REYNOLDS HANDBOOK 11TH EDITION PDF
Reynolds, Charles E. (Charles Edwani). Reinforced concrete designer's handbook/Charles EReynolds and James C. Steedman. 10th ed. p. cm. Bibliography:p. Records 61 - of Handbook, Eleventh Edition by Charles E. Reynolds, James C. Steedman, Anthony J. Threlfall Steedman and Anthony J. Threlfall pdf. Reynolds's Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook Designer's Handbook, Eleventh Edition By Charles E. Reynolds PDF [BOOK].
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Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 11th Edition Reynolds Steedman - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.:). Eleventh Edition by Charles E. Reynolds and James C. Handbook Eleventh Edition Pdf An "Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook" by Charles E. Home · Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 11th Edition Reynolds Steedman. Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 11th Edition.
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Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers at the London address printed on this page. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.
Includes index. Reinforced concrete constniction-Handbooks, Manuals, etc. Steedman, James C. James Cyrill II. Title TA Contents Preface The authors Introductory note regarding tenth edition Notation vi vii viii x Part I 1 Introduction 2 Safety factors, loads and pressures 3 Structural analysis 4 Materials and stresses 5 Resistance of structural members 6 Structures and foundations 7 Electronic computational aids: Preface Since the last edition appeared under the Viewpoint imprint of the Cement and Concrete Association, this Handbook has been in the ownership of two new publishers.
I am delighted that it has now joined the catalogue of engineering books published by Spon, one of the most respected names in technical publishing in the world, and that its success is thus clearly assured for the foreseeable future.
As always, it must be remembered that many people contribute to the production of a reference book such as this, and my sincere thanks goes to all those unsung heroes and heroines, especially the editorial and production staff Thanks are also due to the many readers who provide feedback by pointing out errors or making suggestions for future improvements, Finally, my thanks to Charles Reynolds' widow and family for their continued encouragement and support.
I know that they feel, as I do, that C. Upper Beeding, May at E. Spon Ltd, who have been involved in the process. Glover and Partners.
He was for some years Technical Editor of Concrete Publications Ltd and later became its Managing Editor, combining this post with private practice.
In addition to the Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook, of which well over copies have been sold since it first appeared in , Charles Reynolds was the author of numerous other books, papers and articles concerning concrete and allied subjects. Among his various appointments, he served on the council of the Junior Institution of Engineers and was the Honorary Editor of its journal at his death on Christmas Day His association with Charles Reynolds commenced when, following the publication of numerous articles in the magazine Concrete and Constructional Engineering, he took up an appointment as Technical Editor of Concrete Publications Ltd in , a post he held for seven years.
Since that time he has been engaged in private practice, combining work for the Publications Division of the Cement and Concrete Association with his own writing and other activities. In he established Jacys Computing Services, an organization specializing in the development of microcomputer software for reinforced concrete design, and much of his time since then has been devoted to this project. Introduction to the tenth edition The latest edition of Reynold's Handbook has been necessi- tated by the appearance in September of BS8 'Structural use of concrete'.
Although it has superseded its immediate predecessor CPI 10 the change of designation from a Code of Practice to a British Standard does not indicate any change of status which had been in current use for 13 years, an earlier document still, CP last revised in , is still valid. Perhaps the most obvious change is the overall arrangement of material.
Whereas CPIIO in- corporated the entire text in Part 1, with the reinforced concrete design charts more usually required i. There are, as yet, no equivalents to the charts forming Part 3 of CP1 The material included in Part 2 provides information on rigorous serviceability calculations for cracking and deflection previously dealt with as appendices to Part 1 of CP , more comprehensive treatment of fire resistance only touched on relatively briefly in Part 1 , and so on.
It could be argued that mute logical arrangements of this material would be either to keep all that relating to reinforced concrete design and construction together in Part I with that relating to prestressed and composite construction forming Part 2, or to separate the material relating to design and detailing from that dealing with specifications and workmanship.
