Fiction Key Features Of Modern History Pdf


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NO. PDF generated on: AEDT and ideas that have shaped the contemporary world and key drivers of change including: characteristics of modern historical representation; and the skills that are required to investigate. Booktopia has Key Features of Modern History 4ed by Bruce Dennett. Buy a discounted Book with Other Items of Key Features of Modern. Want a Perfect Response for your HSC Modern History Personality?.. Key Features of Modern History by Bruce Dennett and Stephen Dixon - Note: this one is.

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KEY FEATURES OF MODERN HISTORY 1. Introduction. In this chapter you will investigate the causes and consequences of the American Civil War, one. [Matching item] Key features of modern history 1 / Bruce Dennett, Stephen Dixon, Bernie Howitt, Angela Wong. South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press, - Book assess. 2, Year 12 / Bernie Howitt, Bruce Dennett, Christopher Kenna, Hamish Bragg, Stephen Dixon. Get Free Read & Download Files Key Features Of Modern History PDF. KEY FEATURES OF MODERN HISTORY. Download: Key Features Of Modern History .

It features a fictional character now commonly known as Rosie the Riveter who became a cultural icon in the United States. The poster was originally intended to improve production and to boost the morale of women working at the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company and encourage them to participate fully in production. It was not until the early s that the poster was rediscovered and became famous. Today, Rosie the Riveter has become a symbol of feminism and womens economic power. Gives you access to all student book content and online resources Looks like the student book for easy reference Zoom, search, add or share notes and bookmarks Navigate by page number, table of contents or thumbnails. If using an ebook network version, notes and bookmarks are stored in each local computers cache and do not transfer across multiple computers.

Overall, conditions for workers during the first decades of the Industrial Revolution were poor. Brutally long hours for poor pay, in badly lit and uncomfortable conditions became commonplace.

Although harsh working conditions for the men, women and children working in factories and mines were common, there were also exceptions. Source study activities expose students to a range of primary and secondary sources designed to bring the past to life.

All sources are accompanied by activities that challenge students to engage with the past and develop a range of historical skills. Show how the development of each machine changed the production of cotton and inspired the invention of later machines. Technological innovations in the cotton industry The flying shuttle, invented by John Kay in , introduced a more efficient way of weaving on hand-looms.

It only required one weaver to shoot the yarn from one side of the width of the loom to the other. This was especially useful for very wide looms. Review, Interpret, Apply and Extend tasks appear throughout each chapter providing a range of activities suited to different abilities and learning styles. Explain what each development contributed to the processing of cotton and wool. Source 1. Chapter content is organised into two- or four-page units to support teaching and learning.

Source So ource 1. The most important invention of the Industrial Revolution not a single item was of equipment or technology. Instea way of producing d, it was a goods on a large scale using many specialised mach workers and inery on one site. This method of produ became known as ction the factory syste m.

Before the introd of the factory system uction , manufacturing often took place workshops or in in small local workers cottag es hence the term industries. Local cottage trades and crafts people such as black wheelwrights whee smiths, l makers , cartwrights cart makers , potter millers and weave s, rs used their skills, muscle power or power to largely handwater make items.

In contr ast, the factory system brought together large numbers of workers in a single factory. Few of these site or workers were skilled because most of manufacturing was the done by machines.

Instead, the many performed tasks workers that were repetitive and required little machines were at skill. The first powered by water with waterwheels, steam and next by then by electricity. The factor y system itself was possible by a comb made ination of the techn ological innovation knowledge that emerg s and ed during this period. The first infant its roots back s school anywhere the young children in the world was of workers in Rober set up for t Owens cotton mill Schools were mean in New Lanark, Scotla t to prepare peopl e for work; there nd.

Do you and factor y syste think there might m can be have been a better reasons for your way to organise schoo opinions. Give Machines are expensive, encoura factory owners to keep them ging operating continously, leading working of 12 or more hours to long a day, six days a week.

Workers had to endure cramped , dirty and noisy working conditions, alongsid hundreds of machines operatin e g non-stop. Constant chimney smoke from countless factories creates environmental damage. In there were power looms mechanical looms used to weave cloth in Great Britain.

By there were Stokers constantly shovel coal into the boiler to keep the engine and machines operating. APPLY 1. Select one product and create a poster that shows the journey from raw material to finished product. Provide some examples of the goods produced in a cottage industry.

The introduction of machine employ workers without s meant that factories could specialised skills, includin g women and children who were cheaper to employ. Children were seen as ideal between machines to reload workers, able to squeeze broken threads. Accident spindles and repair s and injuries were common. Before the introduction of electrical power, machine were powered by coal-pow s ered engine could power hundred steam engines.

