MARCO POLO PDF
, INTRODUCTION MARCO POLO, the subject of this memoir, was born at Venice in the year 1 He was the son of Nicolo Polo, a Venetian of. Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa. (PDF: Cor Hendriks, September ) according to the description of Messer Marco Polo, a wise and noble citizen of. C. Calendarof Documents relating to Marco Polo and his Family. t Of chapters so List of MSS. of Marco Polo's Book, so far asthey are known. G. Diagram.
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twenty-six years, Marco Polo and his father Nicolo and his uncle Maffeo returned from the spectacular court of Kublai. Khan to their old home in. Venice. Keele University. The year marks the seven-hundredth anniversary of the initial composition of the book associated with Marco Polo, Le devisament dou. PDF | This article is about the trader and explorer. For other uses, see Marco Polo (disambiguation).
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Marco Polo. David Jacoby. Mediterranean Historical Review Vol. It is all the more important, therefore, to submit the sparse documentary sources offering direct and incontrovertible evidence about him and his close relatives to a thorough examination. Once these documents are inserted within their contemporary context, they enable a partial reconstruction of the economic activities conducted by two generations of the Polo family before, after, and in connection with the journeys of their members in Asia.
As noted above, it did not occur before the Byzantine recovery of Constantinople in and would have apparently been impossible in the following seven years. Conditions improved for them after the conclusion of the Venetian — Byzantine treaty of , when the Venetians regained access to the Black Sea and engaged in the provisioning of Constantinople, other Mediterranean ports, and Venice, in close connection with their peers in the Byzantine capital.
In short, the partnership between the three elder brothers was of a limited nature and did not extend to all their immovable property and capital. Jacoby The extended residence of Marco senior in Constantinople lasted around ten years at most.
He must have returned to Venice with the spring convoy of , if not earlier, since he concluded several commercial deals in Venice before the drafting of his will on 27 August of that year. It follows that in the s the latter must have been over 50 years old. Old age and possibly failing health may have induced him to resettle in his native city.
The return home of Venetian merchants in old age, after long periods of residence overseas, appears to have been fairly common and is well attested in the thirteenth century. He invested capital in joint ventures with travelling merchants, as attested by his will with respect to the Dalmatian city of Zara.
By she had joined the latter in Soldaia.
There is good reason to believe that Marco senior died shortly after the drafting of his will on 27 August To be sure, he had several male and female slaves and he owned a few silver objects and silk textiles. However, this decision was later cancelled for unrecorded reasons. Maffeo senior expected further reimbursement in the future. Somewhat later they partly invested it in the joint purchase of several contiguous houses and land in the parish of San Giovanni Grisostomo. His son Maffeo junior mentioned then in his own will the portion of the newly acquired property that he had inherited.
In his will of Maffeo senior records that their joint houses and land consisted of three portions. Maffeo stipulated on 31 August that his portion of the paternal heritage be transferred to his brother, should he die without direct male heirs. In any event, it appears that he did not invest his entire portion of the family partnership in the joint purchase of the property carried out in the parish of San Giovanni Grisostomo between and August , and presumably diverted a portion of it to trading ventures.
Moreover, it would seem that for the same reason he withdrew entirely from the family partnership in movables, as revealed by two documents. This arrangement had lasted for the lifetime of Maffeo junior. We have already noted that the fraterna compagnia existing between the elder Polos did not cover all their movable wealth.
It is noteworthy that the special partnership in movables had been established before , in all likelihood soon after the purchase of that property. It appears far more likely, therefore, that he was captured while on a commercial voyage.
His capture by Genoese corsairs acting on behalf of their government would explain his detention in a Genoese state prison. If Marco the Traveller was indeed captured by Genoese corsairs, it follows that within a few years after his return from Asia he had again left Venice for trading overseas. This may have been the last time, since, according to later commercial contracts that survive, Marco acted as investing and sedentary partner entrusting business abroad to other merchants.
In , at the age of sixty, Marco had apparently concluded that type of arrangement with his half-brother Stefano, as implied by the will of Nicoletta, wife of Valor the spice dealer. She appointed both of them executors of her will, with the provision that Marco would act on his own should Stefano be absent from Venice.
Marco displayed particular interest in musk.
