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KENJUTSU KATA PDF

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manual Iaido, kenjutsu, battojutsu, bikenjutsu, iaijutsu en pdf. PROGRAM OF KENJUTSU and “GEKKEN”, JAPANESE FENCING. S Y L L A B U S Understanding the principles of kenjutsu. A) ETIQUETTE Kata 1, Jûmonji. the Samurai practiced using real swords or wooden ones in prearranged forms called Kata. Consequently injuries were high. These difficulties were overcome.


Kenjutsu Kata Pdf

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objectives as Kata from a number of traditional Japanese Jujutsu submitted the draft of Kata consisted of 20 techniques, 8 Idori and cittadelmonte.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. lent throughout Kendo but especially so in the Nihon Kendo no Kata. .. the classical bujutsu. Although the Japanese arts, such as kenjutsu, iaijutsu, and jojutsu.

This hyoho an alternative pronunciation of heiho, or strategy was taught to me on Tuesday, May 20, in Guelph, Ontario, by Matsuo Haruna, chief instructor at the Musashi Dojo in Ohara, Okayama-ken. Bo, and thirteen Kata of Tachi vs. Reiho and basic Kamae When carrying both swords, they are held together in the left hand, the daito is held most left by the pinkie and the shoto with the other fingers in such a way that the shoto tsuka points up more than the daito tsuka. The left arm is held straight down, the swords are brought to the hip only when something happens, like a bow for example or when you're about to draw the sword. When the shoto is inserted in the belt which it is before starting the nito set , the daito tsuka is higher. To draw, the right hand grasps the daito, the left hand takes the shoto from below and both are drawn together so as not to cut a hand off. After finishing practice, the shoto is placed on the right of the daito in the right hand, the two are then transferred to the left as in the start.

An important thing to remember about swords is that they are long, and whereas a knife that has been 'secured' may not be able to slash you, a sword that is 'secured' may have a lot more movement at its tip than you would at first think.

Make sure that when you do take control of the sword you can see the end of the sword. You know where the attacker is Concentrate on the sword - you can even use it to finish off the attacker or if numbers are a problem the next attacker - "I'm sorry m'lud, he came at me with this sword and I just turned him round and, well he just stabbed his mate with it.

Step back with your left foot. Turn your hips to the left. Commence in right posture and perform shomen uchi komI. Step back with your right foot. Slide the jo through your left hand back and then forwards.

The strike is performed by swinging the jo in an arc over your head and down onto your opponent as you step forwards with your right foot. Take a long step forward with your right foot. Good posture before and after performance goes a long way towards correct posture during the suburi. Both hands should now be at the forward end of the jo. Commence in basic posture as for the previous suburi. Bring the jo round in a strike to your opponent's knee.

Commence in right posture and perform shomen uchi komi. As you move. This is the first of two combinations of movements which incorporate the first jo suburi. Bring the jo up in a circular motion as you move to your left with your left foot. Your left hand should lift the jo as you do this. You commence in hidari tsuki no kamae. Breathing is very important and you should inhale before you start the movements. Commence in basic posture. Commence in right posture and perform shomen uchi komi sixth jo suburi.

Grasp the top of the jo with your right hand. Step forwards with your left foot. Commence in right posture as if you had just completed shomen uchi komi. The principle use for the jo is as a weapon to counter and attack other aggressors who are armed with similar weapons or as a weapon to neutralise an unarmed attacker.

Commence in right posture holding the jo in front of you with your left hand at the end of the jo and your right hand a quarter of the way up. Commence in hidari tsuki no kamae. Always check your posture at the beginning and end of each suburi to ensure that you have started and finished correctly. Slide your left hand to the front end of the jo. Tum it over your head to the striking position in preparation for shomen uchi strike right wrist twists.

Push the jo back through your right hand. Hold the jo with your left hand. Move backwards and to the right. Jo Suburi Each of the following twenty suburi should be practised carefully and with feeling.

Both feet slide forwards as you lower your posture during this forward thrust. This is the basic thrusting movement which is featured in many of the jo waza jo techniques. The jo is a stout wooden stave fashioned from Japanese oak which was originally used as a substitute for the long sword and the short spear. Step forwards with your left foot and perform hidari shomen uchi. Expel your breath explosively as the thrust is performed. Lift the jo placing it along the underside of your left forearm while sliding your left foot back beside your right.