The main changes between CP1 10 and its successor are described in the foreword to BS8llO and need not be repeated here. Some of the alterations, for example the design of columns subjected to biaxial bending, represent consider- able simplifications to previously cumbersome methods. Certain material has also been rearranged and rewritten to achieve a more logical and better structured layout and to meet criticisms from engineers preferring the CP1 14 format.
Unfortunately this makes it more difficult to distinguish between such 'cosmetic' change in meaning or emphasis is intended than would otherwise be the case.
In addition to describing the detailed requiremenis of BS8 and providing appropriate charts and tables to aid rapid design, this edition of the Handbook retains all the material relating to CP1 10 which appeared in the previous edition. There are two principal reasons for this. Firstly, although strictly speaking CP1IO was immediately superseded by the publication of BS8 , a certain amount of design to the previous document will clearly continue for some time to come.
This is especially true outside the UK where English-speaking countries often only adopt the UK Code or a variant customized to their own needs some time after, it has been introduced in Britain.
Secondly, as far as possible the new design aids relating to BS8 have been prepared in as similar a form as possible to those previously provided for CP1IO: Designers who are familiar with these tables from a previous edition of the Handbook should thus find no difficulty in switching to the new Code, and direct comparisons between the corresponding BS8I 10 and CPllO charts and tables should be instructive and illuminating.
However, since the appearance of CP1 10 in , a sizeable group of engineers had fought for the retention of an alternative officially-approved document based on design to working loads and stresses rather than on conditions at failure.
This objective was spear-headed by the Campaign for Practical Codes of Practice CPCP and as a result, early in , the Institution of Structural Engineers held a referendum in which Institution members were requested to vote on the question of whether 'permissible-stress codes such as CPll4.
By a majority of nearly 4 to 1, those voting approved the retention and updating of such codes. Accordingly, the IStructE has now set up a task group for this purpose and has urged the British Standards Institution to publish a type TI code for the permissible-stress design of reinforced concrete structures.
As an interim measure, the BSI has been requested to reinstate CP, and the Building Regulations Division of the Department of the Environment asked to retain CP1 14 as an approved document until the new permissible stress code is ready.
Introduction to the tenth edition specifically to CP1 14 especially regarding load-factor design has had to be jettisoned. However, most of the material relating to design using modular-ratio analysis the other principal design method sahctioned by CPII4 has been retained, since this has long proved to be a useful and safe design method in appropriate circumstances. Although intended to be self-sufficient, this Handbook is planned to complement rather than compete with somewhat similar publications.
A joint committee formed by the Institutions of Civil and Structural Engineers published in ix In early editions of this Handbook, examples of concrete design were included.
Reynolds's Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook
Such examples are now embodied in the sister publication Examples of the Design of Buildings, in which the application of the requirements of the relevant Codes to a fairly typical six-storey building is considered. Since the field covered by this book is much narrower than the Handboo. The edition of the Examples relating to CP1 10 has been out October the Manual for the Design of Reinfbrced of print for some little time but it is hoped that a BS81 10 Concrete Building Structures, dealing with those aspects of BS8 of chief interest to reinforced concrete designers and version will be available before long.
Chapter 7 of this Hirndbook provides a brief introduction to the use of microcomputers and similar electronic aids in reinforced concrete design. In due course it is intended to supplement this material by producing a complete separate handbook, provisionally entitled the Concrete Engineer's Corn puterbook, dealing in far greater detail with this very important subject and providing program listings for many aspects of doncrete design.
Work on this long-delayed project is continuing.
Finally, for newcomers to the Handbook, a brief comment detailers. The advice provided, which generally but not always corresponds to the Code requirements, is presented concisely in a different form from that in BS81 10 and one clearly favoured by many engineers.. Elsewhere in the Handbook this publication is referred to for brevity as the Joint Institutions Design Manual. A similar publication dealing with BS81lO is in preparation but unfortunately had not been published when this edition of the Handbook was prepared.