The TRAVELS of MARCO POLO
This substance with a strong, penetrating odour is secreted into a small sac close to the navel of the male musk deer living in Tibet and China. Until the second half of the thirteenth century musk mainly arrived in the Mediterranean region via the Red Sea and Egypt. In the Arab traveller Ibn Battuta visited a musk bazaar in Tabriz, a transit station for oriental commodities on their way to Trebizond, yet Marco the Traveller described the city without referring to musk.
During his travels in Asia, Marco had gained a direct knowledge of that substance and must have clearly been aware of the high price it fetched in the West. Paolo Berengo had delivered to them 86 saggi or The whereabouts of Marchesino Berengo are not stated, yet he is listed in the will of Maffeo senior after two other debtors residing in Constantinople.
In fact, Marchesino too lived in that city, as we learn from a resolution adopted by the Venetian authorities in As compensation for their loss and as a reward for his assistance to Venetian subjects he was granted Venetian nationality, as well as accommodation in a house of the Commune located in the Venetian quarter of Constantinople.
In he obtained a lifelong exemption from the payment of the yearly rent due for that house. The trade ventures of the Polos were not always successful. He was back in Venice by March of the following year, after a one-year maritime journey to unrecorded locations. However, he failed to transfer to Marco the proceeds from the sale of half a pound of musk. They included one saggio and 19 carats or 7.
As noted above, in she appointed Marco and his half-brother Stefano executors of her will, a further indication of her close connections with them. This large quantity was clearly not intended for his personal use or that of his household. Venice was a major manufacturer of silk textiles in his lifetime. The souvenirs were not commercial goods, yet the compilers of the inventory nevertheless assessed their value since they were made of precious materials. Jacoby blankets at ducats, a sizeable sum.
This is implied by the passage of nach and nassic, two distinct types of gold interwoven silks, and of camoca through the Crimean port of Caffa on their way to Genoa in A Latin inscription on an object granted by a Mongol ruler is clearly excluded, and its appearance in the list casts heavy doubts on the authenticity of the entire inventory. Urbani de Gheltof never produced the document he supposedly found, and it is clear that the latter did not exist.
One of them is a small jar originally used as a liquid container in a type of ware called blanc-de-Chine, mass-produced in the late thirteenth century in the Chinese coastal province of Fujian or Fu-kien. Marco Polo, who visited that region, mentions its manufacture of porcelain, yet refers to azure colour and not to white.
It seems unlikely, therefore, that he should have brought it from China or that he ever owned it. The other vessel linked to Marco Polo is an octagonal incense-burner, originally kept in the treasury of San Marco and transferred to the Louvre museum in Paris in the nineteenth century. The blazon also appeared on 95 ornamental buttons asole that were generally attached to sleeves or other pieces of clothing.
There were 34 pairs of sheets, 37 blankets, 40 towels, some pillow- cases, over large and small long, narrow cushions or pillows chavezi , most of them covered with silk cloth, in one case samite, as well as 30 kerchiefs and 12 carpets. The blankets were woven either of wool, low-grade silk chocholario , or high- quality silk. The three most expensive pieces were blankets of sendal dyed with grana, the western name for the red substance yielded by the parasite Kermes vermilio.
Most silks were plain. Some were embroidered, a few with roses. Unfortunately, except for the silks of Asian origin the inventory offers no indication of provenance. The evaluation of the silk pieces does not provide any clue in that respect, since we lack information regarding their precise features and sizes. First of all, it dispels several misunderstandings about the economic activities of the three elder Polos and the nature of their business relationship. There is no evidence whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, suggesting that they were involved in the Black Sea trade or in exchanges with Mongol territories before Neither of them appears to have been very successful.
All of them actively engaged in trade. Eventually, after Marco remained the only legitimate offspring of the two Polo generations examined here.
However, once it is considered together with various items he owned at the time of his death, we may safely assume that he was mainly interested in high-value, low-bulk commodities. This appears to have also been the case with his father and uncle Maffeo senior during their two extended Asian sojourns.
They nevertheless enable us to gauge his economic status. He inherited from him both movables and immovables, though with the provision that the assets were to be transferred to other relatives should Marco the Traveller die without legitimate male heirs. These sections consisted of 12 rooms, one more with a chimney, in which the members of the household gathered in the winter, and a kitchen. Until his death he actively contributed to the growth of his wealth by continuous personal involvement in business ventures.
