BUSHIDO THE SOUL OF JAPAN PDF
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Bushido, the Soul of Japan, by Inazo Nitobé This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no. Bushido, the Soul of Japan. Inazo Nitobé. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Bushido, the Soul of Japan, by Inazo Nitobé. This eBook is for the use of anyone . Bushido, the Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobe. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as cittadelmonte.info: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Many people.
Avoid punctuation except as indicated below:. Project Gutenberg 59, free ebooks. Download Bibrec Bibliographic Record Author Nitobe, Inazo, Title Bushido, the Soul of Japan Contents Bushido as an ethical system -- Sources of Bushido -- Rectitude or justice -- Courage, the spirit of daring and bearing -- Benevolence, the feeling of distress -- Politeness -- Veracity or truthfulness -- Honor -- The duty of loyalty -- Education and training of a Samurai -- Self-control -- The institutions of suicide and redress -- The sword, the soul of the Samurai -- The training and position of woman -- The influence of Bushido -- Is Bushido still alive? Philosophy, Psychology, Religion: Downloads downloads in the last 30 days.
Bushido as an ethical system -- Sources of Bushido -- Rectitude or justice -- Courage, the spirit of daring and bearing -- Benevolence, the feeling of distress -- Politeness -- Veracity or truthfulness -- Honor -- The duty of loyalty -- Education and training of a Samurai -- Self-control -- The institutions of suicide and redress -- The sword, the soul of the Samurai -- The training and position of woman -- The influence of Bushido -- Is Bushido still alive?
Ethics, Social usages, Etiquette, Religion. Japan -- Civilization. Japan -- Social life and customs. Ethics -- Japan. Samurai -- History. Philosophy, Japanese. Read this book online: EPUB with images. EPUB no images. Kindle with images. Hebrew literature it is often difficult to tell whether the writer is speaking of God or of the Commonwealth. This religion or.
These acted more as impulses than as doctrines. I said confusion. Shintoism never pretends to a systematic philosophy or a rational theology. The tenets of Shintoism cover the two predominating features of the emotional life of our race Patriotism and Loyalty.
Next to Confucius. His aristocratic and conservative tone was well adapted to the requirements of these warrior statesmen. His forcible and often quite democratic theories were exceedingly tak- ing to sympathetic natures.
As to strictly ethical doctrines. The calm. Mis enuncia- tion of the five moral relations between master and servant the governing. Mencius exercised immense authority an over Bushido. A mere acquaintance with the classics of these two sages was held. Man and the universe were conceived to be alike spiritual and. Intellect itself was considered subordinate to ethical emotion.
Another compares learn- ing to an ill-smelling vegetable that must be boiled and boiled before it is fit for use. The writings of Confucius and Mencius formed the principal text-books for youths and the highest authority in discussion among the old. A man who has read a little smells a little pedantic. The writer meant thereby that knowledge becomes really such only when it is assimilated in the mind of the learner and shows in his character. An intellectual specialist was considered a machine.
A common proverb ridicules one who has only an intellectual knowledge of Confucius. Bushido could not accept the judgment of Huxley. Making allowance for the terms peculiar to either teaching. It was not pursued as an end in itself. Wan Yang Ming. Western readers will easily recognize in his writings many parallels to the New Testament. Bushidomade light of knowledge as such. He carried his doctrine of the infallibility of conscience to extreme transcendentalism.
If his system had all the logical errors charged to Solipsism. He went as far as. Few and simple as these were. Berkeley and Fichte. The wholesome unsophisticated nature of our warrior ancestors derived ample food for their spirit from a sheaf of commonplace and fragmentary teachings. An acute French savant. While in India and even in China men seem to differ chiefly in degree of energy or intelligence.
Nothing is more loathsome to him than underhand dealings and crooked undertakings. It we make use ot an expression dear to Nietzche. The conception of Rectitude may be erroneous it may be narrow. A well-known bushi defines it as a power of resolution " Rectitude is the. As without bones the head cannot rest on the top of the spine. But I stray from my point. Even in the latter days of feudalism.