One s of looms. Strange but true boxes present a range of weird and wonderful historical facts designed to entertain and provoke discussion. Oxford Insight History delivers new opportunities for teachers and students to personalise teaching and learning through obook and assess: It includes videos, interactive learning modules and weblinks, and can be accessed both online and offline. Access your entire cloud-based obook library anywhere, on any device, with one simple llog in. View as web-book web or in page view, vie with options to download op suit any device devi.

Students can add notes, bookmark, highlight, save answers and export their work. Teachers can set students st homework, tests, aand tasks mapped directly to NSW syllabus outcomes. Monitor student participation and track performance by graphing and comparing individual and group results. Select from hundreds of auto-marking assessment tasks at various difficulty levels foundation, standard and advanced. Create your tests tailored Cr Crea eate te you our own own te test stss ta tail illored ed ddirectly irirec ectltlyy to the needs of your students or assign ready-made tests complete with marking guidelines and suggested solutions.

Features contained at the end of every section of every chapter allow you to easily identify gaps in student understanding and target further development in these areas. Student progress can be measured directly against syllabus outcomes either formally or informally with regular diagnostic tests and more openended tasks that focus on engagement and skill development. Checkpoint questions appear at the end of every chapter section. They are linked directly to a content dot point in the NSW History syllabus and are designed to help you identify areas of weakness in student understanding.

Key features of modern history / Bruce Dennett, Stephen Dixon - Details - Trove

They can be used flexibly completed verbally in class to support formative assessment or set as written tests to support summative assessment. Trans production, steam one cotton mills, iron ng: Rich Tasks appear at the end of every chapter section. They are more open-ended, inquiry-based tasks that often involve an element of fun.

They are designed to engage students and focus them on developing specific historical skills. In these Rich Tasks, you will be learning and applying the following historical skills: Brune a navigable ever tunnel under and engineered river. Running nd and Wales, it south-west Engla l main rail line. Brune remains Britains ulled, world's first iron-h also designed the ship, propeller-driven and red steam-powe.

Britain the SS Great. Produce an Cotton from plant as a the Industrial Revolu its starting point crucial product of the year , from Cotton became a cotton mills. Research the owned the plantation in the harvested. Who was planted and 1 Locate a cotton under? What shows how the cotton did that labour exist presentation that What conditions labour was used?

What harvested? Use the cotton reach 2 Explain how ny. What is the British the in h 3 Outline the journe goes throug process the cotton d product? What will ts into both the s innovators uals offers insigh Investigating famou significant individ achievements of and life the of A study its legacy.

Rank them nature of the Indust men on the next to the one iptions of the three world you live in the descr g brief shapin the in 1 Read significant has been the most rankings. Research his or to the modern world cant. Edison known inventors famous and best States. Although one of the most tion in the United Thomas Edison is tion Industrial Revolu Industrial Revolu contributed to, the primarily on the was part of, and textbooks to focus for a long list of and rs nsible teache respo for it is common ational.

Edison was. He was also menon, it was intern that recorded sound as a British pheno and the gramophone ing the electric light includ ions invent global success of film industry. Each Checkpoint is supported by a set of three separate student worksheets available electronically as part of the Teacher obook. These worksheets are graded to support, consolidate or extend students of different abilities and personalise learning in your class.

Like Checkpoint questions, student worksheets are linked directly to content dot points and skills from the syllabus with the goal of providing tailored support to ensure better results.

The Stage 5 curriculum provides a study of the history of the making of the modern world from to It was a period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked and thought. It was an era of nationalism and imperialism, and the colonisation of Australia was part of the expansion of European power. The history of the modern world and Australia from to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context, follows. The twentieth century became a critical period in Australias social, cultural, economic and political development.

The transformation of the modern world during a time of political turmoil, global conflict and international cooperation provides a necessary context for understanding Australias development, its place within the Asia-Pacific region, and its global standing.

How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period? What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period? How was Australian society affected by other significant global events and changes in this period? In Stage 5, four 4 of the six 6 depth studies are to be studied. The remaining four 4 depth studies offer internal electives.

ONE elective will be studied in detail from each of the chosen depth studies. The following three 3 depth studies focus on the history of the modern world and Australia from to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. Students briefly outline: What were the consequences of World War II? How did these consequences shape the modern world?

Making a better world? ONE of the following to be studied: Australia and Asia. Topic 2a Making a nation Topic 2b Asia and the world. The globalising world. School-developed topic from either of the Stage 5 Overviews. UN peacekeeping The Gulf Wars and the war in Afghanistan The rising influence of China and India since the end of the Cold War Developments in twentieth and twenty-first century technology Other topic drawn from the two overviews.

Continuity and change: Cause and effect: Empathetic understanding: The steam engine is not only one of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution; it is also a symbol of the types of changes that took place around the world between and It is therefore reasonable to ask when the period we refer to as ancient history ends and modern history begins.

Historians consider that the modern world also known as the industrial world developed from the s onwards. Many of the developments that took place from this point in time are the things that we recognise and take for granted in society today, including: Stage 5 History is all about the modern world and modern history. In Depth Study 1 Making a better world? These developments went on to have a direct impact on the world in which you live today. These include: The Industrial Revolution was a period of profound change from the s to the early s.