The Travels of Marco Polo — Volume 1 by Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa
He married Donata Badoer, as noted earlier. His third daughter, Moreta, married after his death in We may safely assume that he recorded at least some of his experiences and acquired knowledge in writing in the course of his stay in Asia. Although he did not carry his notes with him, this would have clearly furthered the transmission of information to Rustichello da Pisa. The sources bearing upon Marco after his return from Asia support the reliability of his account even more than the probable existence of notes.
Jacoby nature of the goods in which Marco traded or which he owned and their connection with his recorded experience in Asia substantially enhance the authenticity of his book. Alan Stahl, Curator of Coins at Princeton University, for their precious advice regarding coins and monies of account.
Their number has substantially increased since the publication of that inventory.
The Travels Marco Polo PDF by seosingapore2 - Issuu
A listing of recent publications is excluded here for lack of space. Only those relevant to my argumentation are mentioned below. He claims that Marco did not accompany his father and uncle in Asia as a commercial apprentice and that he was not a merchant in later life. There have been other reconstructions. Heyd, Histoire du commerce, 1: Lane, Venice and History, Larner, Marco Polo, 32— 3: Zorzi, Vita di Marco Polo, 10, All the manuscripts mention the year , which is obviously an error in view of the sequence of events that prevented the two brothers from returning to Constantinople in , after staying one year in Mongol territory: The pope had entrusted them with a diplomatic mission.
Monticolo and Besta, I capitolari delle Arti, 3: The rock crystal presumably came from the Alps. On its origin and on objects similar to those mentioned in the will of Pietro Vioni, see Hahnloser and Brugger-Koch, Corpus der Hartsteinschliffe, 5, 27 — 8, 42 — 3, 61— 2.
In the Seljuk sultan Kay-Qubad I had granted the Venetians total tax exemption on transactions in these commodities in his territory: Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, 2: Joiaux was used both for gems and jewels. These would have then been purchased from merchants who had brought them from Venice. Marco Polo, Il Milione, 4— 5, chap. I, paras.
The two brothers could have avoided that region by travelling to Constantinople by sea, yet refrained from undertaking the journey following the Byzantine recovery of Constantinople. It is impossible to determine whether they had died or whether he had remained single throughout his life.
Jacoby  Moule and Pelliot, Marco Polo, 1: Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, 3: Maffeo senior presumably died shortly after the drafting of his own will in The two brothers died a natural death. On the other hand, Maffeo junior, who drafted his will in before leaving for Crete, appears to have died unexpectedly during the journey, possibly at sea.
Marco Polo, Il Milione, 7, chap. He therefore places the death of Marco senior between that year and , when his nephew Maffeo junior drafted his own will without referring to him as being alive: Moule and Pelliot, Marco Polo, 1: However, Maffeo junior refers in that document to his own brother, Marco the Traveller, as partner in the joint property, and not to his uncle Marco senior: Around the ducat was the equivalent of 24 grossi or 64 soldi di piccoli.
On the immovables, see below. The nature of the goods they lost is unknown, yet see below. It is likely that the value of the hyperpyron of Trebizond was close to that of Byzantium at that time. As a money of account one Byzantine gold hyperpyron was then equal to 12 Venetian grossi a oro: It follows that 4, hyperpyra were equal to 48, grossi or , soldi di piccoli: Venice, Archiviod: Stato, Maggior Consiglio, Oeliberazioni, reg. According to the equivalents mentioned above, n.
However, Matheus Paulo is listed among the members of that institution without the name of his father: Cessi, Deliberazioni del Maggior Consiglio, 1: It is impossible to determine, therefore, whether he was the uncle or brother of Marco the Traveller or a namesake from another branch of the Polo family. Indeed, in the same period there was such a branch in the parish of San Geremia, likewise included in the sestiere of Cannaregio: See also several other documents from onwards, ibid.
This section of the will is reproduced in a verdict issued in Merchants usually kept some charters related to completed business operations in order to present them in court in case of litigation. Marco presumably acted likewise. It follows that not all the documents necessarily dealt with ongoing business ventures. On musk in Constantinople, see below.
