in some places. The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis was established in to deal exclusively with all matters of overseas Pakistanis such as attending to their needs and problems, developing projects for their welfare, and working for resolution of their problems and issues. Overseas Pakistanis are the second-largest source of foreign exchange remittances to Pakistan after exports.
It has since recognised the importance of overseas Pakistanis and their contribution to the nation's economy. The division aims to provide better services through improved facilities at airports, and suitable schemes for housing, education, and health care. It also facilitates the reintegration into society of returning overseas Pakistanis. Before the 19th century, Pakistani literature consisted mainly of lyric and religious poetry and mystical and folkloric works. During the colonial period, native literary figures were influenced by western literary realism and took up increasingly varied topics and narrative forms.
At the all-India level, the demand for Pakistan pitted the League against the Congress and the British. A History of India. Totowa, New Jersey: The idea of Pakistan may have had its share of ambiguities, but its dismissal as a vague emotive symbol hardly illuminates the reasons as to why it received such overwhelmingly popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the 'minority provinces' of British India such as U. A Global Studies Handbook. In the elections of , the Muslim League won 90 percent of the legislative seats reserved for Muslims.
It was the power of the big zamindars in Punjab and Sindh behind the Muslim League candidates, and the powerful campaign among the poor peasants of Bengal on economic issues of rural indebtedness and zamindari abolition, that led to this massive landslide victory Alavi , Even Congress, which had always denied the League's claim to be the only true representative of Indian Muslims had to concede the truth of that claim.
The election was, in effect, a plebiscite among Muslims on Pakistan. South Asia and Africa After Independence: Post-colonialism in Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. The election was, in effect, a plebiscite among Muslims on Pakistan and a mighty success for the League, which won 90 per cent of the Muslim seats.
His standing with the British remained high, however, for even though they no more agreed with the idea of a separate Muslim state than the Congress did, government officials appreciated the simplicity of a single negotiating voice for all of India's Muslims. Metcalf; Thomas R. Metcalf A Concise History of India. By this scheme, the British hoped they could at once preserve the united India desired by the Congress, and by themselves, and at the same time, through the groups, secure the essence of Jinnah's demand for a 'Pakistan'.
Metcalf 24 September A Concise History of Modern India.
The Official Biography. The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. These instructions were to avoid partition and obtain an unitary government for British India and the Indian States and at the same time observe the pledges to the princes and the Muslims; to secure agreement to the Cabinet Mission plan without coercing any of the parties; somehow to keep the Indian army undivided, and to retain India within the Commonwealth. When Mountbatten arrived, it was not wholly inconceivable that a settlement on the Cabinet Mission's terms might still be secured Limited bloodshed called for an united Indian army under effective control.
But keeping the army intact was now inextricably linked with keeping India united. This is why Mountbatten started off by being vehemently opposed to 'abolishing the center'. The Human Dimension". Cultural and Social History. Mountbatten had intended to resurrect the Cabinet Mission proposals for a federal India.
The agreement to an Indian Union contained in the Cabinet Mission proposals had been initially accepted by the Muslim League as the grouping proposals gave considerable autonomy in the Muslim majority areas.
Moreover, there was the possibility of withdrawal and thus acquiring Pakistan by the backdoor after a ten year interval. The worsening communal situation and extensive soundings with Indian political figures convinced Mountbatten within a month of his arrival that partition was, however, the only way to secure a speedy and smooth transfer of power.
The Destruction of Pakistan's Democracy. Oxford University Press. Undivided India, their magnificent imperial trophy, was besmirched by the creation of Pakistan, and the division of India was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, Mountbatten among them. Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin.
Psychology Press. Mountbatten's partiality was apparent in his own statements. He tilted openly and heavily towards Congress. While doing so he clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League and its Pakistan idea. When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan if he had known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, his answer was instructive.
There was no doubt in his mind about the legality or morality of his position on Pakistan. Allen Lane. In particular, Mountbatten put pressure on the supposedly neutral Boundary Commissioner, Sir Cyril Radcliffe-cruelly mocked at the time by W. Auden- to make critical adjustments in India's favour when drawing the frontier through the Punjab. BBC News 10 August Refugees, Boundaries, Histories.
