YII RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT HOTSHOT PDF
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When we are inished, the mobile view for the book list will look a lot beter. We will create a directory for our extension to keep everything together. Make a directory for the widget under extensions named mobile. In the widget directory, create a ile named ListView with an init and run funcion. The init funcion will prepare any assets that your view needs, but our mobile layout has already taken care of this for us. The run funcion will render the widget. Create a view directory.
Create the view for the widget in the views directory ch2 Source Files protected extensions mobile views body. The view will bracket our data in a jQuery mobile list and render our itemView template in each list element.
Remove the div tags and the headers. Remove all ields except for itle and notes. Add an h1 tag around itle and a p tag around notes. Put the whole thing inside a single PHP tag so it looks like this: Copy the index. Remove the header, change the widget call from zii.
Put everything in a single set of PHP tags. The ile will look like this: Update the index acion in the book controller to render the mobile view if access is from a mobile device. At this point, the book index should display a nice readable list of books.
To make the list more manageable, we can add a search feature. Let's look at what we have now: The list looks a lot nicer now.
Let's see how our mobile-opimized, all-in-one search ilter works. It is awesome, indeed. Try a diferent ilter: That is some powerful stuf.
Let's add issue numbers to this new view. You could then use this view to see what books you have while you are shopping at the comic book store. Beter yet, let's change the view so that you can click on the list items to pull up the detailed view of the record. Look at what your previous changes did, then try changing it to the following code snippet: Ater adding the preceding code, the list will look like the following screenshot: Here is what the detailed view looks like: This is a useful set of changes.
We created a widget for lising book objects in the mobile view and called it ListView, we made changes necessary to provide full mobile funcionality to the list view for comic books, and we added a slick mobile search. Mission Accomplished We have learned a great deal about adding mobile funcionality to a Yii project. We have seen how to include jQuery Mobile and use it in our layouts, views, and forms.
We know how to make a nice mobile search. We have examples of how to add funcionality and ields to an exising Yii project. A Hotshot Challenge Here are some suggesions to try for yourself with this project: Does it work for tablets? If you find unsupported devices, extend the device identifier algorithm. Mission Brieing We will add a user table to the applicaion database, and then generate the Yii scafolding and customize it.
We will extend the user management interface to uilize our user table ields. We will add a new feature to the site — a wish list viewer for friends and family looking for git ideas, and then create friends and family users and give them access to the wish list. When we are done, we will be able to assign diferent capabiliies to diferent users, and their menus will relect the acions they are permited to take. For example, guest users will only be able to read comic book entries, not add, edit, or delete, as the menu in the following screenshot demonstrates: The generated Yii project iles include a basic access control system to help you start building your project.
However, if your project requirements include providing access to a large number of users, you will soon ind it helpful to include user management in your site. There are some great Yii extensions available that provide user management. These may be more or less what you want. If your project needs are unique or you would just like to take a tour through a user management implementaion, this chapter will be of interest. To prepare for the project, carry out the following steps replacing the username lomeara with your own username: Make the directories that Yii uses web writeable.
If you have a link for a previous project, remove it from the webroot directory. Adding a User Object with CRUD As a foundaion for our user management system, we will add a User table to the database and then use Gii to build a quick funcional interface.
Let's set the irst building block by adding a User table containing the following informaion: Open a web browser to the Gii URL http: Back in NetBeans, add a link to the user index in your site's logged in menu ch3 Source Files protected views layouts main.
It should look like this: You will see a menu that includes a link named Users. If you click on the Users link in the menu and then click on Create User, you will see a prety awful-looking user-creaion screen. We are going to ix that. First, we will update the user form to include ields for irst name, last name, password, and repeat password.
Then, add a call to errorSummary on the person data under the errorSummary call on user. Add rows for irst name and last name at the beginning of the form.
We want to capture the password data and ulimately make a hash out of it to store securely in the database. To collect the form inputs, we will add password ields to the User model that do not correspond to values in the database. Edit the User model ch3 Source Files protected models User. In the same User model ile, modify the atribute labels funcion to include labels for the new password ields.
