Fiction Sniper Manual Pdf


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knowledge and skill fall within the dictionary description of a sniper, whom we shall refer to through- out the manual as a COUNTERSNIPER. This manual. conducted to the same degree of standards as it was originally taught so not to lose any effectiveness in combat. If a sniper is not retained quarterly in all basic. Secret Commandos: Behind Enemy Lines with the Elite Warriors of SOG. The Ultimate Sniper: An Advanced Training Manual for Military and PoliceSnipers.

Sniper Manual Pdf

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Field Manual. Headquarters. No. Department of the Army. Washington, DC, 25 April Special Forces Sniper. Training and Employment. Contents. Aug 17, This manual is organized as a reference for snipers and leads the trainer A sniper must be highly trained in long-range rifle marksmanship. Full text of "U.S. Marine Corps Sniper (PDFy mirror)". See other formats. FMFM B Sniping U.S. Marine Corps PCN 00 DEPARTMENT.

This determination was made on 16 June Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document. This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online www. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library at www. Field Manual Headquarters No.

E-7 Figure E Charging handle on the bolt carrier and bolt Pulling the bolt carrier forward Attachment of front iron sight Table of Contents Figure D G 19 October FM Lifting the back end of the upper receiver assembly Bidirectional antenna pattern Removing the extractor plunger and the extractor spring E-2 Figure E Reticle and location of low battery indicator Disengaging the cam pin assembly E-6 Figure E E Figure E Mounting base Turning the buffer to align the groove in its flange with the buffer stop Depressing the extractor plunger Omni-directional antenna pattern Terminated sloping "V" antenna.

Lifting the upper receiver assembly clear of the lower receiver assembly Rear lock and midlock pins E-5 Figure E Controls and indicators E-1 Figure E Reassembling the bolt and carrier assemblies Aperture insert Holding the springs in place Using your finger to ensure that the groove and slot are not aligned D Figure E E Figure G Repair procedure Extending the barrel Expedient insulators Elements of a modified steady position Deployment tool kit Range estimation table Mounting ring nuts Techniques of applying camouflage and their best use Optical cleaning kit Weapons and stock adjustments Sniper weapons Ghillie suit accessory kit NSN Range estimation based on appearance of object Five-piece cleaning rod..

Four-man sniper team duties and weapons Units with snipers Primary weapons for other sniper team members Weapons cleaning kit Nesting the barrel Deployment parts kit Authorized cartridges Table of Contents Figure G Technical specifications for M Semiautomatic Sniper System Maximum sustained firing rate: Estimated clicks required to adjust the variable scope for various ranges Factors that affect range estimation and effects M24 Sniper Weapon System.

G Tables Table Image-intensification and infrared devices Dimensions of reticle components Deployment kit Technical specifications for the M long-range sniper rifle Quick-detach sound suppressor technical specifications Communication devices Tactical milling reticle conversion chart Other types of equipment Trigger guard screws Example of windage holdoff Qualification standards Outline of sniper briefback Example five-day sniper sustainment training program continued Wind compensation for a 6-inch target Ballistics terms Target speed Sniper Firing Table I scoring criteria Wind-conversion table for the M long-range sniper system Land navigation scoring Considerations for cover Point of impact rise Effect of enemy situation on sniper's environment Table of Contents Table Example five-day sniper sustainment training program Elevation holdoff reference guide Ballistics data for Compensation factors for angle fire Requirements for field firing range Conditions and their effect on observation Wind-conversion table for the M Semiautomatic Sniper System Windage sight corrections for spin drift for M long-range sniper rifle Call for fire procedures Bullet rise at a given angle degree of slant and range Categories of street width.

Constant for wind formula.. Wind velocity and indicators Sniper Firing Table II scoring criteria Bloodstains left by various types of wounds Example format for a call for fire grid mission Techniques for air or water extraction Example format for keep in memory exercise schedule Six types of tracking indicators and examples Considerations for concealment Constants for wind estimation formula Example emergency deployment readiness exercise Holdoff and points of aim.

Field fire scoring Malfunctions and corrections Operational climates and proper lubrication application C-1 Table D E Table E A-7 Table A Inspection guide G Table G Four levels of severity H-3 Table H G-4 Table G F-4 Table G Risk assessment matrix Report formats used by sniper teams G Table H Five levels of probability Optical cleaning kit components. A Table B Foreign sniper weapon systems Typical format for a battle damage assessment report E Table F B-1 Table B Sniper Firing Table V scoring criteria List of equipment for specialized tasks or environments Worksheet instructions.

B-4 Table C Deployment tool kit components Foreign sniper weapon systems continued Typical format for an initial entry report Typical format for an intelligence report D Table E Example format for medical evacuation report B-3 Table B B-2 Table B List of useful equipment for urban operations Deployment parts kit components Categories and examples of survival kit items Typical format for a cache report..

A-6 Table A List of sniper team required arms and ammunition List of sniper team special equipment Deployment kit components H-4 xiv FM H-2 Table H Four levels of risk A-5 Table A Factors that affect fear Sniper Firing Table VI scoring criteria Leader checklist for employment of sniper teams H-1 Table H D Table D F-1 Table F Sniper Firing Table IV Sniper Firing Table IV scoring criteria Sources of rifle error Five-piece cleaning rod components Weapons cleaning kit components Typical format for a situation report Common malfunctions and corrective actions Controls and indicators..

United States sniper weapon systems continued H 19 October FM H-6 Table H H Table H H-8 Table H H-7 Table H United States sniper weapon systems H-5 Table H Table of Contents Table H H-9 Table H Foreign sniper weapon systems continued..

Uniforms depicted in this manual were drawn without camouflage for clarity of the illustration. Terms for which this publication is the proponent FM are indicated with an asterisk in the glossary. It is intended for use by commanders.

This publication applies to the Active Army. Given the current requirement that snipers be male. Army schools. Terms that have joint or Army definitions are identified in both the glossary and the text. Should this requirement change. Radioactive Fallout and Biological and Chemical Attacks. Preface This field manual FM provides doctrinal guidance on the mission. Point of contact information is as follows: Bldg GA 19 October FM Rm Fort Benning.

Preface You may send comments and recommendations by any means US mail. Chapter 1 Introduction The sniper has special abilities. Whether a sniper is organic or attached. The secondary mission of the sniper is to collect and report battlefield information. He is frugal and precise. The term "sniper" first entered military use in This creates a marked effect on enemy troops. Michael E. In combat. A well-trained sniper.

From Leonardo Da Vinci to the present. Snipers are employed in all levels of conflict. Ernest Hemingway. April The sniper is one of the most effective weapons on the field of battle. This includes conventional offensive and defensive combat in which precision fire is delivered at long ranges.