Slide your left hand towards the front of the jo. Slide your right hand down to the end as you bring the jo to a horizontal position. Reach down with your right hand to grasp the jo near its base. Swing back with your right hand to perform choku tsuki. Swing back with your right hand to make choku tsuki first jo suburi. This is a thrust against an opponent who is behind you. Your right hand should be behind the jo pushing it round to make contact. Commence in left posture as for the first jo suburi.

This combination introduces the striking techniques which are to follow in the next five suburi. Use of the jo is also a very good method of achieving co-ordination of body. This is the first of the suburi which features one-hand grip and uses wrist movement for successful completion. As the strike is completed.

This is actually a counter to a thrust from your opponent. Having performed the strike in right posture. Bring the jo round to extend behind you and make hidari shomen uchi to complete the suburi. When the strike is completed. As you step forwards with your right foot.

Hopefully your cuts will remain consistent as you adjust your position and posture to cope. Commence as in the previous suburi twirling the jo to assume hasso no kamae. This movement is used to extend the jo forwards to reach a considerable distance past your normal fighting range. You should now be facing your rear as you perform right shomen uchi strike to the imaginary opponent who is now standing in front of you. With the jo in place. Commence in ken no kamae.

From here. As you step back with your right foot. Commence in left posture. Spin it around your right wrist. Tum your whole body to the rear. Once you get the hang of these you can ask your partner to move the jo about a bit.

Hold the jo in your right hand on your right side. For shomen uchi: Have a partner hold a jo horizontally in front of you so that the jo is parallel with your shoulders. Tum your wrist forwards.

Start to step forwards with your right foot as you bring the jo up to your head changing the grip with your right hand. Swing your hips back to the right. The jo should be fractionally below the height of your natural cutting action. Tum your hips further to your right and strike down and around to your rear with a round sweeping blow.

From the vertical. You should make a few practice cuts to establish the correct height. Commence as in the sixteenth suburi assuming hasso no kamae. These final two suburi are designed to help improve your body movement as they incorporate a flowing combination of strikes. Yokomen uchi: Have your partner sit seiza directly in front of you and hold a jo vertically. Aim to cut with the last couple of inches of your bokken. The next five suburi all incorporate the hasso technique which consists of rapidly twirling the jo from a forward position under your wrist and up to above your right shoulder beside your head.

Commence as in the previous suburi assuming hasso no kamae. With your bokken. Commence in hidari tsuki no kamae and draw the jo back over your head to your left with your right hand. Grasp the bottom end with your left hand as it comes to a vertical position at the right side of your head in hasso no kamae.

Finish with your hips facing to the right. As you complete the strike. Commence in ken no kamae right posture. Commence as in the previous suburi by twirling your jo to assume hasso no kamae. From this point. Draw your weight back onto your right foot. Slide your right hand forwards and perform hasso gaeshi once more. This incorporates a double wrist action to loosen your wrist and serves as the precursor to the hasso techniques that will follow. Try not to look down at the jo. As the strike is made turn to your left.

As you start to swing the jo around with your right wrist. Your partner can indicate how close He should now be in L hanmi. Ensure that you turn your wrists over so that you PUSH the jo round not pull it. You avoid this thrust by making a BIG step to your R. So drop the end of the jo to your R. You step forward. As you do this swing the jo round. I have tried to avoid using japanese terms for various techniques. Then he makes a straight thrust at your face.

Throughout this transcription YOU are 'doing' the kata side. You are in L posture. A wall is probably a bit too solid for this really and you might annoy its owner too. If it's too easy. From here he makes a spiral movement with his jo.

Starting L posture. For tsuki poke: Draw a small circle on the wall at your natural poke height hmm. This is only a description of the kata as I know it. NOT blocking him! As you bring the jo up. Thust to his L floating ribs. You raise the end of your jo to your front L. From here rotate your jo from under his to on top. HE is 'doing' the "anti-kata".

