TKT BOOK PDF
Preface. This handbook provides information for teachers interested in taking TKT (Teaching resource books for English language teaching (ElT) and journals. Cambridge Core - Methodology - The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 - by Mary Spratt. Export citation; Buy the print book. Contents PDF; Export citation. Welcome to the Trainer's Guide for the Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Essentials Course. This guide provides . cittadelmonte.info pdf/cittadelmonte.info The only book to deal specifically with TKT preparation is: Spratt, M.
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TKT Modules 1, 2 & 3 - Schoology Braiding_Sweetgrass_-_Robin_Kimmerer. pdf Braiding Sweetgrass Braiding Pdfdrive:hope Give books away. Get books. Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Modules Page 5. University Science Books cittadelmonte.info Great Writing 2 Great Paragraphs 3 cittadelmonte.info TKT (Teaching Knowledge Test) is developed by Cambridge English. Language .. 1, 2 and 3, including books and an online course, have been jointly.
This handbook is intended for course providers who are, or intend to become, involved in preparing candidates for the Teaching Knowledge Test TKT Modules 1—3. For further information on any of the Cambridge ESOL examinations and teaching awards, please contact: General description and syllabus Language and background 8 Sample test to language learning and teaching. General description and syllabus Lesson planning and use of 18 Sample test resources for language teaching. General description and syllabus 3 Managing the teaching and 27 Sample test learning process. Practical other languages since
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Cambridge Vocabulary for Up Overview Digital. You can't improve the pronunciation of adults - there's no point in trying. Knowing about phonology can help teachers when they plan and give their lessons. Look at the phonemic chart on page 21 and underline.
Check their pronunciation learners find difficult to say 2. Choose five words you will soon teach your learners. Check their pronunciation in a dictionary. Decide which sounds might be problematic for your learners. It has lots of useful information about different aspects of phonology 4. Do some of the pronunciation activities on this website: Do you know the meaning of these words: Choose the correct answer A, B or C.
Which word contains a schwa sound in connected speech?
Which word has two voiced consonants? Which word contains a diphthong? Which set of words is a minimal pair? Which set of words has linking in connected speech? Which is the correct phonemic script for magazine? How many phonemes are there in the word dangerous? Which word is stressed on the third syllable?
A function is a reason why we communicate. Every time we speak or write, we do so for a reason. What we say has a purpose or function. Here are some examples of functions: Functions are a way of describing how we use language. When we describe the functions of language we focus on the use of the language and its meaning for the people who are in the context where it is used.
Context Exponent Function A. He says: The customer says: Functions The language we use to express a function is called an exponent. The sentences in the middle column in the table above are examples of exponents. In the third column, the functions are underlined. You can see from the table that we use the -mg forms of verbs e. The words after the function in the third column are not the function.
They are the specific topics that the functions refer to in these contexts. An exponent can express different functions at the same time. It all depends on the context it is used in. For example, think of the exponent 'I'm so tired'. This could be an exponent of the function of describing feelings. But who is saying it? Imagine saying I'm so tired' in the following different contexts: Context Possible function A boy talking to his mother while he does his homework Requesting asking to stop doing homework A patient talking to his doctor Describing a physical state One exponent can express several different functions because its function depends on the context.
One function can also be expressed through different exponents. Here are five different exponents of inviting someone to lunch. In what different situations would you use them?
Informal Lunch? Coming for lunch? Come for lunch with us? Why don't you come for lunch with us? Would you like to come to lunch with us? We would be very pleased if you could join us for lunch. These exponents express different levels of formality, i.
Generally speaking, formal more socially distant language is used in more official and important situations amongst people who do not know each other very well. Informal more socially casual language often occurs in relaxed situations, amongst friends, people who know each other well or treat each other in a relaxed way.
Informal exponents There are also neutral exponents which we use when we want to show neither great respect nor too much casualness towards the person we are talking to. They fall between formal and informal. People usually choose to use the level of formality that suits a situation.
This is called appropriacy. A teacher greeting her class could choose to say 'I'd like to wish you all a very good morning' or 'Hi, guys! Both of these are likely to be inappropriate unsuitable in many classroom situations, the first because it is too formal and the second because it is too informal.
