PLATO PHAEDO PDF
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Phaedo, by Plato This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may . after reading Plato' Phaedo. Whether the tory it elf is well founded and whether it concerns the Cleombrotus who appears in this dialogue are que Lion to which. Plato's Phaedo. Outline by John Protevi / Permission to reproduce granted for academic use [email protected] / cittadelmonte.info .
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cal Socrates actually held, but Plato seems to take particular pains to indicate Despite the Platonic innovations in philosophical theory, the Phaedo pres-. issues which occupy the main Notes. The Phaedo is one of the most frequently translated, edited, and discussed of all Plato's dialogues. To take full account of. by Plato. [The Phaedo tells the story of Socrates' final moments spent, as one puts forth for the immortality of the soul we find a clear exposition of both Plato's.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Phaedo of Elis and Plato On the Soul. George Boys-Stones. At the same time as allying himself with Phaedo, however, Plato is able to improve on him by adding to the demonstra- tion that reason is independent a proof that it is actually immortal. My thanks to Christopher Rowe and David Sedley for their critical comments on ear- lier drafts. Giannantoni ed.
Cicero, however, is at odds with the majority of our fragments; and, while a head-count is no way to make a judgement in these cases we have no way of knowing whether or when our fragments are based on a reading of the original, and no evidence for their source if they are not , the principle of cui bono?
For one thing, the bipar- tite psychology implied by Cicero may come close to his own preference in the area. Ducos at R. Goulet ed. If he did so, the Stoics would complain that he had removed the guarantee that one is responsible for what one does. Rather, he argues that we avoid the snares of fate because we have the freedom through reason to make our natures what we wish: See again Bobzien, Determinism and Freedom The evidence, I am suggesting then, attributes the following claims to Phaedo: If we assume, as seems likely, that what determines behaviour in cases where nature does not is reason, then Phaedo is working with a bipartite model of behaviour familiar enough from Plato and Aristotle.
Where Phaedo now seems to differ, however, is in the claim that irrational urges are no more susceptible to training or rehabituation than the set of the eyes or the shape of the neck.
How could he claim this? One possibility is that Phaedo believed something a little bit like Plato: Possible but, it seems to me, unlikely: Philosophically, this is undoubtedly a more attrac- tive view; and I think it cannot be positively ruled out for Phaedo.
Project MUSE - Myth and Metaphysics in Plato's "Phaedo" (review)
But it also has historical problems to contend with: Forenbaugh and E. It could be that Phaedo believed in an independent, rational soul on the one hand, and explained desires on the other as physiological epi phe- nomena. What reason can do, however, is to take charge: And it seems to me that this possibility gains credibility precisely through its convergence with the ostensible position of the Socrates of the Phaedo. If this is right, though, there is an obvious question: For Aristotle, see de anima 1.
Arguments ex silentio are never ideal; but if Phaedo had been an emergentist, and Plato knew it, the decision to make Phaedo the narrator of the Phaedo would have been very strange indeed. The answer often given to this question is that the differences are more of presentation than of substance: But whether this is right or wrong, there is something else to consider here as well.
So at 94bc but see all of 94ba: I mean, for example, when there is heat and thirst in us, can it drag us in the opposite direction, to abstain from drinking; and when there is hunger in us, to abstain from eating?
Note, by the way, that this argument does not ultimately have to rely on a belief that the desires themselves are bodily though I have argued that Phaedo himself happens to have thought that: But it is clearer as an argument against the harmony-theorists if one phrases it as if from such a position; and, as conceding more to the harmony-theorists namely, that desires at least are functions of bodily state , is arguably more rhetorically effective against them.
But it is not merely wishful thinking that leads me to make the comparison. My argument so far has dealt with two Phaedos: But there is a third Phaedo to be reckoned with here as well. Socrates teases him for his long hair, and correctly guesses that Phaedo was expecting to cut it in mourning for him 89ab.