The Sniper at War: By his discriminatory nature. The term "sniper" originally had nothing to do with the current use of the word. Sniping requires the perfection of basic infantry skills. Snipers were skilled trackers and marksmen. His mission is to deliver discriminatory. This role becomes more significant when the target is entrenched or positioned among civilians. The sniper must be able to do his job without anxiety and remorse. Physical Condition Vision A sniper candidate must meet criteria in the areas of marksmanship.

Commander involvement in personnel selection is critical. Killing in self-defense or in the defense of others is much easier than doing so without apparent provocation. This was the birth of the modern sniper. Chapter 1 Color blindness is also an additional liability. No sniper should be a habitual smoker or user of smokeless tobacco. Marksmanship A Soldier who wears glasses could become a liability as the glasses may be lost or damaged. Psychological Profile The high standards of training and the independent nature of the sniper's mission require the commander to screen sniper candidates carefully.

A Soldier needs high motivation and the ability to learn various skills if he is to withstand the rigorous training program and the increased personal risk and rigors of the job.

He also needs an excellent personal record. The sniper is often employed in extended operations with little sleep. The sniper must be able to eliminate targets calmly and deliberately. As an expert.

A psychological examination can help reveal whether a candidate has the right psychological qualities to be a sniper: Will he pull the trigger at the right time and place? Is he reliable? Has he shown initiative. World War I introduced the world to a new type of combat. Those whose motivation toward sniper training rests mainly in the desire for prestige may lack the rationality that the job requires. This requires outstanding physical condition. Good health means good reflexes.

Excellent vision e. Smoke or an unsuppressed smoker's cough can reveal the sniper's position. The trench sniper moved about the battlefield alone. The chain of command must ensure that sniper candidates meet expert annual marksmanship qualification standards. Engaging moving targets from to meters during hours of limited visibility. Land navigation. Ammunition types and capabilities. Meets the height and weight standards in accordance with AR Adjustment of optical devices.

The sniper must know the field and feel comfortable spending long periods there. Introduction Intelligence Radio operation and procedures. Fieldcraft Has no record of disciplinary action. Is Active duty. Meets a minimum retainability of one year upon graduation date.

Engaging targets with the long-range sniper rifle LRSR from to meters. The commander must ensure that the candidate— Is male. Army National Guard. Has a good performance record.

Conducting tactical movement while under direct observation in woodland and urban environments. Military intelligence collection and reports. Earned at least 70 points on each event during the Army Physical Fitness Test. Accurately reporting battlefield information in sketch. A sniper must either possess a working knowledge or be able to learn the following: An extensive background in the outdoors and a vast knowledge of natural outdoor occurrences will help aid him in the timely and efficient execution of many of his tasks.

Observation and adjustment of mortar and artillery fire. Has volunteered for sniper school. Is at least a private first class. Is in career management field series. Has a minimum GT score of Performing all tasks in this manual.

Has no history of alcohol or drug abuse. Identification of threat uniforms and equipment. Engaging moving targets from to meters during daylight hours. Detecting targets and recalling pertinent target characteristics.

To ensure maximum effectiveness with minimum risk. All sniper weapon systems can deliver long-range. With the M24 SWS. The M24 SWS is a 7. Capitalize on shooting and maintenance proficiency on Mtype rifles. These all fit into the M's fitted carrying case.

Attach and detach other sighting systems and accessories with approved mounting systems without loss of combat zero. To allow the sniper team to focus for maximum results in the time available. Consistently hit personnel-size targets at ranges of meters or further. The system consists of the rifle. To achieve these goals. The sniper team is employed in all types of tactical operations. There are three primary sniper weapons: M long-range sniper rifle LRSR.

The two main goals are to increase his value as a force multiplier and to ensure his survival on the battlefield. For more information about the M24 SWS.

The sniper's training is extensive and covers many subjects. See Chapter 7 for detailed sniper employment considerations. Sniper operations are characterized by the actions of individual sniper teams.

Having two snipers on a team provides for mutual protection and relief. Three-man teams are considered heavy teams. Table depicts the units with snipers and the number of authorized positions. This modular element consists of a section leader and two or three sniper teams. B4 indicates the additional skill identifier ASI for sniper-qualified. At a minimum. Table depicts the team members' roles and weapons.

When working in two-man teams. When working in three-man teams. Table Whether the teams consist of two or three Soldiers. Units with snipers. Three-Man Heavy Sniper Team In a four-man sniper team. Traditional Two-Man Sniper Team Four-Man Sniper Team The organization and employment of snipers is a process that is continually evolving and is dictated by the current modified table of organization and equipment MTOE.

For some missions. Sniper sections are assigned to particular types of units. M24 SWS. Supervise planning. M squad automatic weapon SAW. The SEO is responsible for advising the unit commander on the employment and control of snipers. The SEO should conduct detailed debriefings after completion of the mission. The sniper section leader advises the SEO on all training and employment issues. Each member of the sniper section has specific responsibilities. The sniper team leader is responsible for the training.

The section leader is the subject matter expert on all sniper-related issues. The sniper team s will bring all pertinent information e. Issue combat orders to the teams. Chapter 1 Table Shotgun Security Radio-telephone operator M4. Coordinate all aspects of the sniper mission.

The SEO understands the capabilities and limitations of his teams. The SEO should provide supervision for the planning of the mission. Training should be realistic. To prevent fratricide and possible compromise of position and mission. Only through repeated practice can the section begin to function properly. Knowledge of sniper capabilities. The SEO ensures the commander realizes his snipers are his eyes. A good brief- back indicates the sniper team's readiness for the mission.

The sniper team leader executes the orders of the SEO and section leader and is responsible for accomplishing the mission. The SEO advises the supported unit commander. Coordination begins at the mission-planning phase..

The SEO ensures that his teams are allocated the proper time and resources needed to maintain their effectiveness. Every skill required of a sniper is perishable and requires continual practice.

The SEO coordinates the assignment of sniper teams to missions to support units or as an integrated part of a sniper mission. Debrief all members of the team upon completion of the mission.

Four-man sniper team duties and weapons. Advise the supported unit commander. This flexibility of choice is referred to as the arms room concept.

Information gathering. Precise fire control.

Properly performs all phases of the integrated act of firing. Snipers have specialized capabilities. The addition of newer weapons.

Snipers enable the commander to disrupt. Precise Fire Control The shooter— Provides precision long-range fire on key targets and selected targets of opportunity. The commander can use the sniper team in various missions. Accurately calculates range to the targets based upon the mil reading provided by the shooter. Observes spots the impact of the round and provides immediate corrections for subsequent engagements.

The observer— Properly identifies targets. They can provide the commander details about the terrain. Constantly monitors any environmental or situational changes and provides the shooter with accurate corrections.

Information Gathering Snipers' observational and navigational skills and specialized equipment help them see the terrain in great detail and observe changes. Surprise Provides an accurate mil reading of the target. Snipers' stalking techniques. Accurately applies corrections provided by the observer.