Do not allow the jo to go further than 90 deg past his knees. You should now be in L hanmi. L hand forward on the jo.. You now pivot to face the opposite direction. Stepping to your R. Paul Findley count jo kata and kumi-jo by Jonathan Diesch For this transcription.

If you pull you cannot stop the jo easily. This also exposes his leg. L posture. Release the jo with your L back hand. To avoid having the end of your jo smashed by his shomen. You raise your jo to protect your head. IRL you go under his chin. Pull the jo with your back hand.

You are in R posture. You are now in L posture. If you do this in reverse you will get your hand broken! Keep the jo in close to your body. At this point he thinks he can hit you on the head. He is now in R posture. Now step forward with your L foot. This blocks the knee strike. You should be in R hanmi. You pull you jo back against your side.. This is a neutral position. Draw back slightly. Make shomen as no 5. Step across to your R. Step forward.

Step forward on your L foot. You step to your R side. AK for person doing the Anti-Kata initially attacking. So dont take this as gospel! I am intending to put a pamphlet together with a full set of photos to illustrate this kata at some point. After all.

He then slides the jo though his hands to thrust downwards at your chest.. You are now in R posture. The movements are given in Japanese and if this a problem then I might suggest a revision of the 20 Jo suburi.

Absorb the force of his strike. You draw your jo back to regain your posture. When your jo is stuck sideways. This is not a perfect transcription. To quote Sensei McGlone " The following pages have been compiled. The following description is that of the 31 Jo Kumi Jo kata. You should finish in L posture. As he does so. He then makes a straight thrust to your face. You make a straight thrust at his L side.

Now step forward. These words were written by Sensei Paul McGlone yondan. He should be flat on the floor. Hand change. Moves to right. Slide JO back to left hand side [21] AK: Steps to right.

Pauses K: Moves out to left. Steps to left. Step to right with overhead defence [2] then turn JO over on circular movement to knock partner's JO down and to the left. Step forward with rear left foot and shomen. The tip of the sword drops during this motion to guard your right side from attack. Step forward with the rear left foot to perform irmi-tenkan. Continue the cut up. Step back with the front right foot and shomen. At the same time. Move right hand up and to the..

Starts in right posture. Which of the 8 techniques above is Ai Hanmi. Draw JO back with left hand. Slide the front right foot over to the 3 o'clock position Pivot so that you're facing 9 o'clock. Absorb power of UCHI's cut. Pivot to face the rear.. Draw JO across the body with right hand. Turn tenkan cutting up the vertical line. Grab a partner.. Slide JO back to right hand side. Step forward with the rear left foot from the 6 o'clock position to the 3 o'clock position.

Step to left with left foot. Draw JO backwards through right hand until the right hand is about a foot from the end. Step forward with the rear left foot from the 6 o'clock position to a position just infront of your right foot. Put jo back behind body Choku tsuki. Choku tsuki irimi. Sandan Tsuki 5. Choku tsuki Uke 13 point kata Start with jo on ground 1. Defensive parry to right 4. High tsuki spear High parry like gedan gaeshi. Thrust ribs Bokken work by Bob Whelan.

Hayashi gaeshi like jodan gaeshi yokomen uchi with less block 3. Strike down jo move right and reverse jo. Part 2 Step forward with the rear foot and thrust chudan. Tsuki 9. Hasso gaeshi defense 6. Choku tsuki enter to front Choku tsuki Choku tsuki Choku tsuki from behind Choku tsuki Choku tsuki from behind — original front Withdraw. Smoothly raise the hands over the top of your head. Menuchi moving to right to avoid his thrust 7. Although there are many nuances of style and application.

As the blade falls and "slices". In Kashima Shin Ryu it is actually curled under the hilt to serve as a "stop" during tsuki thrusts.

Rather than try and hit something. The blade must find its own way. Everyone will have to find their own personal center though. Saito Sensei. This would allow the samurai to deal with an indefinite number of opponents rapidly and without fatigue. The logic was that. These are the things that I am still working on and likely will always need work.

The shoulders particularly must stay relaxed in order that they might receive the power that will be generated from the hips and the foundation of a firm center. This can't be "pushed". As the sword is a bladed instrument.