References on later pages to the Code Handbook thus relate to the c P version. A working party from the about the layout may be useful. The descriptive chapters that form Part I contain more general material concerning the tables. The development of the Handbook through successive editions limiting stresses for modular-ratio design. Notation The basis of the notation adopted in this book is that the symbols K, k, and cu have been used repeatedly fi, to represent different factors or coefficients, and only where such a factor is used repeatedly e.
The additional symbols required or confusion is thought likely to arise, is a subscript appended. Thus k, say, may be used to represent perhaps twenty or more different coefficients at various places in this book.
In such circumstances the particular meaning of the to represent other design methods have been selected in accordance with the latter principles. In certain cases the symbol is defined in each particular case and care should be taken to confirm the usage concerned. The amount and range of material contained in this book makes it inevitable that the same symbols have had to be used more than once for different purposes.
However, care resulting notation is less logical than would be ideal: For example, ideally M could represent any applied moment, has been taken to avoid duplicating the Code symbols, but since CPI1O uses the symbol to represent applied except where this has been absolutely unavoidable.
While moments due to ultimate loads only, a different symbol Md most suitable for concrete design purposes, the general has had to be employed to represent moments due to service notational principles presented in Appendix F of CPI 10 are loads.
In isolated cases it has been necessary to violate the perhaps less applicable to other branches of engineering. For example, changes to comply with Appendix F principles have not represents either the maximum permissible stress in the been made. Similarly, Md indicates appropriate symbols are set in the typeface used in the main either an applied moment or the resistance moment text and employed on the tables.
Terms specifically defined of a section assessed on permissible-service-stress principles. Only the principal symbols those relating to confusion. A5 Area of concrete Area of core of helically reinforced column Area of tension reinforcement Area of compression reinforcement Area of compression reinforcement near more highly compressed column face Area of reinforcement near less highly compressed column face Total area of longitudinal reinforcement in columns A5h Equivalent area of helical binding volume per unit length A5, A sprov Asreq Area of longitudinal reinforcement provided for torsion Area of tension reinforcement provided Area of tension reinforcement required A5,, Cross-section area of two legs of link re- Atr inforcement Area of individual tension bar Area of individual compression bar Transformed concrete area Dimension as defined ; deflection Distance between centres of bars Distance to centroid of compression re- a PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor Chapter 1 Introduction A structure is an assembly of members each of which is subjected to bending or to direct force either tensile or compressive or to a combination of bending and direct force.
Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 11th Edition Reynolds Steedman
These primary influences may be accompanied by shearing forces and sometimes by torsion. Effects due to changes in temperature and to shrinkage and creep of the concrete, and the possibility of damage resulting from overloading, local damage, abrasion, vibration, frost, chemical attack and similar causes may also have to be considered.
Design includes the calculation of, or other means of assessing and providing resistance against, the moments, forces and other effects on the members. An efficiently designed structure is one in which the members are arranged in such a way that the weight, loads and forces are transmitted to the foundations by the cheapest means largest load that produces the most critical conditions in all parts of a structure.
Structural design is largerly controlled by regulations or within such bounds, the designer must codes but, exercise judgement in his interpretation of the requirements, endeavouring to grasp the spirit of the requirements rather than to design to the minimum allowed by the letter of a clause. Chapter V: Part 2 and BS Parts 1, 2 and 3 , 'The structural use of concrete' CP1 Parts 1, 2 and 3 , 'The structural use of normal reinforced concrete in buildings' CPI 14 , 'The consistent with the intended use of the structure and structural use of concrete for retaining aqueous liquids' BS and 'Steel, concrete and composite bridges' the nature of the site.
Efficient design means more than providing suitable sizes for the concrete members and the provision of the calculated amount of reinforcement in an economical manner, It implies that the bars can be easily BS 'Part 2: Specification for loads' and 'Part 4: Design of concrete bridges'. In addition there are such documents as the national Building Regulations.
The tables given in Part II enable the designer to reduce placed, that reinforcement is provided to resist the secondary forces inherent in monolithic construction, and that resistance is provided against all likely causes of damage to the structure. Experience and good judgement may do as much the amount of arithmetical work.