How lamentable. When men's fowls and dogs are lost. Rectitude is a twin brother to Valor. But before proceeding to speak of Valor. In its original and unalloyed sense. I speak of Gi-ri. The Forty-seven Faithfuls of whom so much is made in our popular education are known in common parlance as the Forty- seven Gishi. Very rightly did they formulate this authority Giri since if love does not rush to deeds of virtue.
Should not Right Reason be our categorical imperative? Girl primarily meant no more than duty. Giri thus understood is a severe taskmaster. The same is true of any other moral obligation. In these instances Giri is duty. Right Reason steps in to prevent our shirking it. Starting as Right Reason. I deem it a product of the conditions of an artificial society of a society in which acci- dent of birth and unmerited favour instituted class distinctions.
Girl has. Giri became a monstrous It has even degenerated into cowardly fear of censure. I might say of Giri what Scott wrote of patriotism.
Because of this very artificiality. Girl in time degenerated into a vague sense of propriety called up to explain this and sanction that. In his " Analects" Confucius defines Courage by explaining. It harbored under its wings' every sort of sophistry and hypocrisy. Courage was scarcely deemed worthy to be counted among virtues. Courage is doing what is right. Does a little booby What samurai youth " has not heard of " Great Valor and the "Valor of a Villein?
Death for a cause " unworthy of dying for. Precepts of Knighthood. How eagerly and happily the little ones eat! The mother scolds him in this fashion: What will you do when your arm is cut off in battle? What when you are called upon " to commit harakiri? We all know the pathetic fortitude of a famished little boy- prince of Sendai.
Samurai's sons were let down the steep valleys of hardship. Children of tender age were sent among utter strangers with some message to deliver. In the days when decapitation was public. Pilgrim- ages to all sorts of uncanny places to ex- ecution grounds. Occasional deprivation of food or exposure to cold. Does this ultra-Spartan system of" drilling the nerves" strike 'the modern pedagogist with horror and doubt doubt whether the Let us see what other concepts Bushido had of Valor.
The spiritual aspect of valor is evidenced by composure calm presence of mind. Tranquillity is courage in repose. It is a statical manifestation of daringvalor, as deeds arc a dynamical. A truly brave man is ever serene he is never taken by surprise ; ;. In the heat of battle he remains cool ; in the midst of catastrophes he keeps level his mind. Earthquakes do not shake him, he laughs at storms.
We admire him as truly great, who, in the menacing presence of. Such indulgence betraying no tremor in the writing or in the voice, is. It passes current among us as a piece of. Things which are serious to ordinary people, may be but play to the valiant. Hence in old warfare it was not at. Combat was not solely a matter of brute force; it was, as, well, an intellectual. Of such character was the battle fought on the bank of the Koromo River, late in the eleventh century.
The eastern army routed, its leader, Sadato, took to flight. When the. Yoshiie, whose bow had all the while been bent, suddenly unstrung it and turned away, leaving his prospective victim to do as he pleased.
When asked the reason of his strange behavior, he replied that he could not bear to put to shame one who had kept his presence of mind while hotly pursued by hisenemy. The sorrow which overtook Antony and Octavius at the death of Brutus, has been the general experience of brave men. Ken- shin, who fought for fourteen years with Shingen, when he heard of the latter's death, wept aloud at the loss of "the best of enemies.
The Hojo prince wishing him.
When valor attains this height. Virtue is the root. How often both Confucius and Mencius repeat the highest requirement of a ruler of men to consist in benevolence. We needed no Shakespeare to feel though.. Confucius would say. Benevolence was deemed a princely virtue in a twofold sense. It is impossible that any one should become ruler of the people to whom they have not yielded the subjection of their hearts.
Benevo- ' lence Benevolence is Man. Let it be far from me to uphold despotism When Frederick the " the Great wrote that Kings are first. Strangely coinciding in time, in the backwoods of North-western Japan, Yozan of Yonezawa made exactly the same declaration, showing that feudalism was not all tyranny and oppression.