It would probably be appropriate suitable for the teacher to say 'Good morning, everyone' or something similar. Of course, we sometimes use inappropriate language on purpose to create some effect, e. Language that reflects the situation in which it is used is often referred to as register, 'Hi' is an example of informal register, 'A very good morning to you' an example of formal register.
Each new unit focused on a new function, e. These books were based on the Functional Approach see Unit We can see this in the extract from a map of a coursebook below, in the third column a grammatical structure is given together with exponents of the function 'Expressing likes' which are expressed through this Structure. Functions Grammar Unit 6 Expressing likes First and third person present simple Unit 7 Expressing dislikes First and third person present simple negative: It also helps learners to learn functions together with grammatical structures that they can then transfer to other contexts for use.
See Unit 15 for more on the Functional Approach, Units 16 and 17 for teaching activities for functions, Units 19 and 21 for lesson planning, and Units for classroom functions. List at least three different exponents for each of these functions and choose a different register for each exponent: Go through the list of exponents you made in 1 and mark them F formal , N neutral or I informal. Think of situations in which it would be appropriate or inappropriate to use these exponents. Look at your list of exponents.
Which would you teach to classes of secondary school learners, 5-year-old beginners, advanced, business students? Reflection Think about these comments from teachers. Learners prefer learning functions to learning grammar.
Learning functions is more useful for intermediate or advanced learners than for beginners. It is very useful for learners to learn functions for essay writing and letter writing. Primary learners do not need to learn functions. Look at your coursebook. Does it teach functions?
What kinds of activities are used in your coursebook to introduce and practise functions? How does the coursebook help learners deal with the grammar of the functions? In your Teacher Portfolio list six functions your learners might need to help them use English outside the classroom. List the most useful exponents for them, too. To find out more about functions and exponents, look at Chapter 5 of Threshold by J.
Can you think of two exponents for each one? TKT practice task 4 See page for answers For questions , read the conversation between two friends in a restaurant.
Match the underlined sentences with the functions listed A-G. Functions A. Maybe we could ask the waiter for something else. OK, call the waiter and tell him. Oh no, not me. Reading is one of the four language skills: It is a receptive skill, like listening.
This means it involves responding to text; rather than producing it.
TKT Modules 1, 2 & 3
Very simply we can say that reading involves making sense of written text. To do this we need to understand the language of the text at word level, sentence level or whole-text level. We also need to connect the message of the text to our knowledge of the world. Look at this sentence, for example: The boy was surprised because the girl was much faster at running than he was.
To understand this sentence, we need to understand what the letters are, how the letters join together to make words, what the words mean and the grammar of the words and the sentence. But we also make sense of this sentence by knowing that, generally speaking, girls do not run as fast as boys.
Our knowledge of the world helps us understand why the boy was surprised. A text is usually longer than just a word or a sentence, it often contains a series of sentences, as in a letter or even a postcard.
Connected text is referred to as discourse. Reading involves understanding these connections. For example: But after he found out that her mother had won a medal for running at the Olympic Games, he understood.
The second sentence gives us a possible reason why the girl was so good at running. But we can only understand that this is a reason if we know that Olympic runners are very good.
This means we need to use our knowledge of the world to see the sense connection between these two sentences coherence. The grammatical links between the sentences cohesion also help us see the connection between them.
For example, in the second example sentence 'he' refers to 'the boy' in the first sentence, and 'her' refers to 'the girl', and linking the sentences there is the conjunction 'after'.
So, understanding a written text involves understanding the language of each sentence and the relationship between Unit 5. Reading Reading also involves using different reading skills. They include: Reading for specific information Scanning Reading for detail Deducing meaning from context Understanding text structure Reading for gist Skimming Inferring Predicting These are sometimes referred to as reading skills and sometimes as reading subskills.
They help us read in different ways according to our purpose for reading, when we read, we do not necessarily need to read everything in a text.
How we read depends on what and why we are reading. For example, we may read a travel website to find a single piece of information about prices. But we may read a novel in great detail because we like the story and the characters, and want to know as much as we can about them. So, our reasons for reading influence how we read, i. If we read a text just to find a specific piece or pieces of information in it, we usually use a subskill called reading for specific information or scanning.
When we scan, we don't read the whole text. We glance over most of it until we find the information we are interested in, e. Another reading subskill is reading for gist or skimming. This is sometimes also called reading for global understanding. It involves glancing through a text to get a general idea of what it is about. For example, you skim when you look quickly through a book in a bookshop to decide if you want to buy it, or when you go quickly through a reference book to decide which part will help you write an essay, or glance at a newspaper article to see if it is worth reading in detail.
