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SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ROD ELLIS PDF

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The Study of. Second Language. Acquisition. 第二语言习得研究. Rod Ellis. 上海 外语教育 accessible introduction to second language acquisition research and . Sorry, this document isn't available for viewing at this time. In the meantime, you can download the document by clicking the 'Download' button above. Second Language Acquisition by Rod Ellis - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx ), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. applied linguistics.

Summarize of Chapter 1 What is second language acquisition? In this term, second language often referred to as an L2 can be defined as another language that we learn. People learn L2 because they follow speech community between people which has expanded way beyond their local specch. Today, not only communication which need L2 but also education or securing employment need L2. Then L2 acquisitin is the way which people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside of classroom and SLA as the study of this. What are the goals of SLA? One of the goals of SLA is thedescription of L2 acquisition.

How does the item and system learning interrelate in L2 acquisition? They are a conspicuous feature of learner language, raising the important question of Why do learners make errors? It is useful for teachers to know what errors learners make. Paradoxically, it is possible that making errors may actually help learners to learn when they self-correct the errors they make. Identifying errors To identify errors we have to compare the sentences learners produce with what seem to be the normal or correct sentences in the target language which correspond with them.

We need to distinguish errors and mistakes. Errors reflect gaps in a learners knowledge; they occur because the learner does not know what is correct.

Mistakes reflect occasional lapses in performance; they occur because, in a particular instance, the learner is unable to perform what he or she knows. Describing errors After the errors have been identified, they can be described and classified into types. There are several ways of doing this. To classify errors into grammatical categories. Try to identify general ways in which the learners utterances differ from the reconstructed target language utterances.

Classifying errors in these ways can help us to diagnose learners learning problems at any on stage of their development and also to plot how changes in error patterns occur over time. Explaining errors The identification and description of errors are preliminaries to the much more interesting task of trying to explain why they occur.

Errors not only systematic, many of them are also universal, but not all errors are universal. Some errors are common only to learners who share the same mother tongue or whose mother tongues manifest the same linguistic property.

Error evaluation. Where the purpose of the error analysis is to help learners learn an L2, there is a need to evaluate errors. Some errors, known as global errors, violate the overall structure of a sentence and for this reason may make it difficult to process. Other errors, known as local errors, affect only a single constituent in the sentence and are perhaps, less likely to create any processing problems. Developmental patterns We can also explore the universality of L2 acquisition by examining the developmental pattern learners follow.

The early stages of L2 acquisition Some L2 learners, particularly if they are children, undergo a silent period. That is, they make no attempt to say anything to begin with. They may be learning a lot about the language just through listening to or reading it.

Second Language Acquisition by Rod Ellis

When learners do begin to speak in the L2 their speech is likely to manifest two particular characteristics. One is the kind of formulaic chunks. The second characteristic of early L2 speech is propositional simplification. The order of acquisition To investigate the order of acquisition, researchers choose a number of grammatical structures to study.

Researchers have shown that there is a definite accuracy order and that this remains more or less the same irrespective of the learners mother tongues, their age, and whether or not they have received formal language instruction. Other researchers have shown that the order does vary somewhat according to the learners first language. Sequence of acquisition The acquisition of a particular grammatical structure, therefore, must be seen as a process involving transitional constructions.

Acquisition follows a U-shaped course of development, that is, initially learners may display a high level of accuracy only to apparently regress later before finally once again performing in accordance with target language norms. Some implication The work on developmental patterns is important for the reason.

It suggests that that some linguistic features are inherently easier to learn than others. This has implications for both SLA theory and for language teaching. A key question for both SLA and language teaching, then, is whether the orders and sequences of acquisition can be altered through formal instruction.

Variability in learner language Learners choice of past tense marker depends, in part, on whether the verbs refers to an event, an activity, or a state. It appears that learners vary in their use of the L2 according to. The effects of linguistic context are also evident in learners use of the verb to be. Another important factor that accounts for the systematic nature of variability is the psycholinguistic context.

A characteristic of any natural language is that forms realize meanings in a systematic way. Learner language is no different. Learners have access to two or more lingusitic forms for realizing a single grammatical structure but they do not employ these arbitrarily. What are the difference of order 2. Can you explain more about free variation? This system is often referred to as interlanguage. To understand what is meant by interlanguage we need to briefly consider behaviourist learning theory and mentalist views of language learning.

Behaviourist Learning Theory According to this theory, language learning is like any other kind of learning in that it involves habit formation.