Jacoby  Marco Polo, Il Milione, 59, chap. LXXII; , chap. CXVI; , chap. It is likely that the inaccurate description of the musk deer is due to Rustichello da Pisa, rather than to Marco the Traveller. The calculation is as follows: The weight unit for the horsehair is not stated in the inventory, yet Venice weighed silk and horsehair setole di cavallo with the light pound: It is obvious that by the Venetians were familiar with such tablets.
On the boghta, see Allsen, Commodity and Exchange, 17 — I wish to thank hereby Professor Marino Zorzi, Director of the Marciana, Venice, for drawing my attention to his note and for sending it to me. I wish to thank hereby Dr. Ayers for sending me additional information about that vessel in a letter of 16 October Ayers, as above, n. On the use of buckles or clasps for the fastening of garments and the meaning of asola in the fourteenth century, see Levi Pisetzky, Il costume, — 6, See also Cecchetti, La vita dei Veneziani, It is unclear why Marco kept so many.
It is not excluded that he traded in them. Cecchetti, ibid. This must have also been the case with his second daughter, Bellela. Four years later, in , the emancipated slave obtained Venetian status, not to be confused with Venetian citizenship as often done, including by Yule and Cordier, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, II, , no. On Venetian status, see above, n. It is likely, therefore, that Marco also invested some of his own money in government obligations.
On trade practices, see above, n. XI and which is often mentioned in Venetian notarial charters. Yet neither of these authors offers precise indications about the nature of the silk fabrics mentioned by Marco. References Allsen, Thomas T. Asia Major 3rd series 2, no. Mediterranean Historical Review ———. Commodity and Exchange in the Mongol Empire.
Cambridge University Press, Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 31 Ashtor, Eliyahu.
Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Ayers, John. Oriental Art 48, no. Bertolucci Pizzorusso, Valeria. Studi Mediolatini e Volgari 25 Reprinted in Valeria Bertolucci Pizzorusso, Morfologie del testo medievale.
Exploration, Discovery, Travel: Marco Polo
Il Mulino, Beugnot, Arthur A. In Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Lois. Blancard, Louis, ed. Borlandi, Franco. In Studi in onore di Amintore Fanfani. Cultura Nationala, Geuthner, Cahen, Claude. Presses Universitaires de France, Reprinted in Cahen, Turcobyzantina, no. Turcobyzantina et Oriens Christianus. Variorum Reprints, Cardon, Dominique. Le monde des teintures naturelles.
Belin, Carile, Antonio. Studi Veneziani, new series, 1 Caro, Georg. Halle a. Niemeyer, — Cecchetti, Bartolomeo. New Feature: You can now embed Open Library books on your website! Learn More. Last edited by Clean Up Bot. March 11, History. By Marco Polo. Go to the editions section to read or download ebooks. The Travels of Marco Polo Close. Want to Read. Are you sure you want to remove The Travels of Marco Polo from your list?
There's no description for this book yet. Can you add one? People Marco Polo ? The travels of Marco Polo: Le devisement du monde , Droz. Milione January , Sansoni. Benedetto , Asian Educational Services.
Il "Milione" veneto: CM della Biblioteca civica di Padova , Marsilio. Il Milione , Einaudi Scuola. The travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian: Libro de las maravillas del mundo: Il milione , L. Il milione , Edizioni paoline. The travels of Marco Polo , Facts on File. Von Venedig nach China: Jahrhunderts , Edition Erdmann. Libro de las cosas maravillosas de Marco Polo, Il milione , ERI. The travels of Marco Polo , Abaris Books. Il Milione: The travels of Marco Polo , Penguin Books.
Il milione , Mursia. Il Milione , Rizzoli. Il milione , Editori riuniti. The description of the world , AMS Press. Marco Polo , Adelphi. Milione , Adelphi. Die Reisen des Marco Polo: The travels of Marco Polo , Folio Society. The travels of Marco Polo.
Il milione , A. The travels of Marco Polo , Dell Pub. The travels of Marco Polo , Orion Press. The travels of Marco Polo.: With 25 illus. Il milione , Mondadori. Milione , A. Il milione.: The travels of Marco Polo , Modern Library. The travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian , Doubleday. The description of the world , G. The travels of Marco Polo , G. The book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Il milione: The travels of Marco Polo , Jonathan Cape.
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