A feudal prince, although unmindful of owing reciprocal obligations to his vassals, felt a higher sense of responsibility to his- ancestors and to Heaven. He was a father to his subjects, whom Heaven entrusted to his care. In a sense not usually assigned to the term, Bushido accepted and corroborated paternal government paternal also as opposed to the less interested avuncular government Uncle Sam's, to wit!
The difference between a despotic and a paternal govern- ment lies in this, that in the one the. Virtue and absolute power may strike thf.
Pobyedonostseft has clearly set before us the contrast in the foundations of English and other European communities ; namely that these were organ- ized on the basis of common interest, while that was distinguished by a strongly de-. What this Russian statesman says of the personal. Absolutism," says Bismarck, primarily demands in the ruler impartiality, honesty, devotion to duty, energy and inward humili-. Coblenz, in which he spoke of "Kingship, by the grace of God, with its heavy duties, its tremendous responsibility to the Creator alone, from which no man, no minister, no parliament, can release the monarch.
If upright Rectitude. We were warned against indulging in indiscriminate. Masamune expressed it well in " his oft-quotedaphorism Rectitude carried to excess hardens Into stiffness;. As economists speak of demand as being effectual or ineffectual. Priding themselves as they did in their brute strength and privileges to turn it into account.
TIae tibi erunt artes pacisque imponere morem. If the well-known lines. It is indeed striking how closely the code of knightly honor of one country coincides with that of others. Parcere subjectis. Benevolence to the weak. Lovers The sword of Kumagaye shall never be tarnished by a drop of thy blood.
Now the etiquette of war required that on such occasions no blood should be spilt. In that terrible battle of Sumano-ura. The grim combatant would have the name of the man under him but he refusing to make it. Helping the youth to his feet. The rider was once a warrior who in his day made his name a by-word of terror. Haste and flee o'er yon pass before thy enemies " come in sightThe young warrior refused!
In an instant the sword flashes in the air. Above the hoary head of the veteran gleams the cold blade. When the war is ended. Finding all his entreaties vain and hearing the approaching steps of his comrades.
Critics may point out flaws in this story. Polybius tells us of the Constitution of Arcadia. For decades before we heard of the Geneva Convention. It was an old maxim among them that "It becometh not the fowler to slay the bird which takes refuge in his bosom.
In the principality of Satsuma. Pity it and Love. Let it be: Our poetry has therefore a strong undercurrent of pathos and tenderness. A well-known It is to its 'influence that he attributes the absence of cruelty in that part of the Arcadian mountains. A Prince of Shirakawa jots down his random thoughts. Nor was Satsuma the only place in Japan where gentleness was inculcated among the warrior class. When he was told to learn versification. Our pithy.
To hear the uguisu's song. Every- body of any education was either a poet or a poetaster. Politeness is a poor virtue. Not infrequently a marching soldier might be seen to halt. Modesty and complaisance. The cultivation of tender feelings breeds considerate regard for the sufferings of others.
What Christianity has done in Europe toward rousingcompassion in the midst of belligerent horrors. It also implies a due regard for the fitness of things. We may reverently say. If we analyze it. In its highest form. While or rather - because was exalted as peculiar to the it profession of arms. While thus extolling Politeness. I admit that there may be unneces- sary niceties in ceremonious etiquette. A man of education is. Confucius himself has repeatedly taught that external appurtenances are as little a part of proprie- ty as sounds are of music When propriety was elevated to the sine qua non of social intercourse.
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Very fitly does Mr. It has been criticized as absorbing too much of our thought and in so far a folly to observe strict obedience to it. Table manners grew to be a science.
Tea serving and drinking were raised to a ceremony. How one must bow in accosting others. To a novice it looks tedious. I might say. But one soon discovers that the way prescribed is.