In the same User model ile, update the rules funcion with the following rules: In order to store the user's irst and last name, we must change the Create acion in the User controller ch3 Source Files protected controllers UserController. Don't reload the create user page yet.
First, update the last line of the User Create view ch3 Source Files protected views user create. Make a change to the attributeLabels funcion in the Person model ch3 Source Files protected models Person. Looks prety good, but if you try to submit the form, you will receive an error. Now you can create users, but if you try to edit a user entry, you see another error. This ix will require a couple of more changes.
First, in the user controller ch3 Source Files protected controllers UserController. Next, in the same ile, change the actionUpdate funcion.
Add a call to save the person data, if the user save succeeds: Then, in the user update view ch3 Source Files protected views user update. One more piece of user management housekeeping; try deleing a user. Look in the database for the user and the person info. Didn't clean up ater itself, did it?
Yii Rapid Application Development Hotshot
Change the call to delete in the User delete acion: Gii helped us get the basic structure of our user management funcion in place, and then we altered the model, view, and controller to bring the pieces together.
Making a User Management Interface The default Yii object index provides a nice summary lising of the user entries, but for many applicaions, it is more eicient to have a quick search capability. For this, Yii provides an addiional "admin" view.
We are going to completely replace the default lising with the admin view and update the scafold view with a beter integraion of User with Person informaion for searching and soring. Delete the ile ch3 Source Files protected views user index. Rename the ile ch3 Source Files protected views user admin. In the iles create. Also in the User controller, remove the admin accessRule for the admin acion. The admin accessRule should look like the following: In the same ile, rename the funcion actionAdmin to actionIndex, and change the call to render in the newly renamed actionIndex funcion to render to index instead of admin.
Now, if you click on the Users link in the menu, you will see a user management grid, instead of a list of user entries. However, the informaion in the grid could be more useful. Edit the new user index ch3 Source Files protected views user index. Add the columns we do want to see, namely irst name and last name. These ields come from a related object, so their entries will look a litle diferent.
The ile should look as follows: Edit the user model ch3 Source Files protected models User. The search funcion will require the most changes. However, you can only sort on the username column. In the User model search funcion, add a sort object with irst name and last name ields and include it in the data provider to acivate sort on the irst name and last name columns. One more thing. Have you clicked on the Advanced Search link yet? That doesn't look great. Remove ID and password hash ields, and add irst name and last name ields.
The last view we will change is named View. Edit ch3 Source Files protected views users view. Storing Passwords In this task, we will add a hashing funcion and store the hashed password values in the database. We have a nice user management interface, but if you open a SQL command window and query the user table, you will see that the password ield for each user is empty. We need to store the password, and in order to do that, we need to make a funcion to hash passwords.
We will implement this funcion in the User model and do it in a rather simplisic way, using the crypt library that comes with PHP and providing no salt value, so that it is randomly generated by the library. You can replace this funcion with your own preferred method of hashing.
Next, we need to call the encrypion funcion whenever we store a password — on create and on update — so we will overload the beforeSave funcion to do the hashing.
Add the following funcion to the User model: In preparaion for logging in, let's go ahead and add a funcion to check a password value against the hashed value. We prepared for the next step by adding a hash check funcion to the User model as well. At this point, the hashing will not be applied to the login, but in the next task, we will acivate it. Activating Database User Login In this task, we will convert the login acion from the default authenicaion system provided by Yii to the authenicaion we have prepared in the previous tasks.
Prepare for Lift Off We are about to cut over to a new authenicaion system. Before we do, be sure to create a user for yourself with a password that you know!
You can give this user whatever irst and last name you like. We are about to use it to log in. If that user is found, it will check the provided password against the user's password hash.
Give it a try. Before we forget, edit the login view ch3 Source Files protected views site login. This approach will be much easier to maintain. Enforcing Secure Passwords Looking again at user creaion, we can see another problem.