Continuous Employment Commanders must learn the best missions for their sniper teams and assign them accordingly.

Commanders must plan how to retrieve and redeploy the sniper team. Continuous employment. Command and control. Mobility Lack of integral transport can strand them. Sniping skills perish quickly. Prolonged Independent Employment Leaders should consider the following limitations when employing snipers: To deny the importance and need to sustain sniper training deprives the commander of a valuable asset.

During mission preparation. The organic sniper team is a new concept. Sniper teams rely on stealth. Commanders and their staffs should understand that continuous employment reduces the sniper's effectiveness greatly. Snipers can only support themselves for a short period. Prolonged independent employment.

Command and Control Sustainment Chapter 3 describes the selection. They try to position themselves where they can receive local protection from friendly elements.

Snipers normally operate from static positions. Although a sniper team inserts by almost any method and over great distances. For example. Chapter 6 describes the steps and phases for preparing for sniper missions. Deploy as part of cutoff forces. Overwatches the movement to and assault of the objectives.

Illustrated Manual of Sniper Skills - PDF Free Download

These tasks include— Target enemy command posts and key enemy leaders. Place accurate fire into bunkers. The use of deadly force is governed by four principles: Target enemy crew-served weapons and crews. Dominate key terrain. Before each mission. Cover demolition guards and supply columns. Cover obstacles while friendly forces cross them.

Basic human rights. Ambush or harass a withdrawing enemy. The only other requirement is that destroying the target must offer a direct and concrete military advantage: Soldiers' and units' absolute and inherent right to defend themselves. Disable or destroy key enemy equipment and material. Select targets to engage just before an attack.

In situations that the mission's ROE fail to address. Military Necessity The principle of military necessity dictates that the sniper may use force allowed by international law that is necessary to secure the prompt submission of the enemy. Provide covering fire for observation posts OPs and firing positions. The principles basic to all ROE include— The law of land warfare. Observe and control indirect fire onto enemy positions.

Deploy forward to cover counterattack routes. Perform countersniper operations. Protect flanks. Cover defilades. Soldiers' and units' obligations to respond with minimum force needed. The ROE impose political. Many sniper tasks are common to all operations. The rules of engagement ROE direct how a commander may use force to achieve military objectives.

Cover engineer and pioneer parties. Rule of Proportionality Places of worship. Medical supplies. Places marked with protective symbols. Because a sniper can deliver discriminatory direct fire. Historic and cultural sites. Medical treatment sites. Wounded or sick combatants who are out of combat. Personnel attempting to surrender. Avoidance of Unnecessary Suffering Cultural objects. Medical personnel. This principle prohibits the sniper from causing any suffering.

Places and Things The principle of distinction states that the sniper should never target noncombatant civilians and civilian objects. This principle prohibits the sniper from using force designed to inflict suffering. The following people are protected under the law of land warfare: Unarmed civilians. Noncombatant parachutist. Soldiers under a flag s of truce. People Protected places and things include— Undefended buildings or those with nonmilitary uses.

Chapter 1 Distinction Sniper weapons. Team members carry only what they need to accomplish the mission. The resulting products are addressed in this section. Table compares the three sniper weapons. Chapter 2 Equipment This chapter describes the equipment available for the sniper team to perform its mission effectively. Above all else. The sniper team also carries communications. Leupold 3. An integrated. The M SASS's design capitalizes on prior shooting and maintenance skills of individuals trained and proficient with M A bolt carrier and bolt assembly similar to that of M This scope retains its zero throughout all power settings.

An ambidextrous safety selector lever and bolt release. Scope covers. Illuminating laser. A variety of capabilities may be obtained by combining basic issue and ancillary items. Operator cleaning and maintenance kit. The variable power scope has an illuminated tactical milling reticle TMR. A complete kit of accessories can be provided for sustained deployment in remote areas.

Chapter 2 Optional accessories for the rifle include— An adjustable sling. The operator may set the buttstock to any length between This weapon is issued with— A deployment kit that allows operator-level maintenance and repair. This simple design does not require application of glass bedding compound or barrel replacement by trained and equipped armorers.

The bolt has inner and outer gas rings. The 3. Universal night sight UNS. Drag bag. Two sight systems: The rifle's free-floating barrel system is one of the key contributors to its accuracy. Technical specifications for M Semiautomatic Sniper System. Equipment Table M Semiautomatic Sniper System components. Figure M Semiautomatic Sniper System. Chapter 2 Figure Equipment Figure M Semiautomatic Sniper System accessory items. M Semiautomatic Sniper System disassembled in major groups.

Never place live ammunition near administrative. Not all applicable accessories may have been shipped with your rifle. Adjust the sling to fit your requirements. Remount the scope. The rifle and magazines are ready for service.

Magazines are best tested loaded with 18 rounds. Never leave rifle or ammunition unattended. Cleaning patches left in the bore may cause explosion upon firing the weapon.

Check with your supervisor to verify that the contents of your shipment are correct and complete. Service Upon Receipt When finished. Fire 9 rounds when testing a round magazine. Upon receiving the weapon— 1 Check system case for signs of damage. See Appendix G for more information about cleaning the rifle. Although the magazine will function loaded with 20 rounds. Manually unload unfired rounds carefully. Equipment Safety Selector Lever Safety A British sniper with an improvised urban camouflage suit and a shooting tripod made from a camera tripod takes up position in the rubble of derelict buildings.

The suit and the shadow he has used make him very difficult to locate. Those who say the use of smart technology means you can accurately bomb a sniper in an urbanized area nowadays have missed the point that even the concrete-only bombs that use kinetic energy rather than explosive warheads to accomplish their task still create large amounts of collateral damage to both property and people.

Therefore, the best counter-sniper option would appear to be to deploy your own sniper. Here, surely, is the true meaning of the countersniper option.

The only way to encompass this skill is to identify and foster the experience and knowledge of those within your forces, collating sniper experience into a central pool and ensuring it is disseminated back down to those who need it, trusting in the judgment of those selected to interpret the intelligence. Today the sniper may well have a variety of weapons, ammunition calibers, and ammunition natures to choose from, depending on the type of target and the capabilities of his opponent.

Manufacturers endeavor to invent ammunition to cover all eventualities, and then to invent defenses against that ammunition, leading on to a new cycle of ammunition invention. While this may be great for global economy, it presents the sniper with a never-ending list of targets, as his ammunition becomes more effective against more equipment and reaches further and with greater consistency against human targets.

Within the world of the Special Forces soldier this increased list of target options is backed up with a teaching of shot placement aimed to achieve maximum damage at the target end. The same cannot be said, I fear, for the lowly infantry or marine sniper.

Indeed, I have never seen a lesson plan on shot placement for equipment targets. The effects of any caliber ammunition on today's high technology equipment are glossed over or ignored completely. Pilots of all aircraft, especially helicopters, are well aware of the Airfields are very vulnerable to sniper fire, since aircraft are easy to disable.