The use of such tables not only increases speed but also eliminates inaccuracies provided the tables are thoroughly understood and their bases and limitations realized.
In the appropriate chapters towards the production of safe and economical structures of Part I and in the supplementary information given on the pages facing the tables, the basis of the tabulated material is described. Some general information is also provided. For example, Appendix A gives fundamental trigonometrical and other mathematical formula and useful data. Appendix B is a conversion table for metric and imperial lengths.
Appendix C gives metric and imperial equivalents for units commonly used in structural calculations. Complex mathematics should no. On the other hand, in estimating loads, costs and other numerical quantities, the more items that are included at their exact value the smaller is the overall percentage of error due to the inclusion of some items the exact magnitude of which is unknown.
Where the assumed load is not likely to be exceeded and 1. The more factors allowed for in the calculations the higher may be the strengths or stresses, and vice versa. There are possibly other factors to be If the magnitude of a load, or other factor, is not known precisely it is advisable to study the effects of the probable taken into account in any particular case, such as the use of available steel forms of standard sizes.
In the United largest and smallest values of the factor and provide Kingdom economy generally results from the use of simple formwork even if this requires more concrete compared with resistance for the most adverse case. Some of the factors which may have to be considered are whether less concrete of a rich mix is cheaper than a greater volume of a leaner concrete; whether the cost of higherpriced bars of long lengths will offset the cosf of the extra weight used in lapping shorter and cheaper bars; whether, consistent with efficient detailing, a few bars of large diameter can replace a larger number of haTs of smaller diameter; whether the extra cost of rapid-hardening cement justifies the saving made by using the forms a greater number of times; or whether uniformity in the sizes of members saves in formwork what it may cost in extra concrete.
There is also a wider aspect of economy, such as whether the anticipated life and use of a proposed structure warrant the use of a higher or lower factor of safety than is usual; whether the extra cost of an expensive type of construction is warranted by the improvement in facilities; or whether the initial cost of a construction of high quality with little or no maintainance cost is more economical than less costly construction combined with the expense of maintenance.
The working of a contract and the experience of the contractor, the position of the site and the nature of the available materials, and even the method of measuring the quantities, together with numerous other points, all have their effect, consciously or not, on the designer's attitude towards a contract. So many and varied are the factors to be considered that only experience and the study of the trend of design can give any reliable guidance.
Attempts to determine the most economical proportions for a given member based only on inclusive prices of concrete, reinforcement and formwork are often misleading.
It is nevertheless possible to lay down certain principles. For equal weights, combined material and labour costs for reinforcement bars of small diameter are greater than.
The lower the cement content the cheaper the concrete but, other factors being equal, the lower is the strength and durability of the concrete. Taking compressive strength and the compressive stress in the concrete is the maximum permissible stress and the tensile stress in the steel is that which gives the minimum combined weight of tension and compression reinforcement.
When the cost of mild steel is high in relation to that of concrete, the most economical slab is that in which the proportion of tension reinforcement is well below the so-called 'economic' proportion.
The economic proportion is that at which the maximum resistance moments due to the steel and concrete, when each is considered separately, are equal.
T-beams are cheaper if the but here again the increase rib is made as deep as in headroom that results from reducing the depth may offset the small extra cost of a shallower beam. It is rarely economical to design a T-beam to achieve the maximum permissible resistance from the concrete. Inclined bars are more economical than links for resisting shearing force, and this may be true even if bars have to be inserted specially for this purpose.
Formwork is obviously cheaper if angles are right angles, if surfaces are plane, and if there is some repetition of use.
Therefore splays and chamfers are omitted unless structurally necessary or essential to durability.
Wherever possible architectural features in work cast in situ should be formed in straight lines. When the cost of formwork is considered in conjunction with the cost of concrete and reinforcement, the introduction of complications in the formwork may sometimes lead to more economical construction; for example, large continuous beams may be more economical if they are haunched at the supports. Cylindrical tanks are cheaper than rectangular tanks of the same capacity if many uses are obtained from one set of forms.