You can create a user with no password. That is not so bad, because the login form requires a password. If your user has no password, he will not be able to login, but what about the quality of the passwords? If you try to enter a one-character password, no problem, you can do it. This might be ok if you are the only person creaing users and entering passwords. You can be careful to give your users passwords that are diicult to guess. You can devise and enforce your own password strength requirements, but typically, sooner or later, you are going to let your users set their own passwords.
When this happens, you will want to enforce some checking to make sure the passwords your users set are diicult to guess. Otherwise, your users and your site are vulnerable to password cracking. We will go with a basic requirement of a minimum length of eight characters, including at least one capital character, at least one number, and at least one non-alphanumeric character. This patern is also useful for implemening any custom validaion rule. Open the user model ile for edit ch3 Source Files protected models User.
Add a funcion named passwordStrengthOk as follows: Add two new rules to the validaion array: Add a check for minimum password length of 8 to the password length requirements. But what if we want to update something about the user, such as change the username, and not enter a new password? To do this, we will use a scenario. First, update the rules that apply to passwords and add the scenario parameter, so that the rules are only applied when the scenario is in play.
Then, in the User controller, activate the passwordset scenario whenever we want the passwordset rules to apply. In the Create function, we always want the scenario to apply, so pass it to the model constructor at the start. In the Update function, we only want to apply the scenario when a password field has been entered, so set the scenario on the model conditionally. Let's make sure we did all of that correctly by making and running a funcional test.
First, we will augment our tesing setup by downloading the Selenium standalone server from http: Then, update the phpunit conig to deine the browsers that you will test against. In our example, we will test against Firefox of course, you must have Firefox installed to do this. Add the following secion to ch3 Test Files phpunit.
Start the Selenium standalone server by opening a terminal window, changing to the directory where you downloaded the standalone server, and running the following command updated to include the version of the server you downloaded: Navigate to ch3 Test Files. Enter UserTest for the ilename and click on Finish. Input the following contents into the new test ile. Be sure to save the new contents. You should see Selenium and Firefox windows lash on your screen as the tests run.
The tests should complete successfully and conirm that the password validaion rules are applied correctly. Objective Complete - Mini Debrieing In order to improve our site security, we have added a custom validaion rule to the user model. The new rule implements a password strength requirement that we deined, but you can replace this with your own custom deiniion or an exising library, such as CrackLib.
To make sure your new rule is being enforced correctly, and to demonstrate funcional tesing with Selenium, we added a set of Selenium tests. Adding User Functions — Wishlist To demonstrate access control, we will create a new funcion for users of our site to show them our comic book wishlist. When a special occasion is coming up, your friends and family will be able to log in and view your wishlist to get git ideas.
Start by adding a new table to the database as follows: Add join tables for author, illustrator, and publisher as follows: The new tables and their relaionships look like the following: Use Gii to generate a model and CRUD from the wish table, and models for all of the join tables wishauthor, wishillustrator, and wishpublisher. Add a new item to the Comic Book menu in ch3 Source Files protected views layouts main.
The form will not work unil we make a few changes. We have already pulled the author funcions that you might want to use out of the Book controller and put them in a base controller that the Book controller is using. To access the author funcions in the Wish controller, change the base class. Delete the update action from the Wish controller and change the generated create action to the following: Create a function to record the association between a wish and an author.
Add removeAuthor and createAuthor to the allowed actions for users. We will adjust the permissions in a later task. Add support for authors to the Wish model ch3 Source Files protected models Wish.
Start by adding the following funcions: Add the author variable to the call to renderPartial in the Wish create and update views, ch3 Source Files protected views wish create. In both iles, the call will look like the following: This object beneited from its similarity to the book object and the work we had already done to associate books to authors. We will use this object to demonstrate coniguring diferent capabiliies for diferent users. Coniguring User Access There is more than one way to deine user access.
One is the ile-based method we replaced in this chapter. Another method is role-based and it is demonstrated in another project.
For this project, we will deine user-based access to the wishlist funcion, and we will provide two levels of access: We already have an admin user, which is our own login for creaing and maintaining the wishlist. Create another account with username guest and password Gu3st!!! For our development and tesing, this user represents all of our other users who will have the ability to view the wishlist and claim items they have got for us so we don't get duplicate presents.
