ANDERS BEHRING BREIVIK MANIFEST PDF
European Declaration of Independence, also known as Breivik's Manifesto. It is The perpetrator, Anders Behring Breivik, was a year-old, right-wing, anti-. Amy Crowther The Radicalisation of Anders Behring Breivik On the July 22nd . Breivik () states in his manifesto that the Islamisation of Europe has gone. Anders Behring Breivik since legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym . Breivik's manifesto included writings detailing how he played video games such as World of Warcraft to relax, and Call of Duty: Modern " Ruling on holding Anders Behring Breivik in extended custody (Norwegian)" ( PDF).
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By Andrew Berwick (Anders Behring Breivik), London – . It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any other. Anders Behring Breivik's Complete Manifesto “ – A European Declaration of Our version is also better formatted because the PDF that is. By Andrew Berwick (Anders Behring Breivik), London – . It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any other Karl Marx who wrote in The Communist Manifesto about the radical notion of a.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Radicalisation of Anders Behring Breivik. Amy C Crowther. This essay will attempt to explain how Breivik became convinced by radical right wing, anti-Islamist ideology to the extent that he ultimately acted out such extreme violence, killing 77 people. When explaining radicalisation, Denoeux and Carter , p.
Due to these issues of globalisation, immigration and multiculturalism, Europe has in recent years seen a surge in support for radical right wing groups and institutionalised right wing political parties Goodwin et al. Nationalism is a key aspect of right wing extremism, however it is not necessarily a nationalism confined to nation-states Eatwell, p.
Ideology Denoeux and Carter , p. His ideas are regrettably not ones that were taken out of thin air; they are rather ideas linked to the international issues of recession, globalisation and immigration.
Breivik is obsessed with what he perceives to be the Islamisation of Europe Pantucci, McCauley and Moskalenko , p. Ideology appears to be a key motivator in its own right, however the step from harbouring radical ideas to acting out violence usually involves some kind of socialisation Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p. Ten of these paths to radicalisation include social or group related aspects, which shows that terrorists acting alone are in the minority.
'Breivik manifesto' details chilling attack preparation
When an individual encounters and joins a radical group, they are surrounded by people with views akin to their own, and exposure to opposing views is gradually diminished as members have less contact with people of different opinions Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p. The result is isolation from society, which reinforces the radical views of the group. Dalgaard Nielsen , p. Considering there is little evidence of Breivik being connected to such a group, the question arises as to whether the socialisation aspect of his radicalisation was non-existent, or whether the Internet can provide a venue for the same principles.
Although Breivik did not experience the type of isolation within a group that Dalgaard Nielsen , p. The social aspect he experienced largely took place online. Lippestad points out that radicalisation has changed since the s when radical groups were more visible, they are now a lot more difficult to identify in the online sphere Lundervold, Whereas for 10 years ago people with radical ideas had to travel far to meet up with others who shared their ideas, everyone is now connected on radical forums online, which can provide radicalising individuals with a strong feeling of a large likeminded community ibid.
As Crenshaw , p.
2083: A European Declaration of Independence
All the research he conducted to produce his manifesto was conducted by browsing anti-Muslim forums and blogs Pantucci, A study carried out for the European Commission argues that radicalisation that takes place online is only secondary to physical interaction in real life Change Institute, The case of Breivik arguably disputes this claim. His radicalisation online did not only consist of social interaction in extreme-right forums, he also spent a considerable amount of time playing violent games.
Breivik himself claimed that he used the gaming obsession as a conscious tool to make people believe he was obsessed with games to hide that he was planning the terrorist attacks Breivik, According to the report self- radicalisation by definition happens in isolation ibid.
However as argued in the above section of the essay, Breivik was by no means alone in his convictions.
Anders Behring Breivik - Wikipedia
The online community he was a part of can arguably replace the social aspect required for someone to become radicalised. A problem with conceptualising Breivik and others in terms of a lone wolf is that such terrorists are statistically more often insane than those who operate in organised groups Pantucci, Although discussing data related to Al Qaeda, Pantucci According to Goodwin et al.
The above- mentioned aspects are all part of the wider process of how he became radicalised. Yet it does seem that certain aspects were more significant than others. Out of the aspects of radicalisation that have been discussed in this essay, the most prominent ones in the case of Breivik appears to be the toxic combination of isolation, ideology and Internet.
However the type of radical ideas Breivik sought out are not coincidental, as the issues of multiculturalism and immigration have been increasingly important topics in contemporary politics. In the online sphere one chooses which sites to browse and which topics to engage with. It is very different from the real world where one is constantly subjected to other people, opinions and issues. Breivik absorbed himself in one narrow topic, which came to define his entire world.
Breivik was entirely convinced by conspiracy theories saying that Islam will take over Europe within years. By the nature of the online socialisation Breivik experienced, the people and views he came across were narrow and do not represent a real diversity or picture of the world. This isolation combined with playing violent video games up to 16 hours per day appears to have contributed to Breivik losing perspective, which caused a normalisation of radical ideas and violence.
Word Count: Berge, J. Bhatt, A. The Homegrown Threat [Online] Available at: Breivik, A. Brun, H. Crenshaw, M. The Change Institute.
Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. Available at http: Eatwell, R. Routledge, pp. Gardell, M. Goodwin, M. Violent and Non-Violent Movements in Europe.
Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Uploaded by Haphaestus on August 3, Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
Books by Language. EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Collection opensource. Breivik's far-right militant ideology is described in a collection of texts written by himself and by others, titled — A European Declaration of Independence and distributed electronically by Breivik on the day of the attacks under the anglicised pseudonym Andrew Berwick. In it he lays out his xenophobic worldview, which includes support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, far-right Zionism and Serbian paramilitarism.
It further argues for the violent annihilation of Islam, "Eurabia", "cultural Marxism", and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe.
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