PRO DRUPAL 7 DEVELOPMENT EBOOK
For those of you with coupons - you can now pick it up from cittadelmonte.info com. Todd Tomlinson Author Pro Drupal 7 Development. Pro Drupal Development represents the definitive guide for Drupal developers. Many have called Pro Drupal Development the one "must have" book if you're. Pro Drupal Development [John VanDyk, Matt Westgate] on cittadelmonte.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying Pro Drupal 7 Development $ (24) In Stock.
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Pro Drupal 7 Development: Third Edition. Copyright © by Todd eBook versions and licenses are also available for most titles. For more information. Pro Drupal 7 Development updates the most popular development reference for be used on all reading devices; Immediate eBook download after purchase. This book takes a hands-on, practical approach to software development. The authors, all professional Drupal developers and contributors to the Drupal project .
With several new and completely-rewritten essential APIs and improvements in Drupal 7, this book will not only teach developers how to write modules ranging from simple to complex, but also how Drupal itself works. This book is for existing Drupal module developers wanting to learn about Drupal 7 and people already knowledgeable in PHP who are interested in developing for Drupal. Simply put, if you are working with Drupal, then you need this book. Pro Drupal Development represents the definitive guide for Drupal developers. Many have called Pro Drupal Development the one "must have" book if you're thinking about using Drupal.
It continues stepping through such operations until the request is complete. However, the most important thing about this step-by-step process is the way Drupal does it. Drupal hooks The Drupal core doesn't attempt to do the processing for each of these steps. Instead, after each step, it offers one or more modules the opportunity to handle that step.
Put in Drupal parlance, it offers opportunities for modules to hook into the lifecycle. Developing for Drupal 7 [ 14 ] For example, we noted that Drupal checks to see if any module needs to be initialized.
What it actually does, is look to see if any modules implement a hook for initialization. How does it do this? To implement a hook in Drupal is to declare a function that follows the hook naming pattern. Developers with a background in OOP or with strong knowledge of design patterns might recognize this as being similar to the event handling paradigm, captured in the Passive Observer pattern.
When some particular event occurs, Drupal allows modules the opportunity to respond to that event. Once all of these modules have been initialized, Drupal moves on to the next step. As it progresses through the request, it calls hook after hook, giving modules the opportunity to do their thing. Drupal's hook system is perhaps the single most important aspect of Drupal programming. Most if not all modules are nothing more than a collection of hook implementations that Drupal automatically calls as it works its way through the request lifecycle.
It's not just the Drupal core that declares and calls hooks. Any module can declare and call its own hook.
Many modules do in fact declare their own hooks, offering other modules the opportunity to integrate deeply with their services. Drupal core modules As noted earlier, Drupal provides several core modules. These modules cannot be disabled, as their capabilities are integral to the standard functioning of Drupal.
Just like other modules including the ones we will be writing , core modules function by implementing Drupal hooks. As Drupal invokes these hooks, each core module will respond as necessary, performing crucial functions at specific times during the course of a request.
In the following section, we will discuss several core modules in more detail, explaining what purposes these modules serve. Chapter 1 [ 15 ] The database We have taken a brisk walk through a typical Drupal request, and we have learned a little about modules and libraries.
However, what about the database? Unlike many architectures, for Drupal the database doesn't stand front and center. The database layer is not a module, nor do modules need to declare a specific relationship with the database. In fact, many Drupal modules do not ever interact directly with the database.
For that reason, a module can exist, yet not have any database structures models , a central controller, or even any user- centered theming view. In stead of treating the database as a central architectural component, Drupal merely provides an API for working with the database.
In Drupal, the database is just a place to store data. Need custom tables? Drupal provides a system for declaring them. Need to get data out of the database, or insert or update new data? Drupal provides functions and an OO library for doing so. However, if you don't need such features for your code, you needn't work with the database at all. In fact, in the next chapter we will write our first module without writing a single SQL query. Later in this book, we will see how to interact with the database using Drupal's robust database tools.