In some cases domed roofs and tank bottoms are more economical than flat beam-and-slab construction, although the unit cost of the formwork may be doubled for curved work. When formwork can be used several times without alteration, the employment of steel forms should be considered and, because steel is less adaptable than wood, the shape and dimensions of the work may have to be determined to suit.
Generally, steel forms for beam-and-slab or column construction are cheaper than cost into account, a concrete rich in cement is more timber formwork if twenty or more uses can be assured, but economical than a leaner concrete. In beams and slabs, for circular work half this number of uses may warrant the however, where much of the concrete is in tension and use of steel.
Timber formwork for slabs, walls, beams, column therefore neglected in the calculations, it is less costly to use sides etc. In columns, where all the six to eight times before the cost of repair equals the cost of new formwork. Beam-bottom boards can be used at least concrete is in compression, the use of a rich concrete is more economical, since besides the concrete being more efficient, there is a saving in formwork resulting from the reduction in the size of the column.
The use of steel in compression is always uneconomical when the cost of a single member is being considered, but advantages resulting from reducing the depth of beams and the size of columns may offset the extra cost of the individual twice as often. Precast concrete construction usually reduces consider- ably the amount of formwork and temporary supports required, and the moulds can generally be used very many more times than can site formwork.
In some cases, however, the loss of structural rigidity due to the absence of monolithic construction may offset the economy otherwise resulting member.
When designing for the ultimate limit-state the from precast construction. To obtain the economical most economical doubly-reinforced beam is that in which advantage of precasting and the structural advantage of in the total combined weight of tension and compression steel situ casting, it is often convenient to combine both types of when the depth of the in the same structure.
This In many cases the most economical design can be neutral axis is as great as possible without reducing the design strength in the tension steel see section 5.
With determined only by comparing the approximate costs of permissible-working-stress design the most economical different designs. Drawings and is practically the only way of determining, say, when a simple cantilevered retaining wall ceases to be more 5 All principal dimensions such as the distance between columns and overall and intermediate heights should be economical than one with counterforts; when a solid-slab bridge is more economical than a slab-and-girder bridge; or when a cylindrical container is cheaper than a rectangular container.
Although it is usually more economical in floor construction for the main beams to be of shorter span than indicated, in addition to any clearances, exceptional loads and other special requirements. A convenient scale for most general arrangement drawings is I: In the case of flat-slab construction, it may be worth while considering alternative spacings of the columns.
An essential aspect of economical design is an appreciation of the possibilities of materials other than concrete. The The working drawings should be large-scale details of the members shown on the general drawing.
Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 11th Edition Reynolds Steedman
A suitable scale is 1: Just as there is no structural reason for facing a reinforced concrete bridge with stone, so there is no economic gain in casting in situ a reinforced concrete wall panel if a brick wall is cheaper and will serve the same shown for the details of the reinforcement in slabs, beams, columns, frames and walls, since it is not advisable to show the reinforcement for more than one such member in a single although a larger scale may be necessary for complex structures.
It is often of great assistance if the general drawing I 10 or I in to I ft. Separate sections. Other common cases of the consideration of view. An indication should be given, however, of the different materials are the installation of timber or steel reinforcement in slabs and columns in relation to the bunkers when only a short life is required, the erection of light steel framing for the superstructures of industrial buildings, and the provision of pitched steel roof trusses.
Included in such economic comparisons should be such factors as fire resistance, deterioration, depreciation, insurance, appearance and speed of construction, and structural considerations such as the weight on the foundations, convenience of construction and the scarcity or otherwise of materials. The following observations can be taken as a guide when no precedent or other guidance is available. In this respect, practice in the UK should comply with the report published jointly by the Concrete Society and the Institution of Structural Engineers and dealing with, among other matters, detailing of reinforced concrete structures.
The recommendations given in the following do not necessarilj conform entirely with the proposals in the report ref. A principal factor is to ensure that, on all drawings for any one contract, the same conventions are adopted and uniformity of appearance and size is achieved, thereby making the drawings easier to read.