New methods of farming, manufacturing, communication and transport were introduced. The impact of these changes went far beyond just altering how goods were manufactured the way people worked and lived, and where they lived changed dramatically. Society itself was transformed. The many changes associated with the Industrial Revolution are also linked to mass movements of peoples in this period the transatlantic slave trade, growing migration to the Americas and the transportation of convicts to Australia.

Economic and social changes can also be linked to a rise in progressive ideas and political movements. These ideas and movements led to the French and American revolutions, and the development of democratic systems of government around the world. These changes now referred to as the Agricultural Revolution were gradual. They began in the middle of the 17th century and continued through the 19th century.

Part of the Agricultural Revolution included fencing off many small areas of land, previously shared by the community, to create larger private farms.

This process, known as the enclosures, benefited wealthy people who were granted these lands for their private use and profit. The enclosures led to more efficient farming, but at the expense of people who had relied on the land for their daily needs. This new system, along with innovations in crop farming and animal breeding, meant that more crops could be grown and animals could be raised by far fewer people.

While these innovations certainly led to improved livestock and crop yields, they also had consequences for a previously agricultural society. Farm workers and their families were forced from their homes, and people moved away from rural villages to towns and cities in search of work.

They became a new class of workers, providing the labour force needed in the new factories and mills. Key inventions and innovations The first industries that were transformed by innovations in the Industrial Revolution were related to the production of iron, coal, cotton and wool.

Inventions and new practices in one industry tended to affect others. For example, the development of coal-powered steam engines led to an increased demand for coal. The expansion of new and deeper coal mines required better steam engines for the pumping machines that removed water from the bottom of mines. Improved steam engines that could power hundreds of spinning and weaving machines led to what is arguably the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution the factory system.

As steam engines developed, they also powered new modes of transport, including steam-powered trains and ships, and were later used to generate electricity. Conduct research to find out if and how the following inventions or innovations were involved in the development of the industry you have chosen: Living and working conditions Working conditions for British factory and mine workers in particular were harsh and demanding during the Industrial Revolution.

Men, women and children worked in unsafe conditions and for many hours six days a week and up to 16 hours a day. Through the 19th century, demand for reforms to regulate working conditions grew louder in Britain, particularly for child labour. This led to a series of government inquiries and legislation that regulated the minimum employment age, wages and the length of the working week.

By the s: Many workers lived in slum areas close to the factories where they were employed. Families had no choice but to live in overcrowded conditions, often with no access to fresh water or proper sewerage. Consequences of these unhygienic living conditions included regular outbreaks of disease, a short life expectancy just 29 years, in Liverpool in and a high infant mortality rate.

Later in the period, conditions improved as slums were torn down to be replaced by new urban settlements that provided heating, running water and sewerage systems.

Other benefits of the Industrial Revolution also came to have positive impacts on the lives of urban workers: Source O. Her job was to pull heavy coal carts along dark, narrow tunnels, using a harness and belt. Do you think dark satanic mills is a fair description of the conditions they faced? It transformed Britains economy, and Britain became for a time the worlds leading economic and industrial power. Britains population quadrupled from an estimated 6.

Britain changed from an agricultural society to an urban society. In the growing towns and cities, a middle class emerged: Suburbs surrounding the cities later developed. Britain in Manufacturing was smallscale, with goods produced in homes and small workshops by skilled craftspeople. Most farm work was done through the physical efforts of people and animals. Waterwheels were the only machines; they harnessed the power of rivers to grind grain. Workers and their families often lived close to factory sites in appalling conditions.

Steam-powered machinery led to the mass production of goods in factories and mills. Skilled labour was no longer required for many jobs; instead, men, women and children were employed to keep the machines running continuously.

Divisions between social classes became more obvious. Many writers of the time were appalled by the plight of the working poor whose lives were cut short by poverty, disease and injury. The lifestyles of the working poor were in no way similar to those of the rich industrialists who employed them.

Social thinkers such as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels found a following among workers, and ideas such as socialism and communism started to develop. This period also saw the formation of workers groups, such as trade unions, along with a demand for political reform from groups such as the Chartists. Without the raw materials and income from overseas colonies, the Industrial Revolution in Britain may never have taken place.

From the late 16th century onwards, the major European powers Britain, France, Spain and Portugal all pushed to increase their control of new territories across the globe. Initially, colonies were sought out for the potential wealth and power they could provide, but as the Industrial Revolution took hold, Britains growing industries also required more raw materials, such as timber, cotton and ores.

These resources could be taken from their expanding colonies in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific region. They also provided new markets for the goods being produced in Britain in ever-increasing quantities.

During the 19th century, a number of key European countries and the United States became centres of world power. According to economic historian Paul Kennedy, the European powers control of the global land mass increased from 35 per cent in to 67 per cent in the s.