If free to do so. It might be helpful to use the metaphor of how a "range finder" focus works in a camera. The back of the neck is also straight but not strained. The placement of the hands on the hilt is in the same manner that one does yonkyo. The little finger of the left hand is used to stop the path of the blade as indicated in each specific cut.

Some of this experience is as a deshi while the bulk of it is through consistent attendance at seminars over more than 20 years with the frequency of contact reflected in the above sequence. The hands should grip the boken the way one might hold a live bird.

In this instance there are two "fuzzy" images that "merge" into a single clear one. It is not intended reflect any judgement of a hierarchy of ability. To maximize power from the hips and maintain the boken as a part. The bending of the knees has another very critical and necessary function. I have been told but cannot verify that in Aiki-ken the turn of the hips into the cut. This is both to allow movement of the hips but also to allow the body weight to be transmitted through the "center" to the blade.

This is where the blade is beginning its cut and will move from here "through" the intended target. What I have tried to do is summarize the instruction I have received from Sekiya Sensei. The gruesome reality is that the cut for example a kesa giri with enters at the juncture where the neck meets the shoulder and exits just above the hip on the opposite side.

This is likely be the center of one's weight. If one keeps the upper torso completely relaxed and pliable then this action will significantly stabilize the hips and add much more substance and "rooting" to one's posture.

The shoulders are less "thrown back" than the chest is "opened". In addition the snapping return of the hips to the original position adds extra momentum and power. In general. It applies to ALL technique. It helps unify the center of one's weight with the center of one's height at the "one point". The index finger on the right hand could be thought of as "aiming" or directing the blade in a manner similar to how one might point. Kanai Sensei.

In addition. Chiba Sensei and by extension. Thus the boken is not "hitting" or "sawing" anything. This leaves a space between the hands which is roughly the equivalent of a hand's width. The knees are always bent and "springy". If you tie your belt so that the knot is at the spot that you have determined is your personal center. The cut actually emanates from the center. The logic is that the blade must swing from a foundation that is "already stable" rather than a foundation in the process of "becoming stable".

The tip of the blade never drops lower then the hilt. This practice progresses to going up and down into seiza while walking.

As you turn the blade of the sword should be facing the direction of the turn. In this position your rear foot is slightly facing the right again.

This will result in both feet turned slightly to the outside and a somewhat narrow hanme. If one were walking along a straight line. At the end without moving your feet you pivot back to face North into the same right hanme where you started. With feet in place first cut forward North. One first. A diagram with the footwork for Happo no Giri can be found in one of Saito Sensei's books. That is the starting position described above. In this instance.

Now using the rear foot as a cue as to which direction to step in other words. The sequence when starting in right hanme would thus be: The blade falls virtually under its own power but accelerated by the momentum transmitted to it from the center of a unified body that is "one with the blade".

Once one has this ability it is applied along with an exhale to the completion of any technique. The center is deep allowing one's weight to be drop down from it like a "plumb bob" toward the earth with the weight more or less equally distributed between the feet. The weight shifts slightly to the forward foot via the "spring" in the knees. The choice of footwork varies slightly but there seems to be agreement on the purpose. There are three variations of the stopping place of the upward movement.

The visualization is that one EXTENDS from the internal point ultimately to all directions but you can use the belt knot as a starting cue.

The feet slide as if one could almost. The advantage here is that when you pivot degrees to the rear. One teacher told me that if you do all of these things you will BEGIN to notice a real difference after 2 years! The stance is firm. This movement is timed with an exhale as the center also drops with the blade. This has given you the first 4 directions. This can be initially done by pushing the one point against the knot in the belt.

The step should never be longer than a shoulder width so that one maintains a "defensive" posture. After awhile you add the movement of pivoting your relaxed shoulders arms and torso from side to side around this axis.

Thus you can practice the initial "aim" in the mirror. Now this is already quite a bit to practice! Training methods used for these details consist primarily of very slow walking along a line with something like a tsuba. Don't expect quick progress. On top of this foundation one adds the cut. So now step diagonally to the right South East from the starting orientation and repeat all of the above for the next 4 directions. From this position to change direction to give you the final 4 directions.