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More than just data The Drupal database does not store just application data or content , but also configuration, caches, metadata data about data , structural information, and sometimes even PHP code. While Drupal may not be database centric, it most certainly requires a database. During initialization, Drupal will connect to a database and retrieve certain configuration data. Later, as many of the core modules load, they too, contact the database to retrieve or update information.
For most Drupal modules, the database is the location for data storage. Developing for Drupal 7 [ 16 ] The theme system The final component from our initial architectural diagram is the theme system.
Drupal separates the look-and-feel components of the system from the rest of Drupal, and provides a programmatic way for theming data. The system for handling this is collectively called the theme system. Some of the theme system resides in the Drupal core libraries. This part is responsible for initializing themes and locating what theme functions and templates should be applied under certain circumstances.
However, the majority of the theme code resides in themes and modules. A theme is a structured bundle of code like a module that provides tools for transforming raw data into formatted output. Sites use at least one theme to apply a consistent and custom look-and-feel to all of the pages on the site. However, Not all theme code resides inside of a theme. One of the distinct advantages offered by Drupal is the capability to define default theming inside modules, and then provide mechanisms by which the theme layer can selectively override those themes.
In other words, a module might declare a rough layout for a component, but Drupal provides the structure for a theme developer to later modify the theme not the module to re-layout that component in a different way.
If this all sounds conceptually difficult, don't worry. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 of this book are dedicated to working with the theming system.
Now that we've had a quick architectural overview, let's change perspectives and quickly peruse the major subsystems offered by Drupal. Drupal's major subsystems In the previous section we took a birds-eye view of Drupal's architecture. Now we are going to refine our perspective a bit. We are going to walk through the major subsystems that Drupal 7 has to offer. Themes The theme subsystem was introduced above, and since Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 will cover it, we won't dwell too much on it here.
However, there are a few details that should be mentioned at the outset. Chapter 1 [ 17 ] The responsibility of theming a given piece of data is spread out over the Drupal core, the modules, and the applied theme itself.
While we don't modify the Drupal core code, it is important for developers to be able to understand that both module code and theme code can manipulate the look and feel of data. In this book, our focus will be on the module perspective. We work primarily with theming functions and templates that are defined within the module.
Typically, it is the best practice to work this way first—to ensure that every module has the ability to theme it's own data. Menus Drupal not only maintains content, but also details about how the site itself is organized. That is, it structures how content is related.
The principle way that it does this is through the menu subsystem. This system provides APIs for generating, retrieving, and modifying elements that describe the site structure. Put in common parlance, it handles the system's navigational menus. Two menu systems? One source of frustration for developers new to Drupal is the fact that the application's front controller is called the menu router.
However, this system is not identical to the menu subsystem. Its responsibility is to actually map the URLs to callback functions.
5 Secrets to Becoming a Drupal 7 Ninja
We will return to the menu router in later chapters. Menus are hierarchical, that is, they have a tree-like structure. A menu item can have multiple children, each of which may have their own children, and so on. In this way, we can use the menu system to structure our site into sections and subsections. Nodes Perhaps the most important subsystem to know is the node system.
In Drupal parlance, a node is a piece of text-based, publishable content. It can have numerous fields defined, but typically it has a title, a body, and various pieces of auxiliary data, such as timestamps, publishing state, and author identification. Nodes are content In computer science, the term "node" often has a special meaning.
Drupal's own definition of node is distinct. It is not a point on a graph, but rather a piece of content. One might prefer to think of a Drupal node as a structured document.
Developing for Drupal 7 [ 18 ] The node system is mostly implemented in the node module. This sophisticated module provides dozens of hooks, though means that many other modules can and do interact with the node module via hook implementations. Since nodes account for the content of the site, understanding the node system is an indispensable requirement for the Drupal developer.