By , they controlled over 80 per cent of the global land mass. The development of the steam engine, the mass production of iron and steel and machinemade tools gave these countries major economic and military advantages over the inhabitants of territories who opposed them. In just a few hours on 2 September , British troops crushed an opposition force of 50 tribesmen, killing 10 and wounding even more. The British were armed with rifles, artillery and machine guns, while the locals fought with muskets a firearm used by infantry , spears and swords.

The British lost fewer than 50 men. Do you think they would be a reliable and historically accurate representation of the Boer War? Along with this rise, the distribution of people in different parts of the world also started to change as people moved to new lands.

There were three main reasons why people moved from one region to another at this time:. Use the information and sources you find to create a visual or written diary from the viewpoint of an African slave. As a consequence of these movements of people, North Americas population rose from 0. The population in the Pacific region grew from 2 million to 6 million in the same period as Britains colonies in Australia and New Zealand continued to prosper.

Forced transportation of slaves Slavery has been a part of human society since ancient times. In many societies and on many continents, including Africa, captured enemies were kept as slaves.

As Source O. By the end of the 17th century, a triangular trade was firmly established: Historians estimate that over 12 million Africans were transported to the slave markets of Europe and the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries. Forced transportation of convicts As we have seen, two consequences of industrialisation and the Agricultural Revolution in Britain were a rapid increase in population and the movement of people from farms to cities.

As people crowded into towns and cities, overcrowded and unhealthy living conditions became commonplace. Those who endured such conditions often sought refuge in alcohol and other drugs.

Crime was everywhere in the slums of larger cities such as London, as people who were unemployed or on low wages struggled to survive. Faced with overcrowded gaols, British authorities starting housing convicted prisoners in rotting hulks that were kept moored in harbours and ports. Hulks were ships no longer considered seaworthy.

As the hulks became overcrowded and unsafe, another solution was found the transportation of convicts first to North America and then to Britains colonies in Australia.

The first fleet of convict ships to Australia sailed from Portsmouth in England with convicts and around marines and their families. The ships landed in what became known as Sydney Cove on 26 January The European settlement of Australia had begun. Between and the last shipment of convicts in , a total of male and female convicts had been transported to Australia.

Free movement of settlers The brutality associated with the forced movement of slaves and convicts tends to overshadow the stories of the free settlers. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of people left their homelands in search of safety and better opportunities for their families.

The pull factor of the prospect of cheap or free grants of lands drew millions of immigrants away from overcrowded cities in Europe to the New World North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

There were also push factors reasons why people want or need to leave their homes that played a role, such as a desire to escape poverty, famine or political upheaval. The discovery of gold in California in and Australia in also brought a new wave of immigrants from Europe and, for the first time, large numbers from China.

The making of a modern Australia As we have seen, Australias settlement by Europeans was linked to changes in British society caused by the Industrial Revolution. Convict settlements in New South Wales and its other Australian colonies were seen by Britain as a solution for its overcrowded jails. This itself was a consequence of the mass movement of people from farming villages to the new factory towns, where overcrowded and harsh living conditions contributed to rising crime.

Australias settlement was also linked to Britains expansion of its colonies, at a time when European powers were competing for increasing control of the globe. Exports of wool, timber and sugar from its Australian colonies increased the wealth of the British Empire, and contributed to Australias developing economy. Australia became a place where ex-convicts and free migrants found opportunities for new lives and prosperity, particularly in the boom decades after the discovery of gold in the s.

Convicts and settlers provided the labour that helped build a new nation. They also brought progressive political ideas, which played a crucial role in the establishment of Australias democratic system of government and its national identity. Describe the impact of European colonisation on Indigenous peoples: Since medieval times, the religious principles and teachings of the Catholic Church had formed the foundation of societies across Europe. But from around , new ideas and theories challenged established ways of thinking and the teachings of the Church.

This period is known as the Enlightenment a time when thinkers questioned existing ideas about science, religion, education and the way society should be governed. This led to the development of a number of progressive ideas and movements, such as: Two great events that also helped shape the modern world were the American War of Independence and the French Revolution , both of which challenged the traditions and authorities of their time, forever changing the nature of society.

Identify the ideas from the Enlightenment that influenced: Create a graphic organiser to summarise the background, key events and result of: Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system that relies on private ownership of industry and the means of production such as machinery to make goods. As the Industrial Revolution changed the way goods were manufactured, private industrialists and entrepreneurs, rather than governments, took on the financial risks of new enterprises and made the profits.

Great Britain was the major capitalist economy in the 19th century. Industrialisation had a massive impact on the USA, and from the early 20th century particularly after World War I the USA became the largest capitalist economy in the world.

Socialism An alternative viewpoint to capitalism was socialism. This economic system allowed governments the state to play a crucial role in the allocation of resources and distribution of wealth.