This repercussions of well or luckily airfield is under sniper observation from a concealed OP position and its activity is placed small arms fire. But the being relayed back to the snipers' command. Snipers use their ability to hide and pilot is not the only one to have observe as much as they do their ability to shoot. The knowledge of how to attack, and where the vulnerabilities in the equipment's systems are will always lead to the ability to identify and better protect weak areas.

Part of the role of the true counter-sniper team is to encompass identification of potential attack and the consequences of such an attack, and to aid in risk assessment and therefore development of a counterplan to stop such an attack becoming a reality.

Awareness of actual damaged caused by, or the potential damage from, correct shot placement will inevitably highlight areas of weakness or of concern, and will allow the defensive sniper team to increase protective measures accordingly. The key to maximizing damage to equipment is in knowing how it works. This does not mean that the sniper must have a degree in electronics or be able to fly an aircraft; it merely means that he should have a basic working knowledge of various types of technology, just as he is taught to recognize aircraft and vehicles.

This extra knowledge can easily be gained by taking any opportunity to speak to the men and women in their own forces who operate this equipment, or by asking innocent questions at foreign air shows, for instance, and other technology displays, and playing up to the human need to feel important! It is amazing how much information the average person will give to grab a moment of false superiority over another—and all you have to do is ask stupid questions!

As an alternative, there are hosts of available books, periodicals, and films that cover the subject, or a sniper may be able to produce his own. It is worth highlighting the need for the infantry sniper to pay attention to naval forces as well as the threats posed by aircraft and land vehicles. This might elicit the sarcastic retort, "Well, you always come across frigates in the middle of a tank battle! Sniper skills identified and perfected over many years and through many conflicts remain effective today and should still form the foundation of all basic sniper training.

The standards set and maintained by our forbears have been proved to work many times over the years. The emergence of ever more astonishing technology will have an effect on how and where the sniper can be effective, but it does not mean he is out of date. Abandoning tried and tested methods and standards of concealment, movement, and tactics is not called for and only leads to a less effective and therefore less employable asset.

While not all snipers could or should be trained the same way, there is a very good argument for a basic minimum of standards that enable the end product to expand or become flexible enough to be deployed in all scenarios. Operational commitments, the availability of suitable manpower, the time it takes to train snipers, and budgetary restrictions all combine to make the production of a sniper cadre, fully trained to deploy worldwide, a very difficult prospect indeed.

But this difficulty should not be allowed to consign this age-old skill to the trashcan or mediocrity. The establishment and maintenance of Special Forces are even more demanding, but still occur.

The sniper is not seen as an SF soldier, but he is a specialist and has the ability to seriously contribute to a variety of military, police, and civil defense 8 options, in addition to his obvious attack potential— and he is very cheap. The selection process and attributes of the sniper are in keeping with those associated with the SF soldier.

With an operational doctrine based on small unit deployments, domination of much larger forces, severe risk of capture, and fighting against the odds, the sniper would have claim to being a special type of force. As commanders start to re-learn the value of these men, we shall see a more extensive use of the sniper's skills and abilities in all operational deployments around the world's current hot-spots.

Some snipers have indeed been used on SF operations; and while many snipers would not pass SF selection, many SF operators would not pass a sniper course.

In the "green army" world, sniping is a very demanding skill and much more so than in the often quoted "black army" sniper one. The line between the two is now often blurred; any role that the SF operator carries out is often regarded as that of a "black" operation, which used to concern anti-terrorist direct action roles, where highly trained SF marksmen provide eyes and ears for the assault force, and protective fire; it now covers any operation deemed covert, and is as much a design of self-survival by the SF world as an actual type of operation.

The selection process of correctly trained snipers, and the attributes required to pass and then be deployed operationally, are just as specialized and should be recognized as such. With the role of the Special Forces becoming wider in the war against terror, they find themselves stretched more thinly on the ground, a situation exacerbated by increasing numbers leaving the forces to take up well-paid jobs in private security.

It would therefore appear to make sense to recognize and utilize the skill and determination of the sniper to assist in the surveillance and reconnaissance areas of this combat arena.

Many airfields are overlooked by high ground on at least one of their sides. With the proliferation of. Some countries are indeed looking at making their sniper force a divisional one, with command and control kept at the highest level alongside their Special Forces, and deploying them in support of all levels of operations.

This will only ever work if the countries concerned dedicate time and money to ensuring the correct level of selection, training, and control of these forces. Only this will allow for the trust and belief to be built up in military and law enforcement commanders to a level where they will consider sniper deployment as a viable option alongside all other assets.

High up in the Alps three German snipers survey the mountain passes below them while remaining concealed. The effect of the improvised "rock" camouflage smock is evident, with the 10 man on the left blending into the rock to his rear. From hundreds of feet below these snipers would be almost impossible to locate. In this book I aim to illustrate the value of keeping old levels of training and enhancing them, not replacing them, with newer and just as relevant skills, thereby producing an ever expanding option for armed forces and law enforcement commanders, rather than a new one.

Never throw away an old skill since you never know when you may need it. Snipers are not just men who shoot well; they are excellent infantry soldiers who also have the ability and skill to carry out specialized sniper operations as a unit or as a pair. This level of skill and professionalism is wasted unless recognized and restructured to maximize its effect. Snipers deploy onto a high Alpine mountain pass to provide overwatch and a defensive perimeter. Snipers would prove very difficult to detect and remove in this type of terrain.

Many people seem to believe it is the ability to shoot accurately over very long distances. But this is simply not the case; the ability to shoot accurately over long ranges is by no means the sole prerogative of the sniper. Indeed, any number of civilian hunting and shooting clubs have as members people with an admirable ability to hit targets up to and past the one thousand yards mark, but they are by no means trained snipers. Sniping is a tactical skill, which is not related to range or distance.

The ability to utilize that tactic over long ranges is a useful by-product of being able to shoot well, but is by no means a prerequisite of employing sniping tactics.

Sniping is the employment of individual shooters from concealed positions with no warning, from any distance, depending on the range of the weapon This is not to say, of course, that to maximize the chances of the sniper surviving to fight again, the longer the distance between him and the victim the better. Conversely, if the sniper is able to conceal himself and engage successfully at close range, then that is also sniping.

The corollary is, of course, that someone under sniper fire should not fall into the trap of looking into the distance every time a shot is heard; the shooter may be right under his nose, just relying on his intended victim's preconceived idea that he will be further away.

Sniping is a combination of several skills of which shooting is certainly among the most important, although it is in many ways the easiest to teach and learn, and for this reason it is usually the first phase of most sniper courses. If trainees cannot shoot with consistency, there is no point in wasting time and resources trying to get them through other skills. The precise definition of a sniper and sniping will vary, but the British Army definition forms a useful and generally accepted starting point: The individuals in these units are usually quiet professionals who go about their business with little or no supervision, and who are happy with their own company and yet are still capable of being a part of a professional and supportive team.