Columbia University Press. Second, it was feared that if an exchange of populations was agreed to in principle in the Punjab, ' there was likelihood of trouble breaking out in other parts of the subcontinent with a view to forcing Muslims in the Indian Dominion to move to Pakistan.
If that happened we would find ourselves with inadequate land and other resources to support the influx. Given that Muslims in the rest of India, some 42 million, formed a population larger than the entire population of West Pakistan at the time, economic rationality eschewed such a forced migration. However, in the divided Punjab millions of people were already on the move, and the two governments had to respond to this mass movement.
Thus, despite these important reservations, the establishment of the MEO led to an acceptance of a 'transfer of populations' in divided Punjab to, 'to give a sense of security' to ravaged communities on both sides.
A statement of the Indian government's position of such a transfer across divided Punjab was made in the legislature by Neogy on November 18, He stated that although the Indian government's policy was 'to discourage mass migration from one province to another'. Punjab was to be an exception. In the rest of the subcontinent migrations were not to be on a planned basis, but a matter of individual choice. This exceptional character of movements across divided Punjab needs to be emphasized, for the agreed and 'planned evacuations' by the two governments formed the context of those displacements.
The Making of the Modern Refugee. OUP Oxford. Notwithstanding the accumulated evidence of inter-communal tension, the signatories to the agreement that divided the Raj did not expect the transfer if power and the partition of India to be accompanied by a mass movement of population.
Partition was conceived as a means of preventing migration on a large scale, because the borders would be adjusted instead. Minorities need not to be troubled by the new configuration. As Pakistan's first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, affirmed, 'the division of India into Pakistan and India Dominions was based on the principle that minorities will stay where they were and that the two states will afford all protection to them as citizens of the respective states'.
Islamic Studies. Dr Ishtiaq underscores need to build bridges". The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. Four thousand Muslim shops and homes were destroyed in the walled area of Amritsar during a single week in March Were these exceptions which prove the rule?
It appears that casualty figures were frequently higher when Hindus rather than Muslims were the aggressors.
History Of Pakistan Books
Midnight's Furies: The Deadly Legacy of India's Partition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The number of casualties remains a matter of dispute, with figures being claimed that range from , to 2 million victims. Retrieved 14 January There are no exact numbers of people killed and displaced, but estimates range from a few hundred thousand to two million killed and more than 10 million displaced.
South Asia's Cold War: Nuclear Weapons and Conflict in Comparative Perspective. An estimated 12—15 million people were displaced, and some 2 million died. The legacy of Partition never without a capital P remains strong today Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change.
Harvard University Press. Journal of Genocide Research. Carfax Publishing: Taylor and Francis Group.
Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved 16 August In the event, largely but not exclusively as a consequence of their efforts, the entire Muslim population of the eastern Punjab districts migrated to West Punjab and the entire Sikh and Hindu populations moved to East Punjab in the midst of widespread intimidation, terror, violence, abduction, rape, and murder.
Violent Belongings: Temple University Press. The official estimate of the number of abducted women during Partition was placed at 33, non-Muslim Hindu or Sikh predominantly women in Pakistan, and 50, Muslim women in India. Revisiting India's Partition: New Essays on Memory, Culture, and Politics. Lexington Books. The horrific statistics that surround women refugees-between 75,—, Hindu, Muslim and Sikh women who were abducted by men of the other communities, subjected to multiple rapes, mutilations, and, for some, forced marriages and conversions-is matched by the treatment of the abducted women in the hands of the nation-state.
In the Constituent Assembly in it was recorded that of the 50, Muslim women abducted in India, 8, of then were recovered, and of the 33, Hindu and Sikh women abducted, 12, were recovered. Women and the Politics of Violence. Har-Anand Publications. In addition thousands of women on both sides of the newly formed borders estimated range from 29, to 50, Muslim women and 15, to 35, Hindu and Sikh women were abducted, raped, forced to convert, forced into marriage, forced back into what the two States defined as 'their proper homes,' torn apart from their families once during partition by those who abducted them, and again, after partition, by the State which tried to 'recover' and 'rehabilitate' them.