In socialism, the means of production are owned collectively, and the state manages and distributes them.

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Although socialism had its origins in the 18th century, Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx developed the ideas of socialism as we know it now to counteract the capitalist tendency to overproduction and the exploitation of workers. Their socialist theories became increasingly popular as the realities of an unrestricted capitalist economy saw growing poverty among those who only had their labour to sell.

Egalitarianism Egalitarianism is the idea of equality among people. The word comes from the French gal, meaning equal.

Egalitarians strive for all people to be considered of equal worth regardless of social status. They also believe that all people should be offered the same opportunities in society.

As a political philosophy, egalitarianism helped to justify working-class demands for political representation. Critics of egalitarianism argue that some people are not capable of performing important roles in society. In reality, resistance to egalitarianism was fuelled by a desire to keep the working class uneducated and uninvolved in politics and social life.

Nationalism Until the 18th century, people in Europe usually identified themselves with their local village or ruler. The concept of a nation, as it is understood today, started emerging after the American and French revolutions, which led to strong and independent nations and the concept of nationalism. During the 19th century, European peoples started to identify themselves as united and loyal to a particular country or state, rather than to a religion, monarch or empire.

Feelings of nationalism led to calls for the creation of independent nations. For example: From the s, Irish nationalists demanded self-government or independence from Great Britain.

In , Greece freed itself from the Ottoman Empire. In , Belgium won its independence from the Dutch. In , revolutions broke out across Europe as different nations started demanding the right to exist independently.

None of the revolutions were successful, but by both Italy and Germany had emerged as unified nations. By , the drive for nationalism in the Balkans would be a key contributor to the outbreak of World War I. Imperialism In basic terms, imperialism is the control of countries or territories by foreign powers. As we have seen, from the 18th to the early 20th century European states imposed their economic, political and cultural domination over their colonies.

New nations such as Italy and Germany were aggressive in acquiring empires because they felt they had been left behind in the 19thcentury race for colonies.

As the USA grew into a major economic power in the late 19th century, economic imperialism also emerged. Throughout the 20th century, American products became well known globally, conquering markets without ever using a weapon. Darwinism Darwinism is the theory of evolution, which was brought to prominence with the publication of Charles Darwins book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.

Darwins scientific theories challenged literal interpretations of the Bible. His research showed that species evolved over time, rather than being created in a moment by a divine creator a god or other supernatural entity. He argued that the fittest species survived and that those species unable to adapt perished. When applied to societies, in a way Darwin never imagined, the survival of the fittest theory was used to justify European conquest of Indigenous peoples throughout the world and the submission of lower classes of people this was known as social Darwinism.

Many people regarded social Darwinism as a rationale for not interfering with what was regarded as the natural inferiority of some social or racial groups. Chartism As industrialisation came to dominate British life, workers started to organise into groups to protect themselves.

This was necessary because factory and mine owners made greater profits if they paid their workers less and did not consider their basic health and safety in the workplace. Trade unions were formed in response to these conditions in order to protect the rights of workers.

In , a group with connections to trade unions demanded political representation for the working class. At this time, the right to vote was given only to men over 21 who owned property of a certain value.

Membership of parliament was limited to wealthy property owners. The followers of this group were called Chartists because they proposed a Peoples Charter. The movement itself became known as Chartism. Its goal was to give all men the vote and stop the wealthy from dominating political decision-making. The Chartists and other early trade unionists were met with political repression, and several were transported to Australia as convicts, where they continued to demand equal political representation see Source O.

They became popular heroes, and were pardoned and returned to England after serving two years of their sentence. The period from until the outbreak of World War I in saw a range of fundamental changes in technology across industries such as agriculture, manufacturing, metal production, transportation and communications. These advances made such an impact on the way people lived and worked that the period became known as the Industrial Revolution.

The industries at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution were located in Britain. New inventions and machinery powered by coal and oil transformed the speed and scale of manufacturing.

Mass-produced goods made from iron, steel, cotton and wool flooded onto the market. People moved into cities from impoverished rural towns to meet the demand for factory workers. Over the period, these rapid changes fed into each other to produce new materials, new products and new ideas. They also introduced new problems and new challenges.

For better or worse, the Industrial Revolution changed the world forever. In Britain, Samuel Crompton invents an improved spinning machine known as Cromptons mule that could spin different types of yarn. In Britain, Richard Arkwright develops the water frame, a spinning machine powered by a waterwheel. British weaver John Kay invents the flying shuttle, which makes weaving using hand-looms more efficient. In the USA, Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin a machine that makes the processing of raw cotton much faster.

In Belgium, Etienne Lenoir develops an engine that is the basis of the internal combustion engine. English scientist Michael Faraday produces the first continuous flow of electrical current. In Britain, George Stephenson builds the Rocket, regarded as the first commercially successful steam locomotive.