Habits are formed when learners respond to stimuli in the environment and subsequently have their responses reinforced so that they are remembered.

Thus, a habit is a stimulus-response connection. Behaviourism cannot adequately account for L2 acquisition. Learners frequently do not produce output that simply reproduces the input. The systematic nature of their errors demonstrates that they are actively involved in constructing their own rules. Only human being are capable of learning language. The human mind is equipped with a faculty for learning language, referred to as a Language Acquisition Device.

This faculty is the primary determinant of language acquisition. Input is needed, but only to trigger the operation of language acquisition device. What is Interlanguage?

The term interlanguage was coined by the American linguist, Larry Selinker, in recognition of the fact that L2 learners construct a linguist system that draws, in part, on the learners L1 but is also different from it and also from the target language. The concept of interlanguage involves the following premises about L2 acquisition: The learner constructs a system of abstract linguistic rules which underlies comprehension and production of L2.

The learners grammar is permeable. The learners grammar is transitional. Some researchers have claimed that the systems learners construct contain variable rules. Learners employ various learning strategies to develop their interlanguage.

The learners grammar is likely to fossilize. The concept interlanguage can be viewed as a metaphor of how L2 acquisition takes place. The learner is exposed to input, which is processed in two stages. First, parts of it are attended to and taken into short-term memory. These are referred to as intake. Second, some of the intake is stored in long-term memory as L2 knowledge. The processes responsible for creating intake and L2 knowledge occur within the black box of the learners mind where the learners interlanguage is constructed.

Finally, L2 knowledge is used by the learner to produce spoken and written output. Views interlanguage as consisting of different styles which learners call upon under different condition of language use. Concerns how social factors determine the input that learners use to construct their interlanguage.

Considers how the social identities that learners negotiate in their interactions with native speakers shape their opportunities to speak and, thereby, to learn an L2. Interlanguage as A Stylistic Continuum Elaine Tarone has proposed that interlanguage involves a stylistic continuum. She argues that learners develop a capability for using the L2 and that this underlies all regular language behavior. At one end of continuum is the careful style, evident when learners are consciously attending to their choice of linguistic forms, as when they feel the need to be correct.

At the other end of the continuum is the vernacular style, evident when learners are making spontaneous choices of linguistic form, as is likely in free conversation. Taroness idea of interlanguage as a stylistic continuum is attractive in a number of ways. It explains why learner language is variable. As Tarone herself has acknowledged, the model also has a number of problems.

First, later research has shown that learners are not always most accurate in their careful style and least accurate in the vernacular style. Second is that the role of social factors remains unclear. This suggests that the variability evident in their language use is psycholinguistically rather than socially motivated.

In short, Tarones theory seems to relate more to psycholinguistic rather than social factors in variation. Another theory that also draws on the idea of stylistic variation but which is more obviously social is Howard Giless accommodation theory. This seeks to explain how a learners social group influences the course of L2 acquisition. According to Giless theory, social factors influence interlanguage development via the impact they have on the attitudes that determine the kinds of language use learners engage in.

Accommodation theory suggests that social factors, mediated through the interactions that learners take part in, influence both how quickly they learn and the actual route that they follow. The Acculturation Model of L2 Acquisition A similar perspective on the role of social factors in L2 acquisition can be found in John Schuumans acculturation model. This model, which has been highly influential, is bulit around the metaphor of distance.

Schuuman proposed that pidginization in L2 acquisition results when learners fail to acculturate to the target language group, that is, when they are unable or unwilling to adapt to a new culture. The main reason for learners failing to acculturate is social distance. A learners social distance is determined by a number of factors. Schuuman also recognizes that social distance is sometimes indeterminate. He suggests psychological distance becomes important and identifies a further set of psychological factors, such as language shock and motivation, to account for this.

Social Identity and Investment in L2 Learning The notion of subject to and subject of are central to Bonny Peirces view of the relationship between social context and L2 acquisition. The notion of social identity is central to the theory Peirce advances.

She argues that language learners have complex social identities that can only be understood in terms of the power relations that shape social structures. A learners social identity is, according to Pierce, multiple and contradictory. Learning is successful when learners are able to summon up or construct an identity that enables them to impose the right to be heard and thus become the subject of the discourse. This requires investment. Something learners will only make if they believe theirefforts will increase the value of their cultural capital.

How does social factor can influence L2 acquisition? What does pidginization mean? Rather they have an indirect effect, influencing the communication learners engage in. We need to consider, what the nature of this communication is and how it affects L2 acquisition. To this end we will now focus our attention on the discourse in which learners participate.

