THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS PDF
Jun 29, In “The Gospel of Thomas: Jesus Said What?” in the July/August issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, New Testament scholar Simon. The Gospel of Thomas is a non-canonical sayings gospel. It was discovered near Nag Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. The Text of the Gospel of Thomas from the Scholars Version translation published in The Complete Gospels. PROLOGUE. These are the secret sayings that the.
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The Gospel of Thomas in multiple translations along with a vast collection of (A published version of this paper in pdf format iis available at cittadelmonte.info). Gospel of Thomas. (Translated by Thomas O. Lambdin). These are the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke and which Didymos Judas. Thomas wrote. PDF version of the Gospel of Thomas. It contains direct citations of Jesus Christ in verses. Download English translations as free pdf ebooks here.
Jesus Said What? Below, read the sayings of Jesus as translated by Stephen J. Patterson and James M. Robinson and republished from The Gnostic Society Library. Translated by Stephen J. And Didymos Judas Thomas wrote them down. Sift through the archaeology and history of this ancient land in the free eBook Israel:
The Gospel of Thomas Collection in the Gnostic Society Library catalogs materials about the Gospel of Thomas available both in our archives and elsewhere on the internet. Included are audio lectures about GTh, links to a wide variety of internet resources including several academic articles and essays, and a bibliography of GTh manuscript sources.
Despite the wealth of material available here, the reader should also consult a few important books on the subject. An annotated selection of the best available translations of GTh and publications about GTh is provided in the suggested readings section of our Bookstore. We sincerely hope these resources help you in your studies of this most remarkable document. Five excellent and widely used translations of the Gospel of Thomas are available in our Library collection.
We prefer the Lambdin translation or Meyer translation for personal reading, but each edition adds its own nuance of understanding. This is a text that reveals itself freshly with each new reading. Take it slowly -- each saying stands independently full of meaning. For those interested in viewing the original Coptic version of the text, we provide a complete set of facsimile images of the manuscript.
Both these latter sites also includes several useful references on Coptic language:. Facsimile Images of the original Coptic manuscript of the Gospel of Thomas. At the very beginning of the twentieth century three separate fragments from Greek versions of the Gospel of Thomas were discovered during archeological excavations of an ancient site in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt. Fragments of the Gospel of Mary were also found at Oxyrhynchus. Translations of the sayings found in these Greek fragments of Thomas are presented here, followed by versions of the same sayings as they appear in the Coptic manuscript found at Nag Hammadi we have used the Lambdin translation of GTh.
The Gospel of Thomas Fragments from Oxyrhynchus. In early Christianity there existed traditions, often geographical localized, that honored a specific Christian apostolic figure as patron and initiatory source.
The Pauline and Johannine traditions are commonly recognized examples of this early division in Christianity, and each left its own textual legacy.
Though less well understood, there apparently also existed a Thomas tradition. Geographically, the name of Thomas was associate with the region of Syria, perhaps because Thomas or disciples claiming him as apostolic sponsor once located themselves in the area. Three important documents from the Thomas tradition have nonetheless survived: The latter two were recovered in the Nag Hammadi Library.
Several copies of the third text, the Acts of Thomas , survived over the centuries in monastic collections. Imbedded within the Acts of Thomas we find a beautiful and complete statement of a classic Gnostic myth describing the exile and redemption of the soul. The text is known as the "Hymn of the Pearl". What astounds most is that such a clear rendition of the Gnostic mythos was allowed to survive within a text which resided for centuries on the back shelves of orthodox archives.
Important Note: Virtually all digital versions of the Acts of Thomas found on the internet are copies of a single file that has resided in our Archives since Unfortunately we have recently found that this original file had an internal formatting error.
As a result, many short sections of text are lost in pirated copies of the file, making the text unintelligible in several places. We ask those who have reproduced this file to take note of the problem and help correct the error. Though not integrally related to the central Thomas tradition surrounding the Gospel of Thomas, several other ancient noncanonical Christian documents claimed authority in the name of Thomas.
For completeness, these are listed here:. The Apocalypse of Thomas. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas: Greek Text A. Greek Text B. Latin Text. The following lectures by Dr. Stephan A. Hoeller, a noted authority on Gnosticism, are available here in mp3 format. Several more lectures focused on the Gospel of Thomas are available in higher-quality audio mp3 versions at BCRecordings. Check our Web Lectures page for a selection of lectures available online. In this lecture, Dr. MP3 audio format, 79 min.
The Hymn of the Pearl: One primary example is the "Hymn of the Pearl" found within the Acts of Thomas. While listening to the lecture, you may wish to read along in The Hymn of the Pearl from the Acts of Thomas. MP3 audio format, 75 min. Hoeller gives a brief introduction to the history of Gnosticism in Western culture and discusses twelve characteristics that have distinguished Gnosticism as a distinct, living tradition.