The scale employed should be commensurate with the amount of detail to be shown. Some suggested scales for drawings with metric dimensions and suitable equivalent scales for those in imperial dimensions are as follbws.
In the preliminary stages. Later this, or a similar drawing, is utilized as a key to the working drawings, and should show precisely such particulars as the setting-out of the structure in relation to adjacent buildings or other permanent works, and the level of, say, the ground floor in relation to a datum. Sections through beams and columns showing the detailed arrangement of the bars should be placed as closely as possible to the position where the section is taken.
In reinforced concrete details, it may be preferable for the outline of the concrete to be indicated by a thin line and to show the reinforcement by a bold line.
Wherever clearness is not otherwised sacrificed, the line representing the bar should be placed in the exact position intended for the bar, proper allowance being made for the amount of cover. Thus the reinforcement as shown on the drawing will represent as nearly as possible the appearance of the reinforcement as fixed on the site, all hooks and bends being drawn to scale.
The alternative to the foregoing method that is frequently adopted is for the concrete to be indicated by a bold line and the reinforcement by a thin line; this method, which is not recommended in the report previously mentioned, has some advantages but also has some drawbacks.
The dimensions given on the drawing should be arranged so that the primary dimensions connect column and beam centres or other leading setting-out lines, and so that secondary dimensions give the detailed sizes with reference to the main setting-out lines. The dimensions on working drawings should also be given in such a way that the carpenters making the formwork have as little calculation to do as possible.
Thus, generally, the distances between breaks in any surface should be dimensioned. Disjointed dimensions should be avoided by combining as much information as possible in a single line of dimensions, It is of some importance to show on detail drawings the positions of bolts and other fitments that may be required to be embedded in the concrete, and of holes etc. If such are shown on the same drawings as the reinforcement, there is less likelihood of conflicting information being depicted.
This proposal may be of limited usefulness in buildings but is of considerable importance in industrial structures.
Consistency in this makes it easier to understand complicated details. If the bar- in meaning. Notes which apply to all working drawings can placed as closely as possible to the view or detail concerned, shown on a detail drawings should be described on the latter, bending schedule is not given on a detail drawing, a reference should be made to the page numbers of the bar-bending Any notes on general or detailed drawings should be schedule relating to the details on that drawing.
If a group of notes is lengthy Although the proportions of the concrete, the cover of there is a that individual notes will be read only concrete over the reinforcement, and similar information are cursorily and an important requirement be overlooked.
Chapter 2 Safety factors, loads and pressures 2. On the one hand, calculations are undertaken to find the strength of a section of a member at which it becomes unserviceable, perhaps due to failure is imminent, rather than the concrete crushing, which may happen unexpectedly and explosively a greater factor of safety is employed to evaluate the maximum permissible stress in concrete than that used to determine the maximum permissible stress in the reinforcement.
Calculations 2. The ratio of the resistance of the section to the moment or force causing unserviceability at that section may be termed the factqr of safety of the section concerned. However, the determination of the overall global factor of safety of a complete structure is usually somewhat more complex, since this represents the ratio of the greatest load that a structure can carry to the actual loading for which it has been designed.
Now, although the moment of resistance of a reinforced concrete section can be calculated with reasonable accuracy, the bending moments and forces acting on a structure as failure is approached are far more difficult to determine since under such conditions a great deal of redistribution of forces occurs. For example, in a continuous beam the overstressing at one point, say at a support, may be relieved by a reserve of strength that exists elsewhere, say at midspan.
Thus the distribution of bending moment at failure may be quite different from that which occurs under service conditions. To obviate this shortcoming, the load-factor method of design was introduced into CP1 Theoretically, this method involves the analysis of sections at failure, the actual strength of a section being related to the actual load causing failure, with the latter being determined by 'factoring' the design load.
However, to avoid possible confusion caused by the need to employ both service and ultimate loads and stresses for design in the same document, as would be necessary since modular-ratio theory was to continue to be used, the load-factor method was introduced in CP1 14 in terms of working stresses and loads, by modifying the method accordingly.