They are consistent shots, are above average in all basic skills, including fitness, and display a maturity and tendency for humor. The qualities that should be looked for when recruiting for or creating a sniper unit may well vary from one army or unit to the next, and will be influenced by a country's religion, attitudes towards soldiering, past experiences of sniping, size of the available pool of talent, and mental attributes of the nation's men and women.

In general, however, most armies would look for the following attributes in potential candidates. This, combined with shadow, would make him difficult to locate by an enemy under attack from him.

Following from these attributes, the potential sniper needs seven primary skills that must be developed and mastered in order to become a qualified sniper: The standards and teaching methods employed on basic sniper courses should remain very similar to those that were taught at the first sniper schools in World War I—teaching and training should be for the worstcase scenario, and there is nothing worse than what those men had to face!

This training ethos is essential because, while the sniper's equipment has changed considerably over the years, the role of the sniper has not. When selecting personnel to attend a basic sniper A British sniper instructor oversees joint training with French Foreign Legion and course an aptitude for shooting Belgian Para Commandos in Kosovo.

Cross training with other units is essential in must be present; ideally, potential today's multinational task force deployments. Military students will have been trained in the recognized shooting positions and have achieved a level of experience using the standard issue infantry rifles.

However, the law-enforcement candidate may never have used a long gun, and so this part of training will naturally take up more time on a police course than it will on a military one.

The candidates will then follow a structured program of instruction that will cover weapon-handling, shooting techniques, shooting positions, and ballistics, culminating in a sniper qualification shoot. While out of sight of his enemy, this sniper has made the fatal mistake of allowing himself to become the focus of entertainment for a cow. Its size and curiosity will draw attention to this area, and hence to the sniper. The sniper must have the ability to locate an enemy, no matter how well concealed, and so must have a natural curiosity to investigate and question.

Most people live in an urban environment, and they seldom look at objects that are greater than a few hundred yards away. The sniper, especially the law-enforcement officer who lives and works mainly in this environment, must train at distance and in detail. Observation is about locating the enemy, and gathering information or intelligence.

This has to include the penetration of camouflage, natural and false. The sniper will depend on his eyesight to gather intelligence after locating the enemy, and also to ensure his own safety, and so must not only have a keen sense of sight but must also be proficient in the use of any optical aids that may be available to him. He must therefore be trained in the correct use and maintenance of such items as binoculars, telescopes, A British sniper in observing training using and night-vision equipment.

Before a sniper can be effective in the use of optical aids, he must the very reliable Leica Vector laser first master the proper use of his eyes, which is achieved through a rangefinder binoculars. To his right is the combination of physical effort and mental attitude.

The physical side of the Leopold x40 spotting scope issued to British training takes the form of observing over long distances under operationaland several other army snipers.

In that trouble-torn province snipers often used their ability to move unseen to occupy positions from which to observe and report on terrorist activity. The hasty search is a swift check of an area for any signs of enemy activity, which should take no longer than approximately thirty seconds.

First, the sniper will carry out a check of all the prominent areas within his arc of responsibility, ensuring he works right to left or left to right in a systematic pattern to achieve total coverage and avoid missing any point. While the search is systematic it is not sweeping, being a rapid check of specific points.

The reason for this is that when the eye is focused onto one specific point, its peripheral vision will detect movement over a wide area around that specific point, thus alerting the sniper to any activity that might represent a potential threat to his life. A sniper pair move forward through wooded terrain to occupy a shooting position against their intended target. The weather never stops operations, and so snipers must be able to operate under all conditions.

Assuming that the sniper is working as a pair with an observer, after the search has been completed the sniper pair must keep a check on the area and monitor any areas of interest using the hasty search method. They will also need to carry out a detailed search at irregular intervals to ensure that nothing has changed; if it has, then they must use their powers of observation and deduction to find out why.

The use of any optic will, over a fairly short period of time, produce eyestrain or fatigue, and the sniper pair will start to miss things without even realizing, due to reduced effectiveness of the eye's performance. For this reason it is essential that the observation be spread evenly between the sniper and the observer, reducing the chance of missing anything, and improving the pair's security. These snipers have taken the easy and direct route across a field instead of scouting the edges and remaining unseen, which would have been harder and taken longer, but would have kept them concealed from the enemy.

Being lazy could easily be being dead! This sniper pair is making the most of the trapped shadow the building offers, in conjunction with the bushes. However, caution must be shown, since the sun moves, and hence so will the shadow! There is nothing in nature that is black! This sniper's black binoculars highlight his position and make his camouflage a waste of time. Lack of attention to detail can get you killed. The sniper pair must be as observant and cautious at night as they are during the day.

The eye uses a different part of its make-up at night compared to that during daylight; whereas daylight uses the center part of the eye, at night the outer part of the pupil is most effective. For this reason the "offcenter" vision method is employed by snipers at night. This is achieved by looking at about four to six inches off-center of the object to be viewed, and in this way a true image of the object's shape will come into focus. This is because if a human looks directly at an object at night, the image will blur and lose definition, due to the inner part of the pupil's lack of clarity in darkness.

Range estimation. The ability to assess the range between the observer and the object being observed is very important. Even with the abundance of range-finding equipment available, there will always be a need to judge range without technological aids. The sniper must be aware of this, and during his training several different methods to judge distance without the aid of expensive lasers should be taught.

There are only two main methods of judging distance. The first of these, the appearance method, depends on the sniper's ability to retain information or, to be more specific, an image. The way it works is to stand a soldier in all his fighting equipment about a hundred yards away from the troops being trained.

The troops then observe the soldier by the naked eye and with any optics available to them as a part of their normal operational kit. They then make a mental note of exactly how much detail they can see on the soldier at the hundred yards distance: The soldier is moved back to about two hundred yards, and the process is repeated, continuing out to about six hundred yards, where the detail that could previously be seen is now lost, and just the general outline of the soldier can be seen.

Notes on the detail that could be seen at each given range should be completed for reference for later use. Appearance method guide yards—clear in all detail, color, skin tone, equipment. In the unit-of-measure method the sniper trainee mentally pictures a known distance and then compares it to the distance between him and the target.

For example, using the length of a football field as the known distance, the sniper will visualize how many football fields will fit into the distance to be judged; if the target is four field-lengths away the total distance is about four hundred to four hundred forty yards. This system, as with others, will require practice and has two limitations: When judging distance it is also important to know that objects will seem closer or farther away under certain conditions, as shown in the accompanying box.

Factors making objects seem closer The object for example, an armored vehicle is larger than other objects in its immediate vicinity. There is dead ground between the object and the observer. The object is higher than the observer who is therefore looking up. Light shining onto the nearside of the object making the detail clearer.