In Britain, Charles Parsons develops a steam turbine to generate electricity. German engineers Gottfried Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach develop the first four-wheeled automobile. Beginning in Britain in the s, a series of technological, economic and social changes took place in farming, manufacturing, transport and communications that were unlike anything that had happened before. In this section we look at these new technologies and the conditions in Britain that influenced the beginnings and spread of the Industrial Revolution.

Most farms produced just enough food from crops and livestock sheep and cattle to feed the local villagers. Despite this, agriculture was still the main economic activity in Britain. By comparison, manufacturing, mining and trade employed relatively few people.

Manufacturing was, for the most part, small and localised. Tools used in the manufacture of most goods such as carts, mills and looms were basic and were powered by people, animals or waterwheels that harnessed the power of fast-flowing rivers and streams.

In most cases, the working day began at sunrise and ended at sunset. Roads were poor and most people travelled on foot or by horse. As a result, most people seldom travelled far from the places where they were born and worked. Towns and villages were small and self-contained. Illness was common because of poor hygiene and bad or non-existent sewerage systems. Diet was poor and average life expectancy was low. British society was divided into strict social classes based on wealth and social position.

The noble or aristocratic families made up only 1 per cent of the population but controlled about 15 per cent of the nations wealth. The Industrial Revolution begins During the Industrial Revolution, Britains population quadrupled from an estimated 6.

British society moved from rural to urban communities, and Britain was transformed through the development of: The factory system relied on large numbers of workers and machinery to manufacture vast quantities of goods in one place. The growth of factories and textile mills transformed Britains economy and society. Before the Industrial Revolution, 80 per cent of the population lived in the countryside and only 20 per cent in cities.

Industrialisation reversed this pattern. By , 80 per cent of people in Britain were living in a major city or town. Supplies of coal became vital to fuel steam engines and, later, electrical power stations.

As travelling conditions improved, people travelled more and lived less isolated lives. The growth of cities and industries also saw the emergence of a new social class that became known as the middle class.

This new group of people came from a broad range of backgrounds and were neither wealthy aristocratic landowners nor impoverished factory workers. Instead, they included wealthy industrialists and merchants, as well as bankers, shopkeepers, teachers, doctors, lawyers, and the increasing number of managers, clerks and government officials. People earning middle class salaries could afford fine clothing, furniture, ceramics and other household items. It was this class of people that drove the demand for mass-produced consumer goods.

They also drove the need for more schools, universities and libraries. The political power of the British middle class increased throughout the s. Copy the Y-chart below into your notebook and use it to comment about what it would have felt like, sounded like and looked like to be a rural worker in Britain or a foundry worker in an industrial town.

Swansea grew to be a world leader in copper smelting during the Industrial Revolution. The Agricultural Revolution in Britain From the mids, agricultural changes in Britain paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. Many historians believe that, without these changes, industrialisation would not have been possible from onwards. The changes that took place in agriculture were brought about by demands for more food to support Britains growing population.

Collectively, these changes are referred to as the Agricultural Revolution. During the Agricultural Revolution, forests were cleared, grazing pastures were turned over to crop growing, and low-lying marshes were drained to grow even more crops.

Small plots of farmland were consolidated into larger, more efficient fields under the enclosures. As a result, over a year period Britain increased its farmlands by 30 per cent.

Agriculture became a business, with the aim of producing surplus food for profit rather than just feeding the local population. Landowners began investing more money in better livestock, fences and farming equipment. They moved to growing high-yield crops such as wheat and barley. Improved farming techniques and equipment also led to increases in crop production; for example, Britains wheat crop rose by 75 per cent between and The enclosures Source 1.

These Acts transferred areas of common land that had previously been worked by small groups of local farmers into the hands of private owners. These smaller areas of land were then joined to create large farms that were enclosed by hedges or stone walls so that local famers could no longer graze their animals or farm the land. Other land, which until then had been known as waste, was also enclosed.

By , threequarters of the land was owned by wealthy landlords who rented this land to tenant farmers. The process caused a great deal of social unrest as many poor people were forced off the land they had farmed together for generations. Many flooded into the cities and gradually became part of the new industrial working classes, while others sought new lives abroad.

Between and , over 25 Scottish farmers moved off the land for new lives in the USA or Canada. Their wretchedness was so great that, after pawning everything they possessed to the fishermen on the coast, such as had no cattle were reduced to come down from the hills in hundreds for the purpose of gathering cockles [shellfish] on the shore.

Those who lived in the more remote situations [locations] were obliged to subsist upon broth made of nettles, thickened with a little oatmeal.

Key features of modern history pdf

Those who had cattle [resorted to] bleeding them and mixing the blood with oatmeal, which they afterwards cut into slices and fried. Does this mean the situation was likely to improve or get worse for farmers after this source was written?