Run the following MySQL commands to insert some wish data into your database: In fact, we may want to limit one thing. What good is our wishlist if we lose the surprise by seeing what our friends have got for us?
Of course, you can cut out the parts that hide the informaion from admin or leave them in and ind other ways to peek at your gits in the database. Let's start by limiing our guests' access, and then update the wishlist view to achieve the desired efect. We are going to customize the users' menu view in a later task, so that for now, when we are logged in as a guest, we can easily click all opions and see what we can and cannot do. From the menu, you can see and access the user index. Let's eliminate that opion for our guests.
For now, only the administrator will be able to view, create, update, or delete users. Open the user controller ch3 Source Files protected controllers UserController. When you are done, accessRules should look as follows: Now, click on Users in the menu and you should see an error message as shown in the following screenshot: If you want to log out of guest and log back in as admin at this point to make sure you sill have user management access, we don't blame you.
Go ahead. Check it out. Then, log back in as guest to coninue. Guests really don't need to view publishers either. So make the same change to accessRules in ch3 Source Files protected controllers PublisherController. We want to share our list of books with our users, but not anonymous strangers. Also we don't want guests changing anything. To accomplish this, make the following changes to the book controller.
Move access to index and view down to authenicated users. Move access to create, update, removeAuthor, and createAuthor down to admin user. Remove the all users secion. The result should look as follows: Wishlist is similar to the book list in the previous step, but we do want guests to be able to claim items from the list.
Let's start by replacing the access rules in the Wish controller with the access rules we just made for Books. Now we will make one small side-track to make our wishlist look nice for our guests. We created a ield for a store link to make it convenient for our friends to click right on an item we want and purchase it.
But right now that URL displays as un-clickable text.
Yii Rapid Application Development Hotshot - PDF Drive
That way our users can remain in our site. Our users don't need to see ID values, and for that mater, neither do we. But they may want to click an item and read more about it. To that end, remove the ID ield, and update the itle ield to be the link to the item. Now, let's clean up the individual wish view ch3 Source Files protected views wish view. Replace the page itle with the wish itle. We also want to display the type value as text instead of a number.
The inal atributes of the detail view should look as follows: Now that the index and view are looking prety nice for our guests, we should limit the wish list items so that a user only sees unclaimed items or items that user has claimed. First, we must extend the UserIdentity class to store and return the user's ID and name.
Open ch3 Source Files protected components UserIdentity. Add functions to return the values. Set the value when we have a successful authentication. Now that the user idenity class can return the current user's ID and username, we can update the Index acion in the Wish controller to limit the wish list, if the user is not admin. You will need to log out and log back in as a guest in order to access the Wish index.
At this point, to test our work, we logged in as admin and created a few wishes. We logged in as each of those users to verify that we saw unclaimed wishes and the user's claimed wishes. We also logged in as admin to verify that admin sees the complete list.
The next part of the feature that we will need is the ability to claim a wish. To keep it a surprise, we are going to show this feature to users but not to admin. To support the checkbox toggle funcion we are going to add Ajax to catch the checkbox click. To include the script in the wish index, edit ch3 Source Files protected views wish index. Then, of course, we need to add the claim acion itself to the Wish controller. User Speciic Menus In the last task, we limited user access, but we did not update the menus.
The site menu provides links to objects that users do not have permission to access, and the object menus provide links to acions that users do not have authorizaion to take. It would be nice if we could associate the menus to the access we have already deined, so that we do not have to manually coordinate menu contents with accessRules.
To do this, we created an extension to the CMenu widget. Create a new ile in ch3 Source Files protected components named AuthMenu. Enter the following contents into the ile: Next, consolidate the main site menu back into one widget call.
Set the visible value for the Home item to true, and set the visible value for Login and Logout to condiional based on whether the user is logged into the site or not, using the isGuest command. Replace the call to CMenu in main layout ile ch3 Source Files protected views layouts main. Also replace the call to CMenu in the two column layout ch3 Source Files protected views layouts column2.
