PROCESS CONTROL BOOK BY KRISHNASWAMY PDF
Process Control, 2nd Edition [K Krishnaswamy] on cittadelmonte.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book has been designed as a textbook for the . Results 1 - 13 of 13 My Books - Download as Word cittadelmonte.info /.docx), PDF cittadelmonte.info), Text cittadelmonte.info) or K, Krishnaswami Process control, Thomas marlin Process. A_6 empirical modeling and pid controller cittadelmonte.info - One of the common process control specifications is to provide good performance in tracking set- point.
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Process Control book. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This book has been designed as a textbook for the students of electr. A typical process control system is shown in Figure. Assume the physical variable to be controlled is the temperature. Basically Industrial process control loop. k cittadelmonte.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. PROCESS CONTROL INTRODUCTION. PROCESS A process denotes an.
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To design a control strategy for the process. Some of the needs and advantages of a process automation are listed below. Nowadays automatic process control devices are used in almost every phase of industrial operations.
The model-based control action is 'intelligent' and helps in achieving uniformity. To train operating personnel. Initializing the controller with the model which has been validated by process testing is the first and foremost implementation step. The three dominant modeling approaches are: Transfer function 2. Non linear phenomenological models are design-type simulators.
This is the most common modeling approach in the industrial use of model-based control today. For markedly nonlinear or non stationary process applications. Analysis of linear control system 3. Prediction of transient response for different inputs. Non linear phenomenological Transfer function models are based on open-loop laplace transform descriptions of the process response to a step input.
The Laplace transform equation is defined as follows: Their familiarity and the simplicity of the resulting model based control are advantages which offset their limitations of linear and simplistic dynamic modeling. In all cases.
Time series and 3. Time series models represent the open-loop response of the process with a vector of impulses which are empirically determined and consist of 30 or so elements. The precision of the performance of the modeled dynamic process is an advantage which offsets the limiting assumption that the process is linear.
Solution of differential equations Linear 2. Take Laplace transform 2. Step 1: Take inverse Laplace transform. Factorise using partial fraction decomposition 3. Momentum Quite often. Energy and 3. In such cases we select other variables which can be measured conveniently. Thus mass.
For most of the processing systems of interest there are only three such fundamental quantities. The quantity S can be any of the following fundamental quantities: A Set of fundamental dependent quantities whose values will describe the natural state of a given system. Mass of individual components 3. Mass 2. Total mass 2. Total energy 4. A Set of equations in the variables above which will describe how the natural state of the given system changes with time.
Consider the system shown in Fig. We have: Whenever an input variable of a system changes. Transport rate equations They are needed to describe the rate of mass. Kinetic and potential energies of the system respectively. Kinetic rate equations They are needed to describe the rates of chemical reactions taking place in a system. In this case. The solution of the fundamental quantities. The time interval is called. Equations of state Equations of state are needed to describe the relationship among the intensive variables describing the thermodynamic state of a system.
Reaction and Phase equilibria relationships: These are needed to describe the equilibrium situations reached during a chemical reaction or by two or more phases. If the state variables donot change with time. By convention. The application of the conservation principle as defined by the above equations will yield a set of differential equations with the fundamental quantities as the dependent variables and time as the independent variable.
The state equations with the associated state variables constitute the 'mathematical model' of a process. The ideal gas law and the van der Waals equation are two typical equations of state for gaseous systems.
If y t and f t are interms of deviation variables around a steady state. The resistance associated with the flow of mass. The dead time is an important element in the mathematical modeling of processes and has a serious impact on the design of effective controllers. Their capacity to store material. Then the transfer function of a first order process is given by. Thus in the case of linear or linearised system.
The presence of dead time can very easily destabilize the dynamic behaviour of a controlled system. In other words. The resistance is associated with the pumps. For such systems the resistance is associated with the transfer of heat through walls.
Similarly the temperature response of solid. Cp is modeled as first order. From Equation 1. Then the transfer function is given by: Thus the larger the value of 'A'.
As the liquid level goes up. The corollary conclusions are: Refering to the tank level system. Several features of the plot in Fig. This action works towards the restoration of an equilibrium state steady state. The energy balance at transient state is given by the equation 1. This is easily seen from the equation 1.
Refer Fig. R in the response of first order lag systems is given in Fig. A and static gain KP determined by the resistance to the flow of the liquid. Kp for a step size A. The ultimate value of the response its value at the new steady state is equal to KP for a unit step change in the input.
The value of the response y t reaches The Laplace transform of equation 1. The resistance to the flow of heat from the steam to the liquid is expressed 1 by the term. At steady state the equation 1. The system possesses capacity to store thermal energy and a resistance to the flow of heat characterized by U. The equation 1. The following assumptions are made to determine the transfer function relating the variation of the thermometer reading T for change in the temperature of the liquid TF.
Applying unsteady state heat balance for the bulb. The expansion or contraction of the glass walled well containing mercury is negligible that means the resistance offered by glass wall for heat transfer is negligible 2. The liquid film surrounding the bulb is the only resistance to the heat transfer. T is the temperature of the mercury in the well of the Thermometer.