The variations seem to be related to how tight the hanme is e. The sense is that one's center extends out as the boken rises and then drops as the boken falls. Basically though. The majority opinion seems to be that the step occurs just prior to the cut. At the start and finish of each shomen cut the arms are extended in a natural curve as in they are in "unbending arm" with the hilt extended from one's center and the point aimed at the center of the throat of an opponent your own size. They are: Then you keep your feet in place and pivot as before to cut behind East from the starting direction.

This is more than a visualization. The outline of the kata is as follows. The jitsuka then steps forward with the right foot drawing the sword into a horizontal strike. At the same time drop the sword vertically around your left shoulder until it lies vertically behind your head.

kenjutsu katas

You're checking teki's cut at the wrist Reverse the sword position and perform kesa giri Perform noto. Strike vertically over and down bending the knees a little as you do so. It consists of nine distinct strikes. Outline 1 Drawing the sword The kata begins with a standing rei.

Looking to the right. The strike should be at about neck height. This does not mean quickly.. Knowing the correct foot position and finishing point for each strike takes a great deal of practice. Focusing on the kata allows you to in effect leave the grading. Finally with your left foot followed by the right.

Aikido List Sender: Aikido List From: Julian Frost Subject: Chiba sensei's bokken katas To: There are many small points to the kata which takes a long time to perfect. The tip of the blade for instance should be perfectly still at the end of each strike. Take your time and try to take this opportunity to relax.. Breathing through each movement at a steady rate will help you to calm yourself. In a grading When performing this kata during a grading In fact the kata is one of precise movement..

Performing the kata General notes To perform the kata well.. In this regard. Shidachi evades. In the final three. Both Kendoka then step into chudan no kamae. Although kata are. Uchidachi takes the initiative and attacks with a men strike. It is possible for you to stumble technically in kata demonstration and yet successfully complete the performance through the maintainance of spirit and focus..

Grab a partner. They step in to meet. Unlike the practice in karate. The names of the Kata are as follows: Ipponme This kata illustrates the effectiveness of a nuki technique. Kendo's kata are more prosaically identified by number. The purpose of the "kata" is to demonstrate the relationship between swordwork and the eight variations of shihonage that Chiba Sensei regularly teaches. Nihonme In this kata. It should be invested with a spirit that makes each move seem as if were being executed for real.

Both Kendoka assume chudan no kamae. Uchidachi steps back another half-step and shidachi comes forward into left jodan. Uchidachi cuts at shidachi's kote. Each attack is meant to deliver a decisive blow. In it. Uchidachi steps back a half-step as if to try again. When a trainee practices kata.

Both assume. Kendo's kata are divided into two groups: The seven kata are practiced using only the long sword. They move forward to meet. Shidachi then steps back into the center.. Each defensive move must be executed as if the attack were driven by killing intent.

At this point. Both practitioners assume gedan no kamae. Shidachi then moves to the center. Shidachi then assumes left jodan and dominates the situation.

Toshishiro Obata Naked Blade | Sword | Swordsmanship

Uchidachi steps forward right and attacks with a thrust to the throat. They assume hodoku and step back five steps to the starting line.

They take three steps forward. Shidachi assumes chudan. Shidachi raises his bokken slightly. Uchidachi steps back in response.

They step in and raise swords slowly to chudan. Gohonme This kata utilizes the suriage technique to deflect and simultaneously attack.

Shidachi takes a half-step back. The final thrust is not parried. They step in. Exhale and cut L Inhale. Yohonme At the starting point. With the sword still dominating uchidachi. At the first step. Both are now back in the center. Uchidachi assumes left jodan no kamae. Shidachi slides his bokken upward. Both Kendoka then assume chudan in center.

Shidachi assumes wakigamae. Neho Zenshin Zengo-Kiri. Shidachi steps forward with his right foot. Shidachi parries the thrust by turning his bokken on his side and pointing it to his right. Their swords clash high and are brought down into chudan. He then begins a series of three more steps. The Yoshinkan has its roots in theoriginal teachings of Morihei Ueshiba and is much favoured by the Japanese Police because of its superior effective- ness in practical situations.