MP3 audio format, 77 min. In its opening words the Gospel of Thomas offers a stunning hermeneutic challenge: Lance Owens , explores answer to a compelling question: Can modern readers meet the challenge of the Thomas incipit?
The Gospel of Thomas’s Sayings of Jesus - Biblical Archaeology Society
A published version of this paper in pdf format iis available at academia. Since Dr. Christopher W. Skinner has been interviewing prominent scholars involved in Gospel of Thomas studies about their views and interpretations of the text. It is a fascinating collection; reading through these nine interviews reveals the diverse ways in which the Gospel of Thomas is approached by current scholarship.
Highly recommended reading. Several scholars have argued that the sayings in Thomas reflect conflations and harmonisations dependent on the canonical gospels.
For example, saying 10 and 16 appear to contain a redacted harmonisation of Luke In this case it has been suggested that the dependence is best explained by the author of Thomas making use of an earlier harmonised oral tradition based on Matthew and Luke.
Evans also subscribes to this view and notes that "Over half of the New Testament writings are quoted, paralleled, or alluded to in Thomas Another argument made for the late dating of Thomas is based upon the fact that Saying 5 in the original Greek Papyrus Oxyrhynchus seems to follow the vocabulary used in the gospel according to Luke Luke 8: According to this argument — which presupposes firstly the rectitude of the two-source hypothesis widely held among current New Testament scholars [ citation needed ] , in which the author of Luke is seen as having used the pre-existing gospel according to Mark plus a lost Q document to compose his gospel — if the author of Thomas did, as Saying 5 suggests — refer to a pre-existing gospel according to Luke, rather than Mark's vocabulary, then the gospel of Thomas must have been composed after both Mark and Luke the latter of which is dated to between 60 AD and 90 AD.
Another saying that employs similar vocabulary to that used in Luke rather than Mark is Saying 31 in the original Greek Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1 , where Luke 4: The word dektos in all its cases and genders is clearly typical of Luke, since it is only employed by him in the canonical gospels Luke 4: Thus, the argument runs, the Greek Thomas has clearly been at least influenced by Luke's characteristic vocabulary.
Porter states that, because around half of the sayings in Thomas have parallels in the synoptic gospels, it is "possible that the sayings in the Gospel of Thomas were selected directly from the canonical gospels and were either reproduced more or less exactly or amended to fit the author's distinctive theological outlook. Meier, scholars predominantly conclude that Thomas depends on or harmonizes the Synoptics.
Several scholars argue that Thomas is dependent on Syriac writings, including unique versions of the canonical gospels. They contend that many sayings of the Gospel of Thomas are more similar to Syriac translations of the canonical gospels than their record in the original Greek. Craig A. Evans states that saying 54 in Thomas , which speaks of the poor and the kingdom of heaven, is more similar to the Syriac version of Matthew 5: Klyne Snodgrass notes that saying 65—66 of Thomas containing the Parable of the Wicked Tenants appears to be dependent on the early harmonisation of Mark and Luke found in the old Syriac gospels.
He concludes that, " Thomas , rather than representing the earliest form, has been shaped by this harmonizing tendency in Syria. If the Gospel of Thomas were the earliest, we would have to imagine that each of the evangelists or the traditions behind them expanded the parable in different directions and then that in the process of transmission the text was trimmed back to the form it has in the Syriac Gospels.
It is much more likely that Thomas, which has a Syrian provenance, is dependent on the tradition of the canonical Gospels that has been abbreviated and harmonized by oral transmission. Nicholas Perrin argues that Thomas is dependent on the Diatessaron , which was composed shortly after by Tatian in Syria.
Williams analyzed Perrin's alleged Syriac catchwords and found them implausible. Bart Ehrman argues that the historical Jesus was an apocalyptic preacher, and that his apocalyptic beliefs are recorded in the earliest Christian documents: Mark and the authentic Pauline epistles. The earliest Christians believed Jesus would soon return, and their beliefs are echoed in the earliest Christian writings.
Gospel of Thomas
The Gospel of Thomas proclaims that the Kingdom of God is already present for those who understand the secret message of Jesus Saying , and lacks apocalyptic themes. Because of this, Ehrman argues, the Gospel of Thomas was probably composed by a Gnostic some time in the early 2nd century.
Wright , former Anglican bishop and professor of New Testament history, also sees the dating of Thomas in the 2nd or 3rd century. Wright's reasoning for this dating is that the "narrative framework" of 1st-century Judaism and the New Testament is radically different from the worldview expressed in the sayings collected in the Gospel of Thomas. It is simply the case that, on good historical grounds, it is far more likely that the book represents a radical translation, and indeed subversion, of first-century Christianity into a quite different sort of religion, than that it represents the original of which the longer gospels are distortions Thomas reflects a symbolic universe, and a worldview, which are radically different from those of the early Judaism and Christianity.
The harsh and widespread reaction to Marcion 's canon , the first New Testament canon known to have been created, may demonstrate that, by AD, it had become widely accepted that other texts formed parts of the records of the life and ministry of Jesus.