The temperature of the liquid TF varies with time as shown in Fig. The mercury assumes isothermal condition throughout. Temperature is assumed constant. Here the following two types of pressure processes will be dealt with: Process with inlet and outlet resistances. Making a mass balance. Gas storage tank and 2. P F1 F2 Fig. F1 is inlet flow through resistance R1 with source pressure P1.
F2 is output flow through resistance R2 and flowing out at pressure P2. As the flows into and out of the tank are both influenced by the tank pressure.
A first order system with multiple resistances Refer Fig. If there are several inlets and outlets the system is still first order one. The effluent flow rate Fo is determined by a constant-displacement pump and not by the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid level h. Either of them could be the controlled variable or the load variable or both could be load variables if the controller acts to change R1 or R2. In the tank discussed under section 1.
As a matter of fact. Processes with integrating action mostly commonly encountered in a chemical process are tanks with liquids. A pure capacitive process will cause serious control problems. But any small change in the flow rate of the inlet steam will make the tank flood or run dry. But this is not true for a large number of components in a chemical process.
Since we can vary the value of h. Such an 'adaptive procedure' can be used successfully if the time constant and the static gain of a process change slowly. This example is characteristic of what can happen to even simple first-order systems.
The general first order transfer function. If the rate of change is constant it is called linear ramp. We will discuss here the response of a first order system with a linear ramp forcing function in the input. Hence the response for the remaining four forcing functions will be discussed here. It is defined as the difference between input variable x t and the response y t at steady state. Time Lag: It is defined as the time taken by the response to reach the value of the input.
C2 and C3 in equation 1. In Fig 1. For example. A second order system is one whose output. An output may change. In this section we will discuss about the second order systems and in section 1. If equation 1. Case A: Thus we can distinguish three cases. Let us examine each case separately.
For a unit step change in the input f t. As it was the case with first-order systems. But when compared to a first-order response we notice that the system initially delays to respond and then its response is rather sluggish.
It must be emphasized that almost all the underdamped responses in a chemical plant are caused by the interaction of the controllers with the process units they control.
We notice that a second-order system with critical damping approaches its ultimate value faster than does an over damped system. The underdamped response is initially faster than the criticalled damped or over damped responses. The oscillatory behaviour becomes more pronounced with smaller values of the damping factor.
This oscillatory behaviour makes an underdamped response quite distinct from all previous ones. Although the under damped response is initially faster and reaches its ultimate value quickly.
From the plots we can observe the following: Overshoot is the ratio between the maximum amount by which the response exceeds its ultimate value A and the ultimate value of the response. Case C: Under damped Response. Critically damped response. Decay Ratio: The decay ratio is the ratio of the amounts above the ultimate value of two successive peaks. Period of Oscillation: The time elapsed between two successive peaks is called the period of oscillation T.
Good understanding of the underdamped behaviour of a second-order system will help tremendously in the design of efficient controllers. The time needed for the response to reach this situation is known as the response time Refer Fig. For practical purposes. Two First Order System in series: Non-Interacting When material or energy flows through a single capacity.
From Fig. The faster the response of the system.. If on the other hand. In Fig. It is defined as the time required for the response to reach its final value for the first time Refer Fig.
Rise Time: This term is used to characterize the speed with which an underdamped system responds. Response Time: There is a series of liquid flow elements which are non-interacting.
industrial instrumentation pdf
It is quite possible that all capacities are associated with the same processing unit. Equation 1. This sequential solution is characteristic of non interacting capacities in series. When a system is composed of two non interacting capacities. From equation 1. For the case of N noninteracting systems [Fig K P 2 Equation The transfer functions for the two tanks are: This system represents interacting capacities or interacting first-order systems in series.
Also the multiple capacities need not correspond to physically different units. The mass balances yield. Gregory K. McMillan Abstract: The latest methods for increasing process efficiency, production rate, and quality.
Krishnaswamy and S. Introduction to industrial instrumentation Instrumentation is the science of automated measurement and control. Applications of this science abound in modern research, industry, and everyday living.
From automobile engine control systems to home thermostats to aircraft autopilots to the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs, automation surroundsus. For regular video without these features, you can Watch on YouTube. Krishnaswamy And S. No specific effort was made to have the standard meet the requirements of those fei lds.
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However, it …. Measurement and Instrumentation Principles www. To Jane, Nicola and Julia www. Measurement and Instrumentation Principles Alan S. National Diploma: The relation between pressure and velocity for …. Chapter 7 describes the use of operation amplifiers in measurement technology, and how to use them. Lesson 1: Process Control McGraw-Hill, Chandra Prasad and C. Process Control Instrumentation Technology , C. Johnson,PHI 2.
Computer Aided Process Control , S. Krishnaswamy and M. Ponni Bala. Sridhar Krishnaswamy Last modified by: Selection of instrumentation, primary Sundaresan and Krishnaswamy method.
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