Factors making objects seem farther away The object is smaller than other objects in its vicinity. The sunlight is bright or dazzling the observer. The observer is looking down down a street, a forest ride, etc. The observer is lying down. Optical aids to judging distance. The most reliable and most frequently used method of range estimation for the sniper is the reticule pattern within his scope or spotting scope. The reticule can be used to accurately measure the target distance, as long as the object's height is known.

This is due to the reticule being in millimeters mils , one mil subtending to one meter at a thousand meters, and so the range can be estimated with a fair degree of accuracy. This Today's snipers have all manner of optical devices to assist them in locating and method is effective over dead identifying their prey.

Modern telescopic sights have very good clarity of vision and ground or when there are high-power zoom magnification.

To underestimate or discount snipers is to invite differences in height between the death. With a sniper team or teams deployed, standing out on this balcony could target and the sniper. The target prove to be fatal! Too high an estimation will produce better results than too low, although an accuracy of 0.

The whole process works off a commonly used formula and has proved to be an adequate way of range estimation. The equation is as follows: Known height of target x 1. For example: Such teams will often be traveling concealed and be in positions where standing up 16 and looking around is just not a viable option, usually due to proximity to the enemy or a hostile population. For this reason it is vital that snipers learn how to navigate to a high standard and can identify their exact position under all types of conditions and in all types of terrain.

Camouflage and concealment This is a fundamental skill of the sniper, where his ability to remain unseen is essential to survival, and one where very successful, if somewhat difficult, training methods exist and have changed little since the sniper training of World War I. Efforts to lower the difficulty levels in such skills to satisfy the "pass quota" norms almost invariably result in a drop in standards, leading to a sniper who is simply not adequately equipped for his job and a danger both to himself and to his comrades.

The sniper recruit must learn to conceal himself in different types of terrain and flora, and in varying periods of time. The reason for the time restriction is to enable him to learn to identify and occupy positions of concealment rapidly in order to protect himself from approaching danger, whether from enemy soldiers or civilian population, and therefore remain unseen and safe.

The sniper should also receive training and education in all manner of camouflage techniques and scenarios, from rural through to urban, which will enable him to be deployed with minimal notice into any operational theater. The skill in camouflage is to be able to read the weather and the conditions around you. This sniper has utilized the color of his ghillie suit to move across a similarly colored field with minimum risk of detection. By using dead ground and the screening effect of the foliage along the road's edge, this sniper is able to pass by the civilian community at work around him and occupy an observation position further down the road.

His black boots draw the eye, and once they are found, so is he, since badgers have yet to discover high leg boots! Snipers must be very aware of the basics of survival, since they often operate behind the enemy lines or in very forward positions. This basic shelter would serve a sniper pair well if deep in a wooded area in harsh weather. Stalking Without doubt the primary skill associated with the sniper is stalking, encompassing all other skills within it. Failure to master one of the other skills will lead to an inability to master the stalk.

The sniper will always be outnumbered and outgunned by his adversary, and so to remain unseen and able to maneuver into a position of advantage is a very high priority. The ability to study available maps and pictures, and to assess routes and levels of difficulty, and then to modify the selected route during the actual operation, take time and patience to learn and master.

Not only does the sniper have to be able to move through heavy foliage, but he must also learn how to camouflage himself and move unseen in all manner of terrains, and this particular skill is one that requires constant practice.

A sniper will live longer if he is aware of his surroundings and does not cut corners. This sniper advances across an 18 open field but has the sense to use the shadow and hedgerow to screen his movement. Lack of thought could get you killed. In one unguarded moment this sniper has exposed his otherwise concealed location by getting a white map out center of photo without shielding it from view.

Snipers have to be able to identify ground that will prove advantageous to them. Here a sniper pair have to cross an open field, in which they would normally be vulnerable, so they reduce their profile by traversing it using tank or tractor tracks already in the field.

This covers such areas as foreign weapon recognition and handling, equipment and vehicle recognition, and, for the purpose of anti-materiel operations, should also include ship, aircraft, and civilian equipment recognition.

The natural follow-on to this type of training is the expansion of the sniper's shooting skills with different weapons, such as the. Other skills like nuclear, biological and chemical NBC warfare and how it affects sniper operations, will have to be learned, as will sniper operations in different terrains, such as deserts and mountains, especially now that deployments to areas like Iraq and Afghanistan are becoming more frequent.

Many units neglect essential skills during training and assume they will still retain an overall skill level. This is wrong, since most sniper skills are perishable and so should be programmed in to maintain a skill base.

Here the author maintains his pistol skills during training. Good snipers are masters of using what they find around them. Shooting The sniper has to be able to shoot from any recognized position and some he will have to invent on the spot in order to make a particular shot, so it follows that the sniper and the instructor must spend time training to shoot in as many positions as seem feasible.

It is claimed by traditional shooting teachers that to deviate from the recognized positions leads to poor results, but the sniper is taught that as long as he applies the four basic marksmanship principles, and at the moment of shot release the cross hairs are on the target, he will hit home, no matter how awkward the position may look.

The trainee selected to attend a basic sniper course should have shown an aptitude for shooting and ideally have achieved the unit's marksman status. This is not always the case and the joining standard is not always met, leaving both instructors and students struggling to achieve a standard, often against the clock.

This is the main reason many students fail at an early stage, which is not always their fault, but because they have been wrongly put forward for the sniper course by a platoon commander or SWAT captain, who probably does not understand the standards required and was reluctant to ask for fear of appearing stupid.

All basic students will already have been trained in the recognized shooting positions and have a basic level of shooting experience using their own army's or police force's standard issue rifle.


The sniper students then go through a course of instruction covering weapon handling, shooting techniques, shooting positions, and ballistics, culminating in the sniper qualification shoot. Safe weapon handling Every sniper student must be fully conversant with the weapon of his or her unit's choice and must be able to deploy and move around with it day-to-day in a safe manner. This will be the first time that many students have worked with a bolt-action or adjustable triggered rifle.

The students will be taught the weapon from the basics upwards, covering not only safe handling but also such areas as stripping and assembly, load and unload, the telescopic sight, and the use of the rifle sling. They will then be taught how to zero their own personal weapon and how to adjust it to fit them to make the rifle their own, although they will also be taught how to compensate for the use of a weapon that is set up for someone else, such as their partner.

A view of the zeroing range in the Austrian Army mountain barracks used by a German mountain sniper course. The author was privileged to attend this course in during a break from a tour in Kosovo. His partner, who is out of sight, provides mutual support while the sniper reports on the enemy's movements. The snipers will be taught the smooth operation of the weapon's bolt and to avoid rapid arm movements when chambering a round, unless engaging multiple targets and using the rapid bolt manipulation technique, which will also be taught.