Tatian's widely used Diatessaron , compiled between and AD, utilized the four gospels without any consideration of others. Irenaeus of Lyons wrote in the late 2nd century that since there are four quarters of the earth The late 2nd-century Muratorian fragment also recognizes only the three synoptic gospels and John. Bible scholar Bruce Metzger wrote regarding the formation of the New Testament canon, "Although the fringes of the emerging canon remained unsettled for generations, a high degree of unanimity concerning the greater part of the New Testament was attained among the very diverse and scattered congregations of believers not only throughout the Mediterranean world, but also over an area extending from Britain to Mesopotamia.
The question also arises as to various sects' usage of other works attributed to Thomas and their relation to this work. The Book of Thomas the Contender , also from Nag Hammadi, is foremost among these, but the extensive Acts of Thomas provides the mythological connections.
BIBLE HISTORY DAILY
The short and comparatively straightforward Apocalypse of Thomas has no immediate connection with the synoptic gospels, while the canonical Jude — if the name can be taken to refer to Judas Thomas Didymus — certainly attests to early intra-Christian conflict.
The Infancy Gospel of Thomas , shorn of its mythological connections, is difficult to connect specifically to our gospel, but the Acts of Thomas contains the Hymn of the Pearl whose content is reflected in the Psalms of Thomas found in Manichaean literature. These psalms, which otherwise reveal Mandaean connections, also contain material overlapping the Gospel of Thomas.
As one of the earliest accounts of the teachings of Jesus, the Gospel of Thomas is regarded by some scholars as one of the most important texts in understanding early Christianity outside the New Testament. It is an important work for scholars working on the Q document , which itself is thought to be a collection of sayings or teachings upon which the gospels of Matthew and Luke are partly based. Although no copy of Q has ever been discovered, the fact that Thomas is similarly a 'sayings' Gospel is viewed by some scholars as an indication that the early Christians did write collections of the sayings of Jesus, bolstering the Q hypothesis.
Most scholars do not consider Apostle Thomas the author of this document and the author remains unknown. Menard produced a summary of the academic consensus in the mids which stated that the gospel was probably a very late text written by a Gnostic author, thus having very little relevance to the study of the early development of Christianity.
Scholarly views of Gnosticism and the Gospel of Thomas have since become more nuanced and diverse. In the 4th century Cyril of Jerusalem considered the author a disciple of Mani who was also called Thomas. Mani had three disciples: Thomas, Baddas and Hermas.
Let no one read the Gospel according to Thomas. For he is not one of the twelve apostles but one of the three wicked disciples of Mani. Many scholars consider the Gospel of Thomas to be a gnostic text, since it was found in a library among others, it contains Gnostic themes, and perhaps presupposes a Gnostic worldview. Some modern scholars believe that the Gospel of Thomas was written independently of the canonical gospels, and therefore is a useful guide to historical Jesus research.
By finding those sayings in the Gospel of Thomas that overlap with the Gospel of the Hebrews , Q, Mark, Matthew, Luke, John, and Paul, scholars feel such sayings represent "multiple attestations" and therefore are more likely to come from a historical Jesus than sayings that are only singly attested.
The material in the comparison chart is from Gospel Parallels by B. Throckmorton,  The Five Gospels by R. The fiction movie Stigmata is about the supposed attempt by the Roman Catholic Church to suppress the Gospel of Thomas by excluding it from the Catholic Bible.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the infancy gospel, see Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Part of a series on Gnosticism. Gnostic sects. Influenced by. Influence on. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September They were damaged by their discoverers, a group of peasants who broke the jar open and manhandled its contents.
Books that did not make it into the New Testament by Bart Ehrman, pp. Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 4 February CS1 maint: I Cairo, plates 80, line 10 — 99, line Grenfell and Arthur S. IV ". The Lost Bible. New York: Metro Books. Jesus Outside the New Testament: Grand Rapids: The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide.
Fortress Press. In Meyer, Marvin; Hughes, Charles. Images of Jesus in History and Christology. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Cambridge University Press. In Robinson, James MacConkey. Leiden, New York, Cologne: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. Beyond Belief: Vintage, Paul and God's Temple. Leuven, Netherlands; Dudley, MA: Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 9 January New International Version.
Biblica, Inc. Retrieved 29 January James K. Beilby and Paul Rhodes Eddy. Bock, The Missing Gospels Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Most scholars regard the book as an early second-century work. Snodgrass , "The Gospel of Thomas: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Volume 4: Lives of Jesus and Jesus outside the Bible. The Case for the Real Jesus.
United States: Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books, The Fifth Gospel? Thomas and Tatian: Academia Biblica. Brill Academic Publishers. Shedinger, "Thomas and Tatian: Jesus, apocalyptic prophet of the new millennium revised ed.
Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. The New Testament and the People of God. Metzger , The Canon of the New Testament: Ehrman pp.