For admin, the list will include all acions, as shown in the following screenshot: Objective Complete - Mini Debrieing In the extension that we created, we iterate over the list of menu items and use context and the url parameter to determine which controller and acion the menu item contains. Then we check the array in the accessRules funcion for the controller against the user and acion to determine the visibility of the menu item.
Mission Accomplished In this project, we have improved user management for our site by replacing the default ile- based user management that Yii framework provides with database-stored users. By making this change, we get the beneit of the web interface to manage our users, instead of having to change the text in a source ile. We also customized this view to include support for ields from the related table, Person.
As a result we can search and sort on ields from Person, as well as User. We improved site security by creaing a custom validaion rule that enforces some password strength requirements, and we apply this rule only when we need to change the password, not when we are making a change to an exising user. We tested the implementaion of this validaion rule and tried out funcional tesing with Selenium. We added a new funcion to demonstrate Yii access control seings. And we showed a way to display user-speciic menus.
This will get even beter in the next project when we group users into roles. You may want to review the following consideraions: A Hotshot Challenge Here are some ideas to go gung ho with user funcions: PHP Formaters. Try using them to record more funcional tests. Permission Levels In this mission, we will implement a lending funcion and a ine grained access control. In our experience, most projects require the ability to deine permissions at a very precise level.
A good example of this is providing users with the ability to edit their own account informaion, but not the account informaion of other users. In this project, we will use Yii and available extensions to construct a custom permissions system for our comic book applicaion. Then, we will replace the default Yii user access with a more extensive user management system that includes roles and access levels.
Almost any web applicaion you make is going to have users with diferent levels of access. This project will demonstrate a method for adding users and access control to any site you build with Yii.
We will also touch on some website security issues here, but encourage you to study this topic well and enhance your knowledge of security with every site you build.
To prepare for the project follow these steps, replacing the username lomeara with your own username: Adding Admin Function — Library Management Because we like to share books from our collecion with our friends, we will add a lending funcion to our site. First, we will expand our comic book management interface with some new lending informaion. We will note which books we are willing to lend and while we are at it, let's make a ield to track who is currently borrowing a book.
Open an SQL command window for the cbdb database and run the following commands: Now we must expand the book model to include the new ields ch4 Source Files protected models Book. At the top of the model, add the new fields to the comments.
This is not required, but it is good practice. Permission Levels iii. Add lendable to the numeric field check in the rules function.
Add lendable to the searchable list. Add entries in the attributeLabels function. Add lendable to the compare criteria in the search function. Finally, add an entry named borrower for the lent field in the relations function. Add a checkbox for the lendable ield. Noice that the lendable ield is, by default, checked.
This is because, when we created the ield in MySQL, we speciied that by default the value will be true. We are very generous with lending our books. We will add the borrower to the form as an Ajax autocomplete ield providing a list of users.
To support this, we must expand the Book model ch4 Source Files protected models Book. Add the following variables at the top of the Book class: Now, we will add an Ajax funcion, named aclist, to the user controller ch4 Source Files protected controllers UserController. Add the new action to the admin access list in the User controller.
Add the Aclist action to the User controller. Create a funcion in the Book controller that joins the irst and last name of a borrower into a single full name ield. This ield uses a Jui Zii extension, which uses jQuery to make the Ajax calls and process the responses. When you stop typing, you should see a drop-down list, containing the irst name and last name entries for all of the matching users. If you are using the schema for the chapter, try rie.
The results should be Best Friend and Another Friend. Most of the ime, a borrower will not be set when a book is created, so we must handle this case. You can test it out by creaing a book before taking this step. Add an entry to the rules array in the Book model ch4 Source Files protected models Book. Permission Levels Then, update the Book View acion to irst load the model, then set the fullname, and pass it to the view as follows: Add the ields to the atributes array in the book view ch4 Source Files protected views book view.
To display the new ields in the admin page, edit the Book model ch4 Source Files protected models Book. Also, add a CSort object to the search funcion as follows: Pass the sort variable to the CActiveDataProvider object as follows: Finally, add the columns to the admin view ch4 Source Files protected views book admin.