Even fashions I do not consider solely as freaks of vanity. Much less do consider elaborate ceremony as I altogether trivial. I look upon these as a ceaseless search of the human mind for the beautiful. The spiritual significance of social de- corum. The tea ceremony presents certain definite ways of manipulating a bowl. Spencer defines grace as the most economical manner of motion.
But they all united in the ultimate essential. I have said that etiquette was elaborated into the finest niceties. Spencer and trace in our ceremonial institutions their origins and the moral motives that gave rise to them. It is the moral training involved in strict observance of propriety.
I might follow the example of Mr. When the barbarian Gauls. Is lofty spiritual at- tainment really possible through etiquette? Why not? All roads lead to Rome! As an example of how the simplest thing can be made into an art and then become spiritual culture. If the premise is true that gracefulness means economy of force. I may take Cha-no-yu. Fine manners. Tea-sipping as a fine art!
Why should it not be? In the children drawing pictures on the sand. The scrupulous cleanliness of the little room. The bare interior does not engross one's attention like the innumerable pictures and bric-a-brac of a Western parlor.
The utmost refinement of taste is the object aimed at. How much more the drinking of a beverage. That calmness of mind. Cha-no-yu is more than a ceremony it is a fine art. Politeness will be a great acquisition. Not infrequently the other phases preponderated in the mind of its votaries.
Before entering the quiet precincts of the tea-room. Its greatest value lies in this last phase. For propriety. Its requirement is that we. Such didactic requirement. They are the "bodying forth" of thoughtful feelings for the comfort of others. I will share your discomforts. How foolish! The underlying idea with you is. Every foreigner who has observed it will confess the awkwardness he felt in making proper reply upon the occasion.
You will not accept anything I can lay at your feet except as a token of my good will. It will be an insult to your worth to call the best gift good enough for you. In America.
To the question. It is perverse reasoning to conclude. A Chinese sage answers. Take a piece of wood a foot thick and above the pinnacle of a raise it temple.
Which is more important. From the Chinese ideogram for Sincerity. The regard for veracity was so high that. Lying or equivocation were deemed equally cowardly.
Platonic doctrine of Logos to such height does the sage soar in his unwonted mystic flight. His word carried such weight with it that promises were generally made and fulfilled without a written pledge. The bushi held that his high social position demanded a loftier standard of veracity than that of the trades- man and peasant. I am well aware that they did swear by different deities or upon their swords. The Gist of Japany p.
To emphasize our words a practice of literally sealing with blood was some- times resorted to. Lowell tellsus that Wordsworth could not dis- tinguish between truth and fact. I need only refer my readers to Goethe's Faust. A recent American writer is responsible for this statement.
For the explanation of such a practice.
Ask a Japanese. I own I am speaking now of the Bushido idea of veracity. The merchant was placed lowest in the category of vocations. Of all the great occupations of life. The samurai derived his income from land and could even indulge. A loose business morality has indeed been the worst blot on our national reputation. Professor Dill. We knew the wis- dom of this social arrangement. The separation of power and riches kept the distribution of the latter more nearly equable.
The obloquy attached to the calling naturally brought within its pale such as cared little for social repute. Montes- quieu has made it clear that the debarring of the nobility from mercantile pursuits was an admirable social policy.
Those who are well acquainted with our history will remember that only a few years This being the case. Our merchants of the feudal period had one among themselves. Was Bushido powerless to stay the current of commercial dishonor? Let us see. When we know that eighty per cent. Now you may ask. Of the three incentives to Veracity that Lecky enumerates. As to the second. Honesty I am told that " is the best policy.
I am afraid Bushido would rather indulge in lies! If it is followed because it brings in more cash than falsehood. It is in its philosophical. In what respects. Lecky has very truly remarked that Veracity owes its growth largely to commerce and manufacture. Is not this virtue. With all my sincere regard for the high commer- cial integrity of the Anglo-Saxon race. Japan in Transition. Veracity was like a blue- blood orphan whom only the most cultivated mind could adopt and nourish Such minds were general among the samurai.