To complete what can only be describedas a comprehensive and well rounded education in the classical martial arts. Raised in the clean air of Gunma prefecture in the centre of Japan's largest island of Honshu. The Author. From that time until this. Toshishiro was introduced at a very early age to the martial arts by his father who was proficient in Ju Ken Jutsu bayonetfighting and Maniwa Nen Ryu a composite martial arts involving weapons as well as unarmed grappling techniques.

Gozo Shioda's brand of Aikido is fast. So as to emulate as closely as possible both in scope and excellence. Since leaving Japan. The end result of the efforts of himself and his teachers is only too evident from the fact that for three consecutive years he was loriken-Ryu All Japan Tameshigiri test cutting Champion. Japanese archery and use of the spear as well as many of the Ryukyu Kobudo disciplines. In addition to this.

Founder of his own organisation in the United States for the study of traditional martial arts. Nakamura Sensei would stride up to a huge makiwara and in an instant draw his sword and cut it cleanly through without fuss or theatrical gestures. To support himself while he continued his studies. It would be difficult to imagine a person better qualified to present this unique. In the author's own words. The Author fail to be impressed by it. The conclusion being therefore.

Fortunately for this and future generations. As a result of this acceptance of rank in exchange for the obligation to serve unto death. Thus Kenjutsu for the Samurai. Disobedience to a superior or an infraction of the rules of etiquette could still result in death at one's own hand. Japan's desire to embrace the new democratic ideals and become a member of the family of nations. By This combinationof techniques from various old schools.

To the Samurai this must have seemed nothing short of revolutionary. Saito and Asari training halls were teaching an easier less vigorous form of swordplay to their customers. In Other schools of swordsmanship still in existence at the time of the Meiji Restoration. As the age of democracy dawned. While they had for countless generations occupied a uniquely privileged position in society.

Founded to train military personnel in swordsmanship.

The leather covered bamboo practice sword. This change from classical art to popular sport was so rapid that scarcely thirty years after the Meiji Restoration. To the Samurai. Techniques were reduced to a bare minimum to simplify training and make Kendo more interesting: Seven were subsequently reprieved. During the 's various foreign officials were cut down by rebellious Samurai clans. Japan was changing so fast that the Samurai.

They therefore chose military life. DouglasSladen was prompted to write in his book about Japan published in On December 9th for example. He concludes. So fine and noble. For many however. As the old ways declined. Eighteen of this group were sentenced to death by 'hara-kiri'.

The army. Toyama-Ryu Batto Jutsu cherry. Many modifications in technique and equipment had been made which. Kendo was by now a widespread and popular sport. The highly effective. Younger officers. This elite group went into battle armed with swords alone against. Army officers anticipating an encounter with their opposite numbers on the battlefield.

This respect for the swordsmanship of Japanese officers was probably based on eye witness accounts in the field. It may however be due in part to the startling success of the Nanpo Kirikomitai from kirikomu-to cut. Instruction is given in differentgroups according to rank. In the spartan confines of military academies. It states. This as we know became in the course of time. Conclusive proof if any were needed of the deterioration of both the activity itself and the manners of those who practised it.

One graduate. Bayonet fighting. Japanese fencing. In the Rikugun Toyama Gakko both the techniques and the spirit of the Samurai were kept alive in the most practicalway as author Hillis Lory recounts in the publication.

You will see them leading their troops with swords waving. Shoot these officers as quickly as you can. Kenjutsu did however manage to survive. He continues. The Army in Japanese Life". But this is not intended as a criticism of these activities as such. The techniques are combat effective.

As a result it was able to avoid the pressure exerted by the occupying US forces at the end of the Second World War.

He maintains that until showmanship and competition are removed from Kendo. For men who have faced an enemy at a sword's length. At close quarters. As such it has remained a practical and effective martial art. For without the essential exercise of tameshigiri.

One of the instructors of this group has stated that once they were within approximately ninety feet of the enemies lines. Kendo and laido must seem decandent indeed. For those seeking the way of the Samurai. Master swordsman Taizaburo Nakamura an expert in Kendo as well as the leading exponent of the Toyama and Nakamura styles of Kenjutsu.