In elasticstress i. With this method, the design of each individual member or section of a member must satisfy two separate criteria: The principal criteria relating to serviceability are the prevention of excessive deflection, excessive 2. In addition, to ensure that if any structure and in special circumstances other limit-state failure does occur it is in a 'desirable' form e.
Safety factors, loads and pressures 8 To ensure acceptable compliance with these limit-states, various partial factors of safety are employed in limit-state their design by methods based on permissible working stresses. The particular values selected for these factors depend on the accuracy known for the load or strength to which the factor is being applied, the seriousness of the Note When carrying out any calculation, it is most important that the designer is absolutely clear as to the consequences that might follow if excessive loading or stress occurs, and so on.
Some details of the various partial factors of safety specified in BS8I 10 and CPI 10 and their applica- condition he is investigating. This is of especial importance when he is using values obtained from tables or graphs such as those given in Part II of this book. For example, tabulated values for the strength of a section at the ultimate limit-state must never be used to satisfy the requirements obtained by carrying out a serviceability analysis, i. It will be seen that at each limit-state considered, two partial safety factors are involved.
The characteristic loads are multiplied by a partial safety factor for loads Yf to obtain the design loads, thus enabling calculation of the bending moments and shearing forces for which the member is to be designed.
Thus if the characteristic loads are multiplied by the value of y1 corresponding to the ultimate limit-state, the moments and forces subsequently determined will represent those occurring at failure, and the sections must be designed accordingly. Similarly, if the value of y1 corresponding to the limit-state of serviceability is used, the moments and forces under service loads will be obtained.
In a similar manner, characteristic strengths of materials bending moments and shearing forces due to unfactored characteristic loads. As explained above, a design load is calculated by multiplying the Ym characteristic load by the appropriate partial factor of safety According to the Code Handbook a characterfor loads istic load is, by definition, 'that value of load which has an accepted probability of its not being exceeded during the life of the structure' and ideally should be evaluated from the avoidance of excessive cracking or deflection may be undertaken, and suitable procedures are outlined to undertake such a full analysis for every section would be too time-consuming and arduous, as well as being the mean load with a standard deviation from this value.
BS8I 10 states that for design purposes the loads set out in and CP3: Part 2 may be BS Part considered as characteristic dead, imposed and wind loads. Thus the values given in Tables 2—8 may be considered to be characteristic loads for the purposes of limit-state used are divided by a partial safety factor for materials to obtain appropriate design strengths for each material. Although serviceability limit-state calculations to ensure Therefore BS8 and CPI 10 specify certain limits relating to bar spacing, slenderness etc.
Should a proposed design fall outside these tabulated limiting values, however, the engineer may still be able to show that his design meets the Code requirements regarding serviceability by producing detailed calculations to validate his claim.
These include significant revisions to British Standards and Codes of Practice, and the introduction of the new Eurocodes. The principal feature of the Handbook is the collection of over full-page tables and charts, covering all aspects of structural analysis and reinforced concrete design.
These, together with extensive numerical examples, will enable engineers to produce rapid and efficient designs for a large range of concrete structures conforming to the requirements of BS , BS , BS and Eurocode 2. Design criteria, safety factors, loads and material properties are explained in the first part of the book. Details are then given of the analysis of structures ranging from single-span beams and cantilevers to complex multi-bay frames, shear walls, arches and containment structures.
Miscellaneous structures such as helical stairs, shell roofs and bow girders aare also covered. A large section of the Handbook presents detailed information concerning the design of various types of reinforced concrete elements according to current design methods, and their use in such structures as buildings, bridges, cylindrical and rectangular tanks, silos, foundations, retaining walls, culverts and subways.
All of the design tables and charts in this section of the Handbook are completely new. This highly regarded work provides in one publication a wealth of information presented in a practical and user-friendly form. It is a unique reference source for structural engineers specialising in reinforced concrete design, and will also be of considerable interest to lecturers and students of structural engineering.
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