Objective Complete - Mini Debrieing To add the library management piece, we started by adding ields to the book table in the database.
We updated the model to include the new ields. Then piece by piece, we added support for the new ield in each of the book views. One area that we did not touch on was the Advanced Search form. If you would like, you can update this form to include the ields that you ind useful for searching, but do not necessarily need for quick searching.
To access the new feature, we need to add a Library opion to the menu, in the ile ch4 Source Files protected views layouts main.
We must create a new controller and view to support it. Permission Levels 2. Paste the following contents into the ile: Permission Levels We have chosen to explicitly state that access rules apply to all users. You can leave the user line out, if you prefer, as it is the default value. We have added a controller with access control enabled, default layout, and one acion, that is Index, which returns all the books that are lendable and not currently lent.
Now if you click on Library in the menu, the error will look even worse! We will ix the error by creaing a view to present the results of the Library controller Index acion. Begin by creaing a new view folder. Enter library in the Folder Name, and click on Finish. Name the ile index and click on Finish.
Replace the contents of the new index. In the library index, the Authors column takes advantage of a CGridView feature that allows you to specify an object and a funcion to supply the value for the column. Open up the Book model and add that funcion. Permission Levels Next, we will add a Book model funcion to display the book's lending status in the status column. It will be nice to see the lending status of the books, whether we have them or someone else does.
Let's add a status column to the library index view. Also, add a supporing funcion to the Book model. Also in the Library index view, we added a custom link to request a book.
We must add the acion to the Library controller ch4 Source Files protected controllers LibraryController. But irst, we will need a table to record the request. Use Gii to generate a model from the request table. Add the new relaion to the Book model ch4 Source Files protected models Book. Create the request acion in the Library controller ch4 Source Files protected controllers LibraryController.
Add the access authorizaion to the Library controller access rules. Add a lash display at the top of the Library index view to display success when a request is recorded. A lash message keeps the message in session through one or more of the user's requests. Add the parameter visible to the CButtonColumn in the Library index view to display the Request link if no request has been made.
Once again, we will use a funcion deined on our model to get our result. Add the funcion requested to the Book model to support the change we just made to the view.
The funcion will return true or false to toggle the Request link in the library grid. Now we will circle back to the book list view to display the requests and add the funcions to process them.
To add a link next to a borrower to process a book return, change the entry for borrower in the book view to include a return link. Also, update the Library controller with this funcion to process a request. The twin funcion to lend is return: Add the new acion to the access rules. For the moment, it is ok to permit it for all users.
We will adjust the permissions in the next task. The resuling Book index page will now include a list of requests, if any requests for the book are pending. Objective Complete - Mini Debrieing We have added a new acion to the site that is related to an exising model, but uses its own controller. We used a funcion call from CGridView to display more complex column informaion, we used CButtonColumn to deine a new buton acion, Request, and we added a condiion to hide the buton if a request has already been created.
For the management piece, we updated the comic book index page to display any pending requests. We included a convenience link, Lend, that quickly updates the borrower, so that we don't have to navigate to the comic book update page, search for the new borrower, and save the changed record. When you add RBAC to your applicaion, you will need to decide how the access to your system will be allocated.
A good place to start is to look at the acions in your current system and the roles you think you will need. Yii deines RBAC in terms of roles, tasks, and operaions. An operaion is a single acion on an object. We will set its name as the object followed by the acion. For example, the name for the operaion consising of the acion Create on the object Book would be bookCreate.
A task is a named collecion of operaions. For example, you might collect all of the user management operaions userCreate, userDelete, userUpdate, and userView into a single task named manageUser. A role is a collecion of tasks and operaions and other roles. Assigning one role to another creates a hierarchy and is a convenient way for the user to manage nested levels of access.
For example, if you have the roles Reader, Contributor, and Administrator, it makes sense that a contributor will have all of the permissions of a reader, and an administrator will have all of the permissions of a contributor.