Until now. Toyama Ryu Batto Jutsu has remained little known outside of military circles. Toyama-Ryu Batto Jutsu infantry equipped with modern weapons. When the enemy caught sight of expert swordsmen bearingdown upon him and obviously intent upon their task of overwhelming his position despite the odds. Add to this its ability to destroy evil which gives it a stainless purity.

Swords by the brilliant but demented smith Muramasa Senzo Setshu? Part of the Imperial Regalia sanshu no jingi the possesion of which is a necessary prerequisite for ruling our country. For families of the Samurai caste. To the people of the Empire of Japan. Some fine swords that have been handed down through countless generations of Japan's oldest families are literally national treasures.

Since the earliest times. Some swords are even considered to have particular traits or characteristics. With the sword firmly secured in the waist band edge up. Suffice it to say that to the Japanese Nation. The swords that seem to have been in general use during the Jokoto period priorto AD are of the straight type. If confirmation of the curse were needed it was not long in coming. The adoption of the efficient curved cutting edge was a massive step.

An instant after he plunged the dagger into his abdomen as punishment for his suspected treachery. Muramasa blades were greatly feared by the Tokugawa family.

From this time onwards.

From the beginningof the Koto Oldsword period in AD when the curved cutting blade replaced the straight stabbing one. The Tokugawas so hated the blades of this troubled genius that whenever possible they had them destroyed. Historical evidence suggests that they were made by Chinese and Korean smiths working in Japan. There seems to be no standard design. It is generally agreed that the first swords of the type that became the standard weapon of the Samurai. This seemingly insignificant modification in the manner in which the sword was worn.

Where previously a smith would make his own steel from iron sand or ore. The demand for weapons was insatiable. The Japanese Sword The Art of Fire Iron and Stone Kenjutsu the use of the already drawn sword and Batto-jutsu drawing and simultaneously cutting with the sword became separate but parallel disciplines. During the Sengoku Jidai. This decline. The resultant sword while beautiful in appearance.

I view as an abomination. When the smoke cleared over the battlefield of Sekigahara at the conclusion of the bloody battle of In the two and a half centuries that followed.

It survived only because it was visually beautiful and the peaceful years of the Tokugawa Jidai lead to ignorance of swords and swordsmanship. The sword constructed by encasing a soft core of metal in a hard jacket of steel that become popular during the years preceding Sekigahara.

Formerly a treasure of the Heike clan.. The swords. History would soon stage an event that would make this process inevitable. They do not deserve therefore to share the fine reputation established by the blades of the master smiths. But worse. During forging. The true beauty of a sword is in its sharpness. Kamakura and early Muromachi periods. Swords that chip as soon as they contact a hard object. With written records almost non-existent.

Tachi are mounted to be worn edge downwards. Tachi style blade by Yasuhiro of the type used during the late Heian. From my own lengthy research. General Nogi. I discovered this from my study of blades made by smiths such as Muramasa which are only adulterated with 'Hirazukuri' style tanto or knife by Yasuhiro.

I have found that the key to forging fine swords. I cite an incident that illustrates the decline in quality of Japanese blades during the Shin-To new sword period. His wife. In this way. Although these swords often demonstrate great ascetic beauty in the grains and patterns that appear on the surface of the steel as a result of skilful1 polishing.

To prove my case. When the Emperor Meiji died in His early business career was interrupted by the Second World War. This is the only way to test the practical value of a sword. Exponents of these schools have used my blades to cut sheet steel. By careful choice of raw material. I feel that I have succeeded in proving this in the most practical way possible. I hope that what I have discovered may make this possible. To-Sh6 Kobayashi a seeker of ancient truths.

These days. In he qualified. Yasuhiro Kobayashi was born in the third year of the reign of the Emperor Taisho in Yamanashi-Ken. Only by swords being forged in the old way can the true art of iron fire and stone be kept alive.

In he began his study of the swordsmith's art under the To-she Akimoto. For To-sho Kobayashi. It has completedmore than three hundred demonstrations of cutting bamboo. His swords are known for their extreme strength and and their ness in style and quality to the finest swords of the Koto period. The sword used by the author throughout the production of this book. Holding the sword in the right hand demonstrates a peaceful intent as it cannot readily be used without first transferring it to the other hand.