For that reason, we discuss aspects of the system throughout the book. Files In previous versions of Drupal, externally generated files notably images were not handled directly by Drupal itself. Instead, there were a plethora of modules available for working with files. This has changed in Drupal 7, which now has a file-centered subsystem.
This means working with images, documents, and so on is now substantially easier. While Drupal has long had a sophisticated suite of tools for dealing with the filesystem in the files. Chapter 11 discusses this new API. Users Drupal is not designed to be merely a CMS, but also a platform for social media.
Central to any concept of social media is a robust user system that can support not only administrative users, but also site members. Drupal offers a powerful user subsystem that allows developers to work with just about all aspects of user lifecycle, from what fields show up on a user profile, to what permissions at a fine-grained level users have, to what particular encryption scheme is used to encrypt the user's password. Drupal's user system even provides tools for making authentication and other aspects of user management pluggable.
Modules provide, for instance, LDAP integration or authentication through many of the publicly available authentication services like OpenID. We discuss the user system, particularly the permissions aspects, throughout this book.
Comments Perhaps the most common social media tool is comments. Drupal provides a subsystem that provides comment functionality for nodes and by extension, other data types. Chapter 1 [ 19 ] While one could imagine that comments are merely a type of node and, in fact, there are modules that do this , Drupal developers have chosen to implement comments as a separate type.
The comment module contains the majority of the comment code. However, again, as with the node system, it provides numerous hooks, and thus many other modules interact with the comment system.
Fields and entities In previous versions of Drupal, the node system was really the only system for creating structured pieces of textual content. Comments are too focused to be generally useful for extension. In order to extend node content beyond simple title and body fields, one needed to either write custom node types or use the Content Construction Kit CCK to build node types. However, Drupal 7 introduces two substantial subsystems that change this: The fields system brings most of CCK's functionality into core The entities system makes it possible to define other structured data types that are not nodes Already these new systems are making waves among Drupal developers, with the Drupal Commerce module leading the way in defining sophisticated entities that are not nodes.
These two subsystems are new, important, and also complex. So we will cover them in detail in Chapter 6. This system provides a robust programmatic tool for defining, displaying, validating, and submitting forms. It takes much of the busy-work out of developing forms, and also adds a layer of security. FAPI is so integral to Drupal that we use it numerous times throughout the book. Installation Profiles More sophisticated Drupal use-cases may benefit from the ability to customize the installation process.
Drupal provides an installation profile subsystem that can be leveraged to create a custom installer. Simple test Programmatically testing code is a well-established practice in the software development industry. In Drupal 7, it is a capability of the core Drupal distribution.
Using the Simple Test framework, developers can now use functional and unit tests to validate their code. We employ testing throughout this book. In fact, we will write some of our first tests in Chapter 2. Blocks Along with the primary content, most web pages also have additional content displayed along the top, bottom, or sides of the page.
Drupal's block subsystem handles the configuration and display of these units of content. Most of this functionality is concentrated in the block module, and we will develop our first custom block in Chapter 2.
Other subsystems In this section, we have provided some basic information on several high-profile subsystems. However, this list is not exhaustive. There are numerous others, and even some very important ones like Views that are not in core, but provided by third party modules.
Some of these other subsystems will be introduced and discussed throughout this book.
Pro Drupal 7 Development
However, Drupal is a sophisticated system, and no book of a manageable length can go into all of the details. For that reason, we provide references throughout the book pointing developers to the appropriate resources on the web and elsewhere.
Tools for developing Drupal code Drupal is a sophisticated platform, and from the glimpse above we can see already that there are numerous systems and structures to keep track of. In this section, we try to provide tools that simplify or streamline the development process. Chapter 1 [ 21 ] We assume that you have your own web server stack and your own PHP development tools.