For this project, we will deine roles as follows, in order of decreasing levels of access: Authority — your role, with total access ii. Administrator — can add and edit book and user entries iii. Borrower — can view the library list and make requests iv. Viewer — can view the comic book collection v. Expand this list of roles in terms of the acions they can perform: Read book, wish, library, and make library request iv. Read book and wish v. Yii provides a funcion for scriping and loading all of the roles, tasks, and operaions we just deined.
First, we will have to set up the database to hold these new eniies, and it is prety simple. All you need are three tables to capture three things: Permission Levels In the next secion, we will download and install a Yii extension that will provide a nice graphical interface for RBAC management. Before we do that, we will iniialize the RBAC with a script built from the hierarchy we deined in the previous steps. We have included the full script in the chapter iles ch4 Source Files protected command shell RbacCommand.
We will touch on some key excerpts next. For example, there are nine operaions on the Wish object: The reason for this is that the management module that we will add later relies on this naming convenion. Each role in our hierarchy may be assigned the previous role and any new operaions that belong to it. Update the app coniguraion ile ch4 protected conig main. Run the script from the command line with the Yii shell tool to load the hierarchy into the database.
You can exit the tool with the command exit. You can verify the iniializaion by going to the NetBeans server view, connecing to your database, right-clicking on any of the authorizaion tables, and selecing the View Data command.
Objective Complete - Mini Debrieing When you implement a role-based access control system, you will need to give some thought to the roles that are needed in your system, the acions each role may perform, and the relaionship between the roles.
A review of the acions currently in your system can help you generate a list of roles. A diagram of roles and acions can help you spot gaps in your coverage. Permission Levels Classiied Intel At this point, you could conigure your project and move from the ile-based authorizaions in each controller to the database authorizaions that we have iniialized, but maintaining and building on this informaion will be diicult without a more intuiive interface.
The Yii team's stated intenion was for developers to make suitable RBAC interfaces for their projects. You can create your own, but there are some extensions available that do a good job of meeing most RBAC management needs. So we will install one of those extensions to demonstrate a helpful graphical management interface and then complete the coniguraion and acivate the new authorizaion system.
Adding the RBAC Extension In this task, we coninue to conigure and acivate the role-based access control system, and add a management interface to the website to make it easier to review, add to, update, and maintain the authorizaion informaion.
Create a directory named modules in your project's protected directory. Move the srbac directory into the newly created modules directory.
Edit the project coniguraion ile ch4 protected conig main. In the same conig ile, change the AuthManager component to use the srbac module. Also in the config ile, add an entry for srbac to the modules array. This entry will conigure the behavior of the module. We leave the access to srbac open until we have used the interface to configure our admin user to have the authority permission. Put items in this list that you want to be always accessible and do not wish to configure further.
Permission Levels 6. Create a ile ch4 Source Files protected modules srbac components allowed. Remove the install folder from the project ch4 Source Files protected modules srbac views authitem install , because it provides access to administraive funcions that are no longer needed. Now access the srbac page http: Click on the Managing auth items buton.
The screen will update with a list of the Roles, Operaions, and Tasks that were created by our script. Click on the Create buton next to the Search bar and in the form that appears, set Name to Authority, Type to Role, and Descripion to srbac role. Click on the Create buton in the form to save the new role. Click on the Assign to users buton. Select the user s who will have access to srbac from the let-hand column. For our examples, select the username admin.
Select Authority in the right-hand column, and click on the let arrow buton [ ] to move from Not Assigned Roles to Assigned Roles. As a result, the user, admin, will have the roles admin and Authority in the Assigned Roles column.
Now you can go back into the config ile ch4 Source Files protected conig main. For our own convenience, we will add an srbac link to the site menu. Add the following line to ch4 Source Files protected views layouts main. To display the applicable contents of the Comic Book menu to all users, we apply this method to the comic book item in the site menu in ch4 Source Files protected views layouts main.
Our lowest level access user, and all users up the hierarchy, should be able to see some items in the Comic Book menu, so we include the lowest level role as the value for authItemName. The site currently uses a component, AuthMenu, that displays menu items based on authorizaion. We built this component in a previous chapter based on a distributed component named YiiSmartMenu to use the ile-based authorizaion coniguraion. Now we will replace that component with YiiSmartMenu. Copy the ile from the extension directory into your project.