A third reading subskill is reading for detail. It involves getting the meaning out of every word and out of the links or relationships between words and between sentences. If you read a letter from someone you love who you haven't heard from for a long time, you probably read like this. Sometimes in books on English language teaching, but not in the TKT, this skill is called intensive reading. Inferring is another skill readers sometimes use to get meaning from a text.
When they To infer these things we notice what words, register, grammar or style the writer has used to refer to something.
There are other skills the reader can use. Deducing meaning from context involves reading the words around an unknown word or thinking about the situation the unknown word is used in to try and work out its meaning. For example, imagine you see a text in Portuguese which you know gives facts about Portugal. You see this sentence: You can probably deduce the meaning of Lisboa.
To do this, you use what you have been told about this text and you deduce from your knowledge of English that capital means 'capital' and Portugal means 'Portugal'! From your general knowledge you know that Lisbon is the capital of Portugal, so you work out that Lisboa means 'Lisbon'.
And you are right! When we read we don't always know the meaning of all the words we meet. This skill helps us understand unknown words without making use of a dictionary or some other reference resource. Predicting means using clues before we begin reading, to guess what a text may be about. We might, for example, look at a newspaper's headlines or photos, the title of a chapter or unit, the name of a writer or even the stamp and address on an envelope to make an informed guess about the general contents of the text.
Prediction helps us decide if we wish to read the text if the stamp and address on the envelope suggest the text is probably a bill, we may not be so keen , and to make sense of it when we start reading it, because it gives us the opportunity to link the topic of the text to our knowledge of the world, and more especially to our knowledge of the topic of the text.
As we read through a text, we continue predicting, using what we are reading to sense what will come next. Understanding text structure involves understanding how certain types of text generally develop. For example, if we read a problem-solution essay, we expect that it will first discuss the problem, then suggest a solution, then draw a conclusion.
If we read a letter of complaint in English, we generally expect the first paragraph will say why the writer is writing, the second will give the details of the complaint and the third what the writer wants, in answer to his complaint. Readers expect certain information to come in certain sequences. They use this knowledge to know where they are in the text and find their way through it.
Understanding the meaning of conjunctions is an important part of this skill as they often signal how an argument will continue or is about to change. Extensive and intensive reading are ways of reading. Extensive reading, sometimes called reading for pleasure, involves reading long pieces of text, for example a story or an article. As you read, your attention and interest vary - you may read some parts of the text Sometimes, especially in language classrooms, we ask learners to read texts so that we can examine the language they contain.
For example, we might ask learners to look for all the words in a text related to a particular topic, or work out the grammar of a particular sentence. The aim of these activities is to make learners more aware of how language is used.
These activities are sometimes called intensive reading. This way of reading does not involve reading for meaning or comprehension understanding of the text.
TKT Modules 1, 2 & 3 - Schoology
It involves reading for language study. Sometimes in books on English language teaching, but not in the TKT, this skill is called reading for detail. When we read about reading we need to be quite clear what skill is being referred to in order not to get confused!
Understanding different text types is something else good readers can do. Some examples of written text types are letters, articles, postcards, stories, information brochures, leaflets and poems. All these kinds of text types are different from one another. They have different lengths, layouts the ways in which text is placed on the page , topics and kinds of language.
We can see that reading is a complex process. It involves understanding letters, words and sentences, understanding the connections between sentences, understanding different text types, making sense of the text through our knowledge of the world and using the appropriate reading subskill. Reading may be a receptive skill but it certainly isn't a passive one!
Sometimes though, they find this difficult, especially when their language level is not high, so they need help to transfer these skills. Teachers can check which reading subskills their learners are good at, then focus on practising the subskills they are not yet using well.
They can also help them by pre-teaching vocabulary teaching vocabulary from the text before the learners read the text , by asking learners to predict text content and with certain kinds of learner, encouraging them to predict text structure.
Lead-in activities generally involve looking at the pictures around a text or at the title and trying to predict what the text will be about. They can also involve using brainstorming thinking of and listing ideas Graded readers books with language made easier for language learners are a very useful way of giving learners extensive reading practice, helping them build up their confidence in reading and consolidate the language they know and gradually extend it to include new language.