But Socrates thinks that he should cheer up: Indeed, Socrates pledges to help Phaedo defeat them: Phaedo will be Heracles, Socrates his Iolaus 89c. For the story, see e. Apollodorus, Library 2.
Xenophon, Memorabilia 2. But this is not the only occasion on which Plato alludes to the myth: Burger The Phaedo: A Platonic Labyrinth New Haven, , is unusual among commentators in trying to explain the image as it occurs in the Phaedo. This explanation seems rather forced, however: Once again, Phaedo drops out of the nar- rative until very near the end at c , when he breaks down in tears — not, he says, for the fate of Socrates, but for his own misfortune in losing such a friend.
Phaedo by Plato
In this case, we would not expect him to intrude himself into the conversation more than necessary. The reason is that is that his relative silence problematises his one small moment of glory. For right at the heart of the dialogue, after the crucial challenges by Simmias and Cebes, just before the argumentative climax which is their refutation, Socrates appoints Phaedo as the Heracles who will tackle them 89c: It is important that Phaedo himself accepts the image thus elaborated by Socrates, though he reverses the roles he will be Iolaus and aid the Heraclean Socrates: This is important because the truth of the matter is that Phaedo does nothing at all: The answer is not in the text: Phaedo does nothing at all.
What emerges, then, is an antirational or at least an extrarational Socrates, a Socrates who believes that reason by itself will not persuade us of anything important and that other than rational means must ultimately be employed.
One's attitude toward this work, 1 imagine, will depend on how plausible one finds this picture of Socrates. Personally, I do not see that this portrait of Socrates corresponds to that of the devoted rational enquirer portrayed throughout the dialogues, nor do I think White's arguments are very compelling. To consider just one of the more crucial pieces of evidence: White thinks that Socrates' command to Simmias and Cebes after the first two proofs to "sing songs" and to "find an enchanter" means that he is telling them to turn to other grounds besides rational argument.
Against the suggestion that by "singing songs" Socrates is merely exhorting them in a metaphorical way to continue the argumentative process, White argues that "to sing songs" can't mean to argue discursively because Socrates is telling them "to sing songs" in order to allay their fears regarding the afterlife.
But since neither Simmias nor Cebes disputes the logic of the proof Access options available:. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
Creative appropriation can be historical, literary or philosophical The rest of the references are to the cosmology of the final myth the explanation of the fixed earth Phd a at the center of the universe in De Caelo b For him, these changes can be only explained with the efficient cause The most valuable contribution of D.
The most famous representative of this tradition of criticism is Strato of Lamsacus, head of the Lyceum from to bce.
Phaedo by Plato
In contextualizing Strato, B. The greatest strength of the paper is its razor sharp honesty in assessing the limits of the source materials and the complexity of their philosophical entanglements. Criticism and creative historical appropriation coexist in the Hellenistic and post-hellenistic Stoic receptions of the Phaedo , centering on the theme of the relationship between body and soul and the concept of the separation between the two 65, 89 as shown by Alesse.
She tackles the difficult history of the Stoic reception of the dialogue starting with Ariston of Chios. With Fabricius, A. Posidonius is conspicuously absent, A.
Scipionis 14; 26; 29 to the dialogue, which, in turn, may point to Posidonius. A reevaluation of the sources of Latin Stoicism would be needed to say something about that 89 , a thought-provoking conclusion that paves the way to further research on the reception of this dialogue.
Alesse shows that from the surveyed years of Stoic reception of the dialogue, references to it are most frequent in the imperial Stoa. Of course, this could be an optical illusion due to the state of the extant evidence. This paper, devoted to a critical reception of the Phaedo is important in that it shows 1.
At the same time, it unexpectedly shows up in works like De sollertia animalium where a verbatim quotation from the Phaedo provides an argument in favor of the mantic power of birds. He quotes the narrative sections of the dialogue the most and the subtlety with which he references them shows that he knew the dialogue in great detail , perhaps even by heart The relevant materials are available through Porphyry All these threads are masterfully woven together in T.
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