Second Language Acquisition by Rod Ellis.pdf

The study of learner discourse in SLA has been informed by two rather different goals. On the one hand, there have been attempts to discover how L2 learners acquire the rules of discourse that inform native-speaker language use. On the other hand, a number of researchers have sought to show how interaction shapes interlanguage development.

Acquiring Discourse Rules There is a growing body of research investigating learner discourse. The acquisition of discourse rules, like the acquisition of grammatical rules, is systematic, reflecting both distinct types of errors and developmental sequences.

However more work is needed to demonstrate which aspects are universal and which are language specific as it is already clear that many aspects of learner discourse are influenced by the rules of discourse in the learners L1. The Role of Input and Interaction in L2 Acquisition The bulk of the research on learner discourse has been concerned with whether and how input and interaction affect L2 acquisition.

Interactionist theories of L2 acquisition acknowledge the importance of both input and internal language processing. Learning takes place as a result of a complex interaction between the linguistic environment and the learners internal mechanisms.

Input modifications have been investigated through the study of foreigner talk, the language that native speakers use when addressing non-native speakers. Two types of foreigner talk can be identified-ungrammatical and grammatical. Ungrammatical foreigner talk is socially marked. It often implies a lack of respect on the part of the native speaker and can be resented by learners. Grammatical foreigner talk is the norm. Various types of modification of baseline talk can be identified.

Grammatical foreigner talk is delivered at a slower pace. The input is simplified Grammatical foreigner talk is sometimes regularized Foreigner talk sometimes consists of elaborated language use.

We seem to know intuitively how to modify the way we talk tp learners to make it easier for them to understand.

Learners sometimes still fail to understand, but they can pretend they have understood. Research shows that learners sometimes do this.

Learners can signal that they have not understood. This result interactional modifications as the participants in the discourse engage in the negotiation of meaning. Krashen suggest that the right level of input is attained automatically when interlocutors succeed in making themselves understood in communication. According to Krashen, then, L2 acquisition depends on comprehensible input. Michael Longs interaction hypothesis also emphasizes the importance of comprehensible input but claims that it is most effective when it is modified through the negotiation meaning.

Another perspective is provided by Evelyn Hatch. Hatch emphasizes the collaborative endeavours of the learners and their interlocutors in constructing discourse and suggest that syntactic structures can grow out of the process of building discourse. One way in which this can occur is through scaffolding. The Role of Output in L2 Acquisition Krashen argues that speaking is the result of acquisition not its cause.

He claims that the only way learners can learn from their output is by treating it as auto-input. Merrill Swain has argued that comprehensible output also plays a part in L2 acquisition. She suggests a number of specific ways in which learners can learn from their own output. Output can serves a consciousness-raising function by helping learners to notice gaps in their interlanguage. That is, 1. Trying to speak or write in the L2 they realize that they lack the grammatical knowledge of some feature that is important for what they want to say.

Output helps learners to test hypotheses. Learners sometimes talk about their own output, identifying problems with it and discussing ways in which they can be put right. How do input that comes in foreigner talk contribute to L2 acquisition? What is the meaning of auto-input? Here, the focus is on a small number of major issues L1 transfer, the role of consciousness, processing operations, and communication strategies.

Second Language Acquisition by Rod Ellis | Second Language Acquisition | Second Language

L1 Transfer L1 transfer refers to the influence that the learners L1 exerts over the acquisition of an L2. This influence is apparent in a number of ways. The learners L1 is one of the sources of error in learner language. This influence is referred to as negative transfer. However, in some cases, the learners L1 can facilitate L2 acquisition. Language transfer that facilitates the acquisition of target language forms is called positive transfer.

The learners stage of development has also been found to influence L1 transfer. This is clearly evident in the way learners acquire speech acts like request, apologies, and refusals.

Other researchers have found that the transfer of some L1 grammatical features is tied to learners stage of development. Transfer is governed by learners perceptions about what is transferable and by their stage of development.

It follows that interlanguage development cannot constitute a restructuring cintinuum. The Role of Consciousness in L2 Acquisition According to some psychologists, learners can achieve long-term storage of complex material through implicit learning.

They can always reflect on this implicit knowledge, thus making it explicit. It is also clear that L2 learners may have knowledge about the L2 but unable to use this knowledge in performance without conscious attention. Explicit knowledge may aid learners in developing implicit knowledge in a number of ways.

First, explicit knowledge may only convert into implicit knowledge when learners are at the right stage of development.