The authors of this book each use different editors, operating systems, and web server stacks, so we collectively understand that there are many good tools for developing PHP applications. And Drupal itself doesn't require anything special. If you are just getting started, you may want to look at Acquia Drupal http: While running a PHP debugger is certainly not necessary, you may find running Xdebug or the Zend Debugger to be useful.
One of the authors of this book first learned how Drupal worked by stepping through an entire page load. Version control with Git and CVS Managing source code is a major part of any software development lifecycle. In this regard, Drupal 7 coincides with a major transition period for the Drupal community. However, Drupal has grown and the needs of the community have changed. Drupal is now moving to the Git distributed version control system.
As we begin working with Drupal code, it will help to be able to have the tools necessary to work with Git. From command-line programs to full-featured desktop applications, there is no shortage of tools for this. The book's code and Git The authors of this book have been working with Git for some time one, in fact, is leading the CVS-to-Git conversion.
We have done our best to make sure that all of the code contributions in this book are available from a Git repository. You can access the code for this book, view it online in a web browser, submit patches, or even branch your own copy and build your own tool.
All the code is located at GitHub: Developing for Drupal 7 [ 22 ] The API site and coding standards A lot of background knowledge is required for writing good Drupal code. Of course, the aim of a book such as this is to provide that background knowledge.
However, there are two reference resources that a burgeoning Drupal developer should have on-hand. The first is the official online API documentation. Just about every function in Drupal is documented using in-line code documentation.
The Doxygen program is then used to extract that documentation and format it. You can access the full API documentation online at http: Best practices in software development include keeping code clean, consistent, and readable. One aspect of this is removing nuances in code formatting by following a fixed standard. This is particularly important on a platform like Drupal where thousands of developers all contribute to the code.
Without coding standards, the code would become a cluttered mishmash of styles, and valuable development time would be spent merely deciphering code instead of working on it.
The Drupal site has a manual on best practices http: All Drupal developers abide by these standards. While we have attempted to follow all of the coding guidelines in this book, we don't always explicitly point out what these standards are. So new developers are encouraged to peruse the coding standards given on the previously mentioned web address. Developer-oriented modules There are a few Drupal-specific development and administrative modules that deserve a mention. These are tools that are installed on the server to help simplify Drupal development.
The developer module The Developer module provides several sophisticated tools designed to help developers create and debug Drupal code.
For this, please refer to the following page: Functions used for dumping objects and arrays into formatted Drupal output Tools for analyzing database usage and performance A theme tool which indicates graphically which elements of a page were themed by which functions or templates A content generator for quickly populating your site with testing content Drush the Drupal shell Sometimes it is much easier to run some tasks with a single command in a console.
Drush provides a command-line Drupal interface. It can be used to execute tasks with a few keystrokes at the console: Drush can help accomplish tasks like this. Coder The Coder module provides two big features: It can examine code for compliance against the Drupal coding standards It can automatically convert modules from one version of Drupal to another: Summary This chapter has been an overview of Drupal for developers.
We saw what technologies Drupal uses. We looked at Drupal's architecture. We took a cursory glance at several prominent subsystems of Drupal's.
We also got a feel of which developer-oriented tools are to be used while working with Drupal. Starting in the next chapter, we will be working with code. In fact, each of the subsequent chapters will focus on practical aspects of working with Drupal. Coming up next is an introduction to the block system, where we will write our first module. In the last chapter we surveyed Drupal's architecture advanced. We learned about the basic features and subsystems.
We also saw some tools available for development. Now we are going to begin coding. Here are some of the important topics that we will cover in this chapter: Starting a new module Creating.
Our goal: The module will use the Block Subsystem to add a new custom block. The block that we add will simply display a list of all of the currently enabled modules on our Drupal installation. The block subsystem was introduced in the previous chapter alongside other important Drupal subsystems. Create a new module folder and module files Work with the Block Subsystem Write automated tests using the SimpleTest framework included in Drupal We are going to proceed in that order for the sake of simplicity.