Crop rotation Despite the hardship it caused for many poor farmers, the new commercial approach to farming brought about by the Enclosure Acts led to improved management of the crops. For centuries, farmers had practised a process known as crop rotation, which involved leaving a field fallow unused for a period in order to avoid exhausting the soil.

However, during the Agricultural Revolution in , a landowner by the name of Charles Townshend introduced a new method of crop rotation on his farm that became known as the four-field system.

He grew wheat in the first field, barley in the second, root vegetables such as carrots and turnips in the third, and clover in the fourth. Each season, the crops were rotated shifted over , which meant that no field was left fallow but each field benefited from the new crop each season. Wheat and barley were harvested for humans, while the fallow period was now replaced by clover, which could be used as grazing food for animals, and also restored nitrogen to the soil.

Improved farm machinery and methods By the early to mids, new farming machinery was in use, including mechanical drills for seed sowing and reaping machines for harvesting wheat and barley machines see Source 1.

These made farming more efficient, increasing the return from the land. Each year, the amount of land that could be prepared, farmed and harvested in a season increased. By the s, fertilisers were also being widely used, once again raising the productivity of the land. Along with improvements in crop production came improvements in animal breeding. From the late s onwards, the agriculturalist Robert Bakewell began selective breeding of livestock on his property. He developed a new breed of quick-fattening sheep with finer wool and tastier meat, called the New Leicester see Source 1.

He used native breeds, selecting fine-boned sheep with good wool. Bakewell also bred cattle for beef production. His ideas produced stronger animals that were noted for their larger size and better quality. Fewer seeds were wasted and the process required fewer labourers. One of the key factors that led to the start of the Industrial Revolution in Britain was its power and wealth as an empire. The expansion of the British Empire took place in two phases. The first phase was the establishment of the earliest British colonies in North America in the s.

Over the next years, Britain, France, Spain, the Dutch and Portuguese all laid claims to new territories around the world, including the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Pacific. The second phase was linked to a series of wars fought between the European powers in the 18th century and early part of the 19th century. Britains naval strength ensured that it became the dominant imperial power, despite the loss of many of its American colonies after the American War of Independence.

By , the British Empire covered around one-quarter of the Earths surface and ruled over a quarter of the worlds population see Source 1. Two of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution, the steamship and the telegraph, were important in helping Britain administer these colonies all around the world.

Many of Britains colonies provided the raw materials, labour and markets needed to drive the Industrial Revolution. It also meant that financial services in England such as banking, investment and insurance expanded to support and protect that trade. The plains of North America and Russia are our corn-fields Canada and the Baltic are our timber-forests; [Australia and New Zealand] contains our sheepfarms, and in South America are our herds of oxen; Peru sends her silver, and the gold of California and Australia flows to London; the Chinese and India grow tea for us, and our coffee, sugar, and spice plantations are in all the Indies.

Spain and France are our vineyards, and the Mediterranean our fruit-garden; and our. British economist William Stanley Jevons, writing in What does it tell you about British attitudes at the time?

Why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain Historians have proposed a range of reasons why Britain was the first country to experience the Industrial Revolution and why it became the world's leading economic and industrial power for a time.

The answer lies in a combination of factors related to Britains history, geography and culture. Some of these are discussed briefly below: Britains coal supplies Britain was fortunate to have large supplies of coal, a vital fuel for the steam power that drove the Industrial Revolution.

No other European power had such large quantities of accessible coal. Access to raw materials from the British Empire Britain controlled more colonies, and therefore had access to more raw materials than any other country, including sugar from Australia and the West Indies, wool from Australia and New Zealand, cotton and tea from India, rubber from Malaya, gold from Australia and South Africa, coffee from Jamaica and Africa, wheat from Australia and Canada, and timber from the vast pine forests of Canada.

Naval power and trading power As an island nation, Britain had always relied on skilled sailors, a strong navy and experienced fleets of merchant ships. At its peak, the EIC rivalled many smaller European powers in terms of wealth and influence. Individual freedom and the capitalist spirit Unlike many of the other European powers, there was a greater measure of individual and intellectual freedom in Britain.

These freedoms provided a fertile ground for those willing to try new methods and take risks. In other parts of Europe, government restrictions and less individual freedom limited opportunity. Stable government Before the start of the Industrial Revolution, Britain had enjoyed a prolonged period without much political or social conflict, compared to many other countries in Europe. This sense of stability and order encouraged the growth of business. Superior banking system and capital for investment Britains banking sector was more advanced and modern than those of other European countries.

There was a ready supply of capital available at very low rates of interest.

Key Features of Modern History 4ed

This meant that money was available to start up new businesses and pay for experiments to develop new inventions. Be sure you can provide reasons for each of your choices. List the main changes that took place across Britain between and Explain how the Agricultural Revolution changed life for British farmers.

Identify how the enclosures in Britain changed living conditions for poor farmers. Identify the main developments in farm machinery and methods of farming that contributed to the Agricultural Revolution.