It will be explained to the students that the bolt-action rifle is still the preferred choice of most professional snipers, since the bolt gun is easier to control. It is, therefore, quicker to re-acquire any secondary targets when compared to the semi-automatic rifle, although it has to be said that several semi-automatic rifles are now of a comparable accuracy to most bolt-operated guns. Shooting positions The sniper must be fully conversant with as many firing positions as possible so that he has the maximum number of options when deployed on operations.

Some positions may seem awkward and appear to break every rule on shooting, but the basic criterion is that if the sniper can consistently hit the target, then he should be left alone.

The prone position This is the preferred shooting position of most shooters and is without doubt one of the steadiest. If at all possible, the sniper should adopt it or a modified version of it in all but hostile urban environments, where its lack of The author checking the zero of an Accuracy International sniper rifle during a upward observation leaves him German Army mountain sniper course.

The German Army selected the weapon extremely vulnerable. This position designated G22 in German service as its standard sniper rifle, as did the British will also allow the sniper to present Army and many others.

Knowing how to use other forces' equipment has served many soldiers over the years, and the ability to pick up another weapon and use it in war can be a lifesaver. Before firing, the sniper will go through the following check list in his head to ensure his position is correct and that he has considered all the elements that combine to make for a steady shooting position: The body. The body should be comfortable and lying slightly left of the line of fire [right for left handed firing].

The elbows should always be a comfortable distance apart and this will vary from firer to firer. If the elbow is used to cradle the rifle butt then the shooter must ensure he is comfortable and that his breathing is not affected or restricted, as this can cause instability and a lowering of shooting standards. Rifle support. The rifle must be supported by a combination of hands, the shoulder, and the chin.

The weapon must be pulled back into the chin in order to support it, but over-stressing must be avoided as this will lead to an over-tension of the firer and a degradation of his ability to point the weapon naturally towards the target. The author practicing with the Accuracy International suppressed sniper rifle during a sniper instructors' course at the British Army sniper school during his time as an instructor there. Suppressed sniper rifles are becoming increasingly prolific on operations today, so snipers must be fully versed in their uses.

Firing hand. The firing hand is the primary supporting hand; its grip should be firm enough to support the rifle while avoiding over-grip, as this can lead to tension or strain, causing unsteadiness and fatigue.

This hand acts as a support for the weapon's butt or fore-stock. If a bipod is used this hand is usually placed up against the chest and clenched into a fist to support the butt. By keeping the fist in contact with the butt the sniper can raise or lower the position of the weapon by clenching or relaxing his fist. This is the instinctive ability of the sniper to place his cheek on the same point on the stock each time he Sniping has changed very little over the years.

As demonstrated by a sniper today. World adopts a fire position. War II equipment and weaponry are just as effective as they were then, while the laid-back This aids stability and shooting position is still taught to British snipers. There is a lack of alternate shooting position comfort of the position training in modern armies, and this is a mistake.

It also ensures that the sniper has the correct eye relief relative to the telescopic sight. Bone support. The sniper's body is the perfect framework to support his rifle, and is the foundation of the firing position. Muscle relaxation. The purpose of using the bone framework to support the weapon is to allow the sniper to relax muscles, and thereby reduce unwanted movement caused by tense muscles.

Any use of the muscles will generate movement in the sniper's position, hence the need for the position to be as comfortable as possible and thereby aid shooting performance. Test and adjustment. The good shot will always test his position to ensure that the rifle points naturally towards the target. The way to ensure this is to adopt the fire position to be used and then close the eyes and take a few deep breaths.

Upon opening the eyes the weapon's crosshairs should still be firmly across the intended target. If they are not, the body is not pointing naturally at the target and the position needs to be adjusted. The rifle is merely an extension of the sniper and by moving his body he will correct any faults in his position. It is essential that the sniper spends a great deal of time practicing. This covers not only live-firing but also drytraining, where the sniper will go through the process of adopting a position and releasing the shot without actually firing a live round.

This drill applies to all firing positions and should not be underestimated in its importance in sniper training. French Foreign Legion snipers train on the British Accuracy International sniper rifle during cross training on operational deployment. The rifles are covered in a light green fabric adhesive tape to allow any color to be applied without affecting the weapon, or upsetting the quartermaster!

The Hawkins position This position is a modification of the basic prone firing position, in which the ground is used to support the rifle, thus 24 enabling the sniper to present a lower profile. It is used when firing from low cover or folds in the ground and is a very steady firing platform, offering the sniper both stability and concealment.

To adopt the Hawkins position the following modifications must be made to the basic prone position: This can even become almost a right-angle to the line of the weapon.

Non-firing arm. This rests on the ground for the greater part of its length, with the hand holding the rifle by clenching a fist around the forward sling swivel. This means that the weapon is resting directly on top of the clenched fist.

The butt. The toe of the weapon butt should be resting on the ground, with the ground taking the full weight of the rifle and the butt tucked under the sniper's shoulder.

By using the non-firing arm to maintain a forward pressure the rifle's recoil can effectively be controlled. The weapon should not be placed butt first against anything solid, as this may cause damage to the rifle.

The laid-back position The laid-back position has been in use for many years and was, indeed, a popular position with the early musketeers.

It is of particular value when firing down slopes or when the sniper wishes to achieve a high degree of accuracy combined with an unconventional appearance. The sniper should lay on his side with his legs pointing towards the target and held together to provide support for the rifle. The legs also allow the sniper to raise or lower the point of aim by simply opening or closing the leg position. The weapon's butt should be in the shoulder and the non-firing hand should grasp the rifle in an overhand grip to provide stability.

Eye relief. With this position the eye relief is much greater than normal, and gives the sniper only a small floating aperture. It takes practice to center this reduced sight picture, but as long as the head is steady it is achievable. It is also advisable to rest or support the head on available cover or on a piece of equipment such as a rucksack. Alternative firing positions All recognized fire positions can be used when firing the sniper rifle. Some however will need modification to compensate for the change in center of balance associated with the extra length of the sniper rifle when compared to other smaller weapons.

Sitting position. This position can be adapted in several ways, each being a slight modification of the other: Sitting open-legged. With this method the legs are kept a comfortable distance apart and the elbows are locked on the inside of the knees as low as possible. The body's weight should relax forward, and the marksmanship principles should be applied. Sitting cross-legged. Exactly the same as the above, but with the exception of the legs being crossed at the ankles.

The elbows can be rested either inside or outside the knees, whichever provides the firer with the most stable and comfortable position. Both of 2 sniper rifle. He rests his elbows on the inner knee area to avoid the unstable bonethe above positions can be modified on-bone of elbow-to-knee and to allow support to be provided by the stronger to suit the individual.

The main muscles of the thighs. The variation can be as simple as bending the non-firing arm at the elbow so that the rifle rests along the top of the arm and the forearm rests on top of the knee. The other and more extreme variation is where the shin bone is used to support the weapon by the sniper wrapping his non-firing arm around the outside of the leg and pulling the weapon in against the leg for support.