One might object that, following agile development processes, we ought to begin by writing our tests. Agile software development is a particular methodology designed to help teams of developers effectively and efficiently build software.
While Drupal itself has not been developed using an agile process, it does facilitate many of the agile practices. To learn more about agile, visit http: However, our goal here is not to exemplify a particular methodology, but to discover how to write modules. It is easier to learn module development by first writing the module, and then learn how to write unit tests. More filters. Sort order. Feb 03, Hendry Lee rated it it was ok. Was very excited with the early release of this book so I could take my hands on Drupal 7 development.
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But the book was carelessly done. I mean, good outline from the previous edition ensured me to buy again but frustrated with the errors.
Have to refer to the incomplete errata pages while reading. Apr 19, Chris Chinchilla rated it liked it. Jul 22, Brian Altenhofel rated it liked it Shelves: I bought this book hoping to get up to speed on Drupal 7, but I didn't get a lot of time to read it before my schedule got completely clogged with Drupal 7 projects.
Luckily, I'm a very fast learner - especially when I'm doing something. So I finally had some "relax" time and decided to read the book. In my opinion, its a good book for someone who has never worked with Drupal before. It will get them prepared quite well for Drupal 7 development. There was no I bought this book hoping to get up to speed on Drupal 7, but I didn't get a lot of time to read it before my schedule got completely clogged with Drupal 7 projects.
There was no real part of the book on entities. Entities are THE foundation of any Drupal 7 website. And if you can't develop using the entity system, then you become quite limited in what kind of work you can do in Drupal development in my opinion. Jul 12, John Goossen rated it it was ok Shelves: Decent book on Drupal development.
It helped me gain understanding on how Drupal works.
It does suffer two flaws: There are quite a few typos, and this can be frustrating especially when they are in code. Drupal is a moving target, so even though it is Drupal 7, some of the exercises seem to be developed around Drupal 6 or an very early release of 7.
When using this book make sure to check the errata on the apress website. May 29, Delhi Irc added it. Feb 19, John Bocook rated it liked it Shelves: I don't feel like this book is complete. Dec 19, Darrell Ulm rated it really liked it. Good, but prefer The Definitive Guide to Drupal 7.
Dec 28, David Fells rated it it was amazing. Reading this straight through was slow going as it got mixed in during the workday, over time. Was good though, got a lot out of it. A must read for Drupal 7 people imo. This may be one of the most important secrets of all.
All live Drupal sites use a hosting provider of some kind, but very few think of how to craft their Drupal development process and integrate that process into the hosting of their Drupal site. In this secret, you will learn about and evaluate various Drupal hosting options so you can make an informed decision about where to host your Drupal website based on things such as reliability, development process, and budget.
You will also focus extensively on how to craft your own personal Drupal development process based on best practices and how this process fits in with your hosting provider. Your Drupal development process is something that will help you build Drupal websites faster and more efficiently, while also giving you peace of mind knowing you are prepared if something goes wrong.
Don't skip this one! Drupal stores almost everything inside the Drupal database. This means that a lot of your settings are not in your code, but are stuck in your database. This is a problem especially when you want to use Git or create your Drupal development process. Luckily, the Drupal Features module allows you to export a lot of this common Drupal website configuration and settings into code. This code can be added to your Git repository and pushed up throughout your Drupal development process.
Hopefully now you can see that these secrets can help you become a better Drupal developer and build Drupal sites more efficiently than ever before.
Over people have become a Drupal 7 ninja. It's your time to join them! This book is brilliant. I've been programming in general since I've been programming in php and mysql since I got into Drupal to add commercial websites to my resume. What's so hard about learning another little language? After all, I can program in anything with the book open.
Drupal is my worst nightmare. A year and a half later and I'm still struggling with the learning curve. The book touches on all of those nightmares. I'll be going through this with a fine-tooth comb.
I did learn a lot from it, especially from the Drush chapter. That is because I never used Drush to its full potential.