Story of Pakistan press Government. Retrieved 17 April Shameful Flight: Mountbatten tried to convince Jinnah of the value of accepting him, Mountbatten, as Pakistan's first governor-general, but Jinnah refused to be moved from his determination to take that job himself.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah — ". Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan, but died of tuberculosis on 11 September Similarly, Usmani asked Pakistanis to remember the Qaid's ceaseless message of Unity, Faith and Discipline and work to fulfil his dream to create a solid bloc of all Muslim states from Karachi to Ankara , from Pakistan to Morocco. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World.
The resolution embodied "the main principles on which the constitution of Pakistan is to be based. Political administrators: Escaping India. Iran-Pakistan relations ". Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy. Global Media Publications. Pakistan's expression of solidarity was followed, after Independence, by a vigorous pursuit of bilateral relations with Muslim countries like Iran and Turkey.
Pakistan was making a wholehearted bid for the leadership of the Muslim world, or at least for the leadership in achieving its unity. Following Khaliquzzaman, the Ali brothers had sought to project Pakistan, with its comparatively larger manpower and military strength, as the natural leader of the Islamic world. Creating a New Medina. As a top ranking ML leader Khaliquzzaman declared, 'Pakistan would bring all Muslim countries together into Islamistan- a pan-Islamic entity'.
Magnificent Delusions: Within a few years the president of the Muslim League, Chaudhry Khaliq-uz-Zaman, announced that Pakistan would bring all Muslim countries together into Islamistan-a pan-Islamic entity. None of these developments within the new country elicited approval among Americans for the idea of India's partition British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced the international consensus at the time when he told the House of Commons of his hope that 'this severance may not endure.
During this time most of the Arab world was going through a nationalist awakening. Pan-Islamic dreams involving the unification of Muslim countries, possibly under Pakistani leadership, had little attraction. The Origins of Conflict in Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. The following year, Choudhry Khaliquzzaman toured the Middle East, pleading for the formation of an alliance or confederation of Muslim states.
The Arab states, often citing Pakistan's inability to solve its problems with Muslim neighbor Afghanistan, showed little enthusiasm Some saw the effort to form 'Islamistan' as a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states.
Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: The belief that the creation of Pakistan made Pakistan the true leader of Muslim causes around the world led Pakistan's diplomats to vigorously champion the cause of self-determination for fellow Muslims at the United Nations.
Pakistan's founders, including Jinnah, supported anti-colonial movements: Our heart and soul go out in sympathy with those who are struggling for their freedom If subjugation and exploitation are carried on, there will be no peace and there will be no end to wars. Pakistani efforts on behalf of Indonesia , Algeria — , Tunisia — , Morocco — and Eritrea — were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. Pakistan Tea House.
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But they had no chance. They were a thousand miles away from their base. And I had eight or nine months to make my preparations [while they were being worn out in a counter insurgency war against the secessionist forces of the Mukti Bahini]. I had a superiority of almost five-to-one. Retrieved 3 March The Longest August: Nation Books.
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These appointments meant Zia's Islamic agenda lived on long after he died. In Hathaway, Robert; Lee, Wilson. Woodrow Wilson International Center or Scholars. Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 9 December The grave impact of that legacy was compunded by the Iranian Revolution, and Zia-ul Haq's anti-Shia policies, which added the violence and regimentation of the organization.
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These were not battle casualties or the unavoidable civilian victims of warfare. Soviet and local Communist forces seldom attacked the scattered guerilla bands of the Afghan Resistance except, in a few strategic locales like the Panjsher valley.
Instead they deliberately targeted the civilian population, primarily in the rural areas. Hassan The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, — University of California Press. While military operations in the country were going on, women were abducted. While flying in the country in search of mujahideen, helicopters would land in fields where women were spotted. While Afghan women do mainly domestic chores, they also work in fields assisting their husbands or performing tasks by themselves.
The women were now exposed to the Russians, who kidnapped them with helicopters. By November a number of such incidents had taken place in various parts of the country, including Laghman and Kama.
In the city of Kabul, too, the Russians kidnapped women, taking them away in tanks and other vehicles, especially after dark. Such incidents happened mainly in the areas of Darul Aman and Khair Khana, near the Soviet garrisons. At times such acts were committed even during the day.
KhAD agents also did the same. Small groups of them would pick up young women in the streets, apparently to question them but in reality to satisfy their lust: The world's largest single refugee group".
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