Due to the low level of the weapon in this position, the sniper is forced to invert his head and has an almost upside down sight picture and reduced aperture, similar to that of the laid-back position. Sitting supported. The sniper uses this when some other form of support is available to carry the weight of the weapon, such as low cover, masonry or anything that will provide a platform for the weapon.

Here the sniper can use this aid to provide extra stability for his shot, although with a fully floating barrel the sniper must be very careful not to rest the barrel in any way, as this will affect the fall of shot. He is also carrying out training under British supervision on the Accuracy International sniper rifle, known as the L96 in military service. Kneeling position. This is best used only on level ground because any unevenness can lead to an unstable position and a loss of accuracy.

It can be modified in many different ways but the basic position adopts the following parameters: Right foot. The foot is placed in the most comfortable position possible with the sniper resting on his right knee and the foot rearwards. The right buttock is lowered onto the heel to avoid sitting too far back.

Left leg. The left leg is extended forward of the body with the toes pointing towards the intended target, foot flat on the ground. The non-firing elbow is rested on the left lower leg and the point of aim can be raised or lowered by movement of the left leg towards or away from the body.

Right elbow. The right elbow assumes a raised position to provide a natural cup to support the weapon butt. Alternate kneeling. This position is very similar to the sitting alternate with the exception that the buttocks are raised off the ground. The head is still inverted and the left shin is still used as a support in conjunction with the non-firing arm that pulls it into the leg.

This position requires practice and flexibility, and if mastered will provide a very stable shooting platform over all ranges. Kneeling supported. This is as for the sitting supported, and any available cover or object is used to aid the overall stability of the firing position. Standing position. The standing position is often ignored as it is difficult and should be avoided where possible, but this should not rule it out, as it may well turn out to be the only option available.

Illustrated Manual of Sniper Skills

While it can also be modified in various manners the basic stance is as follows: The feet should always be placed at a comfortable distance apart, which is usually no more than shoulder width, with the feet angled approximately half This French Foreign Legion sniper is practicing the laid-back position, which is ideal for right to the intended target. He is being trained in British shooting position techniques by Rifle butt. The elbow should be pulled tight into the body to aid the support of the rifle, unless the sniper is engaging a moving target where it sometimes pays to keep the elbow higher and away from the body to avoid the tendency of pulling the barrel high right while tracking the target.

Right hand. This hand will provide the rifle with most of its support, which is achieved with a firm grip on the weapon stock or pistol grip. Left hand. This can either adopt the traditional position on the fore stock or it can be clenched up and the arm bent at the elbow so as to rest the weapon along the top of the arm and hand, while resting the elbow on the hip or webbing in order to distribute the rifle weight and enable the position to be maintained longer.

Standing supported. This, as with all other supported positions, will rely upon other aids that may be available to help provide the firer with a more stable position. Factors affecting application of fire It is essential that snipers are aware of the factors that can affect their application of fire, and the easiest way to remember 26 is by using the mnemonic FLAPWIW.

This simple word will remind the sniper of the sub-headings of the factors he needs to check. The following are the main factors to remember: Firing position. The mean point of impact MPI will vary slightly when firing from a different position from that in which the weapon was zeroed.

This is caused by a combination of change in weapon harmonics, stability of position, and different pressures being placed upon the rifle. Good, well-built-up positions will reduce this effect. The light levels will affect how the sniper sees the target; he must remember how various light conditions will affect his view of the target and aim accordingly. Any attachment to the weapon will have an effect upon the weapon's harmonics.

If the sniper intends to use attachments he should practice-fire the weapon and record the results, so as to provide him with settings for when he actually uses that attachment. Attachments can be night sights, lasers, and foliage, and all should be carefully checked before deploying on operations. Positional support. The sniper must be aware that no matter what he uses to support the rifle, such as resting the weapon on his arm, the ground, or a tripod, it will have an effect on his MPI and again he must train and record for this error.

The sniper must never, under any circumstances, rest the barrel, as this will have a serious effect on his MPI. The sniper must "read" the wind allow for the effects of wind on his shot.

Inefficient zero. For the sniper to cut corners or to mislead himself at the zeroing stage is to guarantee a problem further down the line, and if that happens to be on operations then it could cost him his life.

German mountain snipers carry out long-range accuracy tests before moving up W: Wet or oily into the mountains and shooting across and down onto targets. They have ghillie Wet or oily camouflage suits for lower level sniping, and also improvised gray spray-painted ammunition.

At worst this rocks. At the very least it will result in increased muzzle velocity, thereby raising the MPI on the target. Other factors affecting application of fire Temperature. Under cold climate conditions the muzzle velocity will decrease, causing a lowering of the initial MPI, but each subsequent round will heat up the chamber, thus increasing the muzzle velocity and raising the MPI; the sniper must monitor for a climb and adjust accordingly.

Higher than usual temperatures will have the opposite effect, causing the charge to burn much more rapidly, thus increasing the pressure and the muzzle velocity, and resulting in the round impacting higher on the target. The amount of moisture in the air will increase the drag on the bullet as it passes through it; the more moisture, the greater the resistance, causing the round to impact low on the target. Heavy rain is always a problem for the sniper.

The effect of wet ammunition and weapon parts has already been mentioned; every effort should be made to keep the weapon and ammunition dry.

If this is not possible then it is better to allow the weapon to get totally wet and compensate by lowering the elevation setting. A cover or rain shield can be made and applied to the front and rear of the scope to reduce the levels of water getting to the lens, and a soft cloth should always be carried to assist in the removal of any rain that makes it to them.

This is the effect of warm air rising off the earth's surface in the form of currents, and is most apparent on very warm days. The mirage will indicate any air movement on days when there is little or no wind and can be seen as ripples or waves rising from the ground. Judging for deflection takes much practice. The mirage is only a basic indication of air movement direction and not strength. When there is little or no wind it is known as "boiling mirage," and for any sideways movement it is called "drift.

But at longer ranges the mirage can at least give the sniper an indication of some form of wind movement at the target end. The sniper must be aware of how his clothing can affect his shooting ability and plan accordingly. The sniper must train from the very start of his shooting package in all of his operational ghillie kit, including suit, gloves, headgear, and webbing. Failing to do this will produce an inaccurate set of results in his logbook and hence will not be correct when applied on operations where the factors will have changed.

This would seem to be an obvious point, but many training teams overlook it, leading to inconsistent shooting.

The sniper must get used to his suit and modify it if necessary. He must also produce a logbook that gives the results and settings to be applied when in operational gear as opposed to results obtained while in comfortable uniform. The poor shooting checklist 27 At some stage in his career the sniper will either have a bad day himself or will be training someone who could not hit an HMMWV at a hundred yards, all for no apparent reason.

ANIKA from Maine
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