Rod Ellis The Study of Second Language Acquisition Oxford Applied Linguistics .pdf

Second, explicit knowledge may facilitate the process by which learners attend to features in the input. Third, explicit knowledge may help learners to move from intake to acquisition by helping them to notice the gap between what they have observed in the input and the current state of their interlanguage as manifested in their own ouput. Processing Operations Another way of identifying the processes responsible for intelanguage development is to deduce the operations that learners perform from a close inspection of their output.

Operating Principles The study of the L1 acquisition of many different languages has led to the identification of a number of general strategies which children to use to extract and segment linguistic information from the language they hear. Dan Slobin has referred to these startegies as operating principles.

Operating principles provide a simple and attractive way of accounting for the properties of interlanguage. Processing Constraints A project known as ZISA Zweitspracherwerb Italienischer und Spanischer Arbeiter investigated the order in which migrant workers with Romance language backgrounds acquired a number of German word-order rules. The project found clear evidence of developmental route, bearing out the research on acquisitional patterns.

What distinguishes this work on acquisitional sequences is that it led to and was informed by a strong theory, known as the multidimensional model. Multidimensional model is a powerful theory of L2 acquisition in that it proposes mechanisms to account for why learners follow a definite acquisitional route. Communication Strategies Learners frequently experience problems in saying what they want to say because of their inadequate knowledge.

In order to overcome these problems they resort to various kinds of communication strategies. They are called upon when learners experience some kind of problem with an initial plan which prevents them from executing it.

Two Types of Computational Model In particular, two radically different types of apparatus have been proposed. One type involves the idea of serial processing. That is, information is processed in a series of sequential steps and results in the representation of what has been learned as some kind of rule or strategy.

This is the dominant version of the computational model in SLA and is evident in much of the preceding discussion. The alternative type of appartus involves the idea of a parallel distributed processing.

Parallel distributed processing is controversial as it constitutes an affront to one of the central precepts of linguistics, namely that language is rule-governed.

What influence that is caused by psycholinguistic aspects? Do learners of L2 acquisition have to make communication strategy? Typological Universal: Relative Clauses A good example of how linguistic enquiry can shed light on interlanguage development can be found in the study of relative clauses. Learners whose L1 includes relative clauses find them easier to learn than learners whose L1 does not and, consequently, they are less likely to avoid learning them.

The accessibility hierarchy serves as an example of how SLA and linguistics can assist each other. On the one hand, linguistic facts can be used to explain and even predict acquisition. The Psychology of Language. Trevor A. Reading in a Second Language. William Grabe. Julia Herschensohn.

Zoltan Dornyei. First and Second Language Acquisition. Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition. Judit Kormos. Elana Shohamy. Measuring Up. John Sabatini. The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language. Edith L. Rod Ellis. Neo-Piagetian Theories of Cognitive Development. Andreas Demetriou. Linguistics and Aphasia. Ruth Lesser. Effective Speech-language Pathology. John R. Sandra Fotos. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

David A. Implicit Learning and Consciousness. Axel Cleeremans. Language Development Over the Lifespan. Kees de Bot.

Memory, Language, and Bilingualism. Jeanette Altarriba. Situation Models and Levels of Coherence. Isabelle Tapiero. Robert S. Patsy M. Thought and Emotion. Psychoanalytic Perspectives on the Rorschach. Paul M. Joel Walters. Learning To Read. Laurence Rieben. Person Memory PLE: Reid Hastie. Cognitive Development. Sergio Morra.

Metalinguistic Awareness and Second Language Acquisition. Karen Roehr-Brackin. The Philosophy of Metacognition. Professor Alessandro G. Peter Robinson. Tutorials in Bilingualism. Annette M. Kim McDonough.

Experienced Cognition. Richard A. Mental Time Travel. Kourken Michaelian.

Alison Mackey. Criteria for Competence. Michael Chandler. Paul A. A Philosophy of Second Language Acquisition.

Marysia Johnson. Bill VanPatten. Doing without Concepts. Edouard Machery. Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition. ZhaoHong Han. Links Between Beliefs and Cognitive Flexibility. Jan Elen. Rational Constructivism in Cognitive Development. Fei Xu. Verbal Minds. Toni Gomila. Consciousness as a Scientific Concept. Elizabeth Irvine. Pronunciation Learning Strategies and Language Anxiety. Magdalena Szyszka. The Bilingual Mental Lexicon.

Aneta Pavlenko. Third Language Learners. Maria Pilar Safont Jorda.

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