By , how much of the Earths surface and population did the British Empire cover? Why were large coal deposits in Britain so significant during the Industrial Revolution?

What was the name of the largest British merchant trading company? Why was Britains banking system an important contributor to the Industrial Revolution? Despite a British government ban on the emigration of skilled engineers, Slater sailed to the United States and set up the first cotton mill in that country.

In England, he was known as Slater the Traitor. Although many people in Britain attempted to stop the spread of technical and industrial knowledge beyond the nations borders, they were not successful. Ideas, machines and designs were soon copied abroad, and manufacturing spread across Europe and into other parts of the world. Europe One of the first countries in Europe to be affected by industrial developments outside Great Britain was Belgium. Belgium was similar to Great Britain in many ways, with a strong textile trade and a ready supply of investors.

Belgium also benefited from the availability of coal as a source of energy. Frances development was slower. It largely remained an agricultural economy until much later in the s, but in coastal areas such as Normandy in the north , the textile industries modernised in reaction to competition from Britain and Belgium. Germany had large areas of coal and iron, and these were quickly exploited using the new technologies. Between and the start of World War I in , Germany developed at such a rate that it outstripped British manufacturing output.

By , the United States had a larger percentage of world manufacturing than Britain. The USA was rich in natural resources, and as settlements expanded into the western regions of the country more of these raw materials became available to American manufacturers. American inventions proved to be as important as any in Britain in moving the world into the modern era. Japan By , Japan had been effectively cut off from Western influences for years, after the shogun military leader closed the borders to all foreigners.

The arrival of American warships in the s led to the Meiji Restoration a period in Japanese history when the emperor was returned to power as the figurehead of a new, modern government, and trade with the West increased dramatically. Initially, large quantities of goods were imported from Europe and the Americas. Over time, however, Japan became the first country in Asia to become industrialised, as it swiftly adopted Western ideas and inventions. Japanese goods particularly tea, silk, cotton fabrics and buttons became highly sought after.

Japan also imitated the West in its adoption of an aggressive policy of overseas expansion, seizing territory in China and Korea in the late 19th century. Australia The British decision to establish a penal colony in Australia in was largely an attempt to solve some of the problems faced by Great Britain at that time problems that were a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.

Rising prison populations were the result of rising crime in the new factory towns and among unemployed farm labourers. It was thought that this problem could be resolved by transporting criminals to a distant land. By , a steam mill was operating in Sydney, major roads had been constructed to transport goods to and from the seaports, and a strong pastoral stock-raising industry had developed inland.

By the mids, Australia had also become a colonial destination for free British migrants. As other colonies were settled, the development of transport links increased. Railways were in use in Australia by the s, as well as steamship travel along the coast and major rivers.

Wealth from the discovery of gold gave the Australian colonies opportunities to develop new railways and take advantage of new technologies such as the electric telegraph and electric lighting.

Despite these advances, Australias industrial development was in many ways hectic and unplanned. This became apparent after Federation in , when the new country was found to have three different rail gauges, which made it impossible to transport goods across state borders without changing trains. In addition to this, the states had conflicting ideas about industry and its development or protection and disagreed about tariffs taxes and their use.

As in Britain, coal mining and iron and steel production were key parts of the industrialisation of Australia. Can its roots be traced to this period of industrial expansion in Australia? Instead, it was a way of producing goods on a large scale using many workers and specialised machinery on one site. This method of production became known as the factory system.

Before the introduction of the factory system, manufacturing often took place in small workshops or in local workers cottages hence the term cottage industries. Local trades and crafts people such as blacksmiths, wheelwrights wheel makers , cartwrights cart makers , potters, millers and weavers used their skills, muscle power or water power to largely hand-make items. In contrast, the factory system brought together large numbers of workers in a single site or factory. Few of these workers were skilled because most of the manufacturing was done by machines.

Instead, the many workers performed tasks that were repetitive and required little skill.

The machines were at first powered by water with waterwheels, then by steam and next by electricity. The factory system itself was made possible by a combination of the technological innovations and knowledge that emerged during this period. Machines were expensive, encouraging factory owners to keep them operating continously. As a result, people worked 12 or more hours a day, six days a week.

Workers had to endure cramped, dirty and noisy working conditions, alongside hundreds of machines operating non-stop. The introduction of machines meant that factories could employ workers without specialised skills, including women and children who were cheaper to employ.

Children were seen as ideal workers, able to squeeze between machines to reload spindles and repair broken threads. Accidents and injuries were common. The first infants school anywhere in the world was set up for the young children of workers in Robert Owens cotton mill in New Lanark, Scotland.

Schools were meant to prepare people for work; therefore, it was only natural that they should have been designed around the same patterns as factories. For both work and school, there were set tasks to perform between particular times.

A siren or bell indicated when it was time to work, when to take a break, and when to go home. In a class discussion, share ideas on how the school system and factory system can be compared.

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