Nowadays you can find graded readers on a very wide variety of subjects and at a large number of language learning levels. Some learners of English, e. They need to learn how letters join to make words and how written words relate to spoken words both in their language and in English. Other learners may not understand the script used in English as their own script is different, e. Chinese, Arabic. Texts should be interesting in order to motivate learners. Texts should also be at the right level of difficulty.
Introductory activities: Main activities: Post-task activities: These activities require learners to use some of the language they have met in the text.
Reading aloud takes place mainly in the language classroom where it is often used to check learners' pronunciation or to check their understanding of a text. Reading aloud well is a difficult thing to do as it relies on understanding a text very well and on being able to predict what will come next in the text. If Look at these activities from a coursebook for intermediate level teenagers and young adults and an extract from the reading passage they accompany, which of the terms about reading in the box match which activities?
Scanning Learning key vocabulary Consolidating language or evaluating opinions in the text Relating the topic to your knowledge of the world Reading for detail Life stories Present perfect simple for, since and ago and Present perfect continuous Reading: Parallel lives Pronunciation: Describing life events, Positive characteristics Task: Talk about someone you admire Wordspot: A curriculum vitae Reading 1.
Work in pairs. Have you got any brothers or sisters? Think about the following things. Do you know any twins? If so, are they identical or not? What kind of relationship have they got? Read the text quickly. Which twins do each of these statements refer to?
They seemed almost telepathic, b. They got married on the same day without knowing, c. The similarities between their lives were truly remarkable, d. They had their own special language.
Check the words and phrases in the box in your mini-dictionary. Then read the text again and tick the statements that are true about Professor Bouchard's research! He contacted both identical and non-identical twins separated at birth. He collected as much information about them OS he could. He found that the similarities between Terry and Margaret were very unusual, d. He found that twins who are brought up together always have more in common than twins who are brought up separately, e.
He doesn't think upbringing has an important influence on personality, f.
Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Modules 1-3.pdf
A range of approaches to teaching and learning may be covered in the examination material. Timing 1 hour 20 minutes No. Marks Each question carries one mark. Answer format For all parts of this module. Part Title Areas of teaching knowledge Task types and format 1 Describing Concepts and terminology for describing language: Candidates should use an eraser to rub out any answer they wish to change.
Candidates should use a pencil and mark their answers firmly. Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to the following and their implications for the L2 classroom: It focuses on those learner characteristics which distinguish one learner or group of learners from another in terms of their learning and those which affect both what and how a teacher chooses to teach a class or an individual learner.
Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to: This part also tests knowledge of concepts and terms related to 1 teaching and learning procedures and activities. Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of methods. Teaching in this context is intended also to refer to assessment. Tasks include one-to-one matching. It focuses too on the linguistic and methodological reference resources that are available to guide teachers in their lesson planning as well as on the range and function of materials and teaching aids that teachers could consider making use of in their lessons.
Knowledge of any particular book is not required. It also tests knowledge of ways of sequencing activities within and across lessons in a manner appropriate to particular groups of learners.
These include variety of activity and pace. Braille versions of question papers. TKT is available throughout the year. There is one answer sheet per module. If you think you may need special arrangements. Candidate performance is reported using four bands. Special Circumstances Special Circumstances cover three main areas: Candidates receive a certificate for each module they take. Please note that more notice may be module. Certificates are despatched to Centres approximately two current fees and further information about this and other weeks after receipt of answer sheets by Cambridge ESOL.
They may Each module is free-standing. TKT test administration each module is Reader answer sheets. Exams Manager for advice. Candidate details must be submitted to Cambridge ESOL at least six weeks prior to See page 45 for a detailed description of each band for each running the session. Of particular importance is the Teaching Resources website rigorous set of procedures which are used in the production www.
This commitment is underpinned the TKT Glossary on this website. If your Centre or institution would like to be involved in TKT pretesting. Results may be withheld because further investigation is needed or because of Support for TKT candidates infringement of regulations. It begins with the approximately 60—90 hours of classroom-based or self-access commissioning of materials and ends with the printing of study.
Examples of acceptable familiarise themselves with TKT task-types under test reasons for giving special consideration are cases of illness or conditions and to receive feedback on areas of strength and other unexpected events. Special consideration can be given where an particular tasks.