Replace the occurrences of AuthMenu in ch4 Source Files protected views layouts column2. Acivate the srbac by changing the parent class of ch4 Source Files protected components Controller. Remove or comment out the accessControl ilter in every controller: Remove or comment out the accessRules funcion in every controller, because it is no longer needed. Try out access control by logging in as a user with fewer privileges.
See the Classiied Intel secion for more informaion about test users that are already in the database. Objective Complete - Mini Debrieing In this secion, we explained how to install, conigure, and acivate the srbac extension. The extension comes with its own set of instrucions, but we wanted to ofer a more detailed explanaion to help you set it up.
Also, our approach to the database tables, naming of roles, and organizaion of the authorizaion hierarchy is a litle diferent. The coniguraion example we provided is slightly diferent from the default.
Classiied Intel You may have noiced in the iniial RBAC coniguraion or when browsing the srbac interface that some users have been assigned to the various roles. We supplied these users in the schema for the chapter with the password for each set to test.
We conigured each one to a diferent role, so that you can test user experience for each role. The full list of users to roles is: It is great for adding new roles, tasks, and operaions.
However, when we add new users to the system, it would be convenient to assign the users, roles on the spot. First, add the relaionship to the assignment object in the User model ch4 Source Files protected models User.
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Add a comment at the top of the file listing the new model variable in the model relations section as follows: Add an entry for assignments to the relations array as follows: Permission Levels The currently assigned roles will now appear in the User edit screen as shown in the following screenshot: Now we need to display the roles that have not been assigned to this user, and provide a means to add an assignment.
Change the list display to use a renderPartial funcion as follows: Add a secion to display a picklist of unassigned roles: Create a new class variable in the User model to hold the role value as follows: Add a funcion that wraps the srbac helper funcion getUserNotAssignedRoles to return the list of roles that have not been assigned to this user. Permission Levels 8. Now on the User edit screen, we can choose from a list of unassigned roles, to assign to the user. Create the assign role acion in the User controller.
On the srbac main screen, click on the Managing auth items buton, and then click on the Create buton. Enter UserAssignRole as the name. Leave Type as Operaion. Enter a descripion, if you like. Click on the Create buton in the Create New Item form when you are done.
Click on the Create buton on the let-hand side of the screen to commence adding a new operaion. Enter UserRevokeRole as the name. Leave Operaion as the type.
Click on Create at the botom of the form when you are done. Click on the Assign to Users buton at the top of the page.
Go to the Tasks tab, and select manageUser under the Task column. The acions to assign and revoke work. They update the list of assigned roles, but they do not update the select list of unassigned roles.
Pass in the values for url and updateUrl. Add the new reload acion to the User controller. Now the Assign and Revoke butons should fully work the way we expect them to. In the process, we created new controller acions to assign and revoke roles, and we used the srbac interface to limit the role assignment operaions to the admin role. Classiied Intel There is an alternate way to add operaions to the system.
This is paricularly useful if you have added many new acions and want to create the corresponding operaions all at once. Go to the srbac screen. Click on Managing auth items. Click on the link named Autocreate Auth Items below the butons. Click on the lightbulb next to the controller that has new acions; for this task, that would have been UserController. The list of acions without corresponding operaions will be displayed. Click on the ones you want to add. You probably want to uncheck the box for Create Tasks, because we already have some task grouping conigured.
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You can go back to the main AuthItem management page to verify your new operaions by clicking on the Managing auth items buton or by clicking on the Manage AuthItem link underneath the butons. Fine-tuning Permissions In relaively few steps, we have applied a iner grained access control to our site, but there may be one or two very iny-grained areas that we have overlooked. It was his birthday money and money he earned form waxing cars from his wheelchair.
This was his contribution to helping us succeed. It will not only help us to keep the herd together during this time but shows the importance of the program to our students and the community. Please do what you can to help this program succeed and come back stronger and better than before.
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