Wearing the Sword 1. To change to the left hand prior to training Around the date of his fifteenth birthday. After the transfer of the sword with its tying cord to your left hand. From that time forth it would never be far from his reach. The possession of a sword by one not entitled to do so in previous ages in Japan. Train hard and with sincerity. It is only fitting therefore that every time you arm yourself.

As with all things that possess great power. Just as the blade shone with the polish imparted by the toil and expertise of the masterswordpolisher. From an early age. The Samurai could take life without question or fear of punishment. Apart from being his badge of office. The Japanese sword is a fine but dangerous weapon. Acase of great power being balanced by enormous responsibility. Wearing the Sword 3. Wearing the sword was and is a serious matter. You are uniting yourself with the spirits of thousands of brave fighting men who.

The sword is the man wielding it. It can easily kill or seriously injure and must be treated at all times with respect. Form a loop in the 'sageo' and pass it under the hakama tying cords. To secure the sword safely in position after you have thrust it through your sash or 'obi'.

Wearing the Sword Pull to tighten. Wearing the Sword 7. To untie the knot securing the sageo tothe hakama cords. Then passing it forward and upwardsover the front of the scabbard.

The sword m w be secured in a different a fashionby graspingthe sageo where it hangs from the 'kurigata' or sword fixing knob. Ready position with the sword tied in the alternative way. As we pause.

When training is done. It is a request for help from the myriad powers of the universe. What they learned by repeatedly risking their lives has been passed down to us to do with.

The Formal Bow 1. Just as the Swordsmith in making a sword combines the elements of iron. Stand to attention with the sword in the right hand. Prior to training. Bow at the waist tothe senior or 'kamiza' side of the practice hall.

It is with thanks that we bow to them. We are grateful for all these things. Just as one day precedes another. It marks the beginning and the end. Those of us who follow the old ways. The bow tothe martial arts is what the sunrise and sunset are to the day. Return to an upright position. Move the left hand back to its original position and stand to attention. With the left hand. The Formal Bow -' 3. Bow to the instructor. The Formal Bow 7. Holding your sword horizontal.

Guide the butt of the sword into the bow.. The Formal Bow Raise the sword in front of you grasping Perform the final salute by sliding the hand along the hilt and lightly cupping the pommel 'kashira' with the palm. After tying the sword as shown in the previous section.. The Formal Bow r This action is performed every time the sword is placed in position or re-sheathed Strike hard.

Channel your energy. A strong twisting motion as if wringing water from a towel is exerted when cutting. A distance approximately equal to the width of two fingers should separate your hands.

Grasp the hilt firmly in the left hand. Tenouchi The Grip Study carefully. To deliver a cut in the heat of battle with sufficient speed and power to mortally wound an enemy.

The distance between your heels should approximately twice the length of your f. The tip of your sword is aimed at your opponent's throat. Feet position for Gedan-Gamae. The sword is held so that the point is between twelve and eighteen inches from the floor.

The Stances Gedan-Gamae 'Gedanr or lower position. Feet position for Waki-Gamae. In both variations of the stance. The Stances Waki-Gamae In 'waki-gamae' the sword is held to the side and the weight is evenly distributed between both feet. The weight is evenly distributed between both feet. Feet position for Hasso-Gamae. The Stances Jodan-Gamae 'Jodan-gamae' upper posture as viewed from the front. Opposite side view showing how the left hand is positioned about one fist length above.

Side view of right 'jodan-gamae'. Feet position for Jodan-Gamae. The kamae exercise starts with 'chudangarnae' from which.

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The Stances Exercise Sequence Step back with the right foot into 'waki. Keeping your left foot in the s e position. The Stances Exercise Sequence 5. Then step forward with the right foot. Slide the left foot forward slightly.. The Stances Exercise Sequence 7. To complete this exercise. Slide your left foot to the rear at the same ing the arms.

He must therefore not only be strong and highly skilled in each technique. For example. Asked to do so with 'kiri-age' upward diagonal cut from 'waki-gamae' and the story would be a very different one. This level of ability is only ever the result of long term serious training.

The Toyama Ryu swordsman is expected to cut. As such it places great emphasis not only on the way that cuts are made.

MODESTA from Rhode Island
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