With- out this mother. Already our merchants are finding that out. Bismarck sent a circular to the profes- sional consuls of the German Empire. Veracity will prove an easy. For the rest I recommend the reader to two recent writers for well-weighed judgment on this point.
Industries advancing. Just think. I shall say nothing against being ridiculed in " In case I fail to public. Often have I wondered whether the Vera- city of Bushido had any motive higher than courage. It was quite a usual thing to insert such clauses as these: In the absence of any positive commandment against bearing false witness. As a matter of fact. The sense of honor.
Such a recourse to his honor touched the most sensitive spot in the child's heart. Few incidents in history excel in pathos the scene of the first mother plying with heaving breast and tremulous fingers. All the sartorial ingenuity of mankind has not yet succeeded in sewing an apron that will efficaciously hide our sense of shame.
That samurai was right who refused to compromise his character by a slight humiliation in his youth. This first fruit of disobedience clmgs to us with a tenacity that nothing else does. The first and worst punishment which befell humanity in consequence of tasting "the fruit of that forbidden tree" was. In the name of Honor.
The story of a well- meaning citizen who called the attention of a bushi to a flea jumping on his back. At the slightest.
The morbid excess into which the delicate code of honor was inclined to run was strongly counterbalanced by preaching magnanimity and patience. To take offense at slight provocation was ridiculed as " short- tempered. It is plainly unfair to take an abnormal case to cast blame upon the Precepts.
Haste not. A literary wit put a characteristic epigram into the mouths of three well-known per-. In one " place he writes to this effect: Though you denude yourself and insult me, what is that to me? You cannot defile my soul by your outrage.
To what height of unmartial and unresist-. Take, for instance, this saying of Ogawa: Heaven loves me and others with equal love; therefore with the love wherewith thou lovest thyself, love others. Make not Man thy partner but Heaven, and making Heaven thy partner do thy best.
Never condemn others; but see to it that thou comest not short of thine own mark. Not only did these sayings remain as utterances, but they were really embodied in acts. It must be admitted that very few attained this sublime height of magnanimity, patience and forgiveness.
It was a great pity that nothing clear and general was expressed as to what constitutes Honor, only a few " enlightened minds being aware that it from no condition rises," but that it lies in each acting well his part for nothing was easier:. Said this sage, " 'Tis in every man's mind to love honor:. The honor which men confer is not good honor.
Those whom Chao the Great ennobles, he can make mean again. When the castle fell. In the many years that you may live. In the memorable siege of Osaka.
They knew that honor won in youth grows with age. Of the causes in comparison with which no life was too dear to sacrifice. Other virtues feudal morality shares in common with other systems of ethics.
Bushido, the Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobe
In spite of Hegel's criticism that the I am aware that personal fidelity is a moral adhesion existing among all sorts and conditions of men. Life itself was thought cheap if honor and fame could be attained therewith: Montesquieu com- plained long ago that right on one side of the Pyrenees was wrong on the other.
In America where " every- body is as good as anybody else. Bismarck had good rea- son to do so. Strict search for hisson not yet grown reveals the fact of his being secreted in a village school kept by one Genzo.
At the risk of shocking some of my good readers. I am afraid. Not content with this. In the privacy of home both had laid themselves upon the altar. He ponders over his school-list. Unwitting of what had passed be- tween them.
No less conscious of the resemblance be- tween infant lord and infant retainer. The rest of the narrative may be briefly told. His despair. Will he be deceived by the false head?
The poor Genzo's hand is on the On the day appointed. He himself could not be untrue to his own cruel master but. The officer takes up the gruesome object before him. Her father-in-law hasbeen for a long time a recipient of Michizane's bounties. That evening in a lonely home awaits the mother we saw in the school.
Now the day'syea. Does she know the fate of her child? It is not for his return that she watches with eagerness for the opening of the wicket. As one acquainted with the exile's family. This interest it bound up with affection natural.
Do In both cases it was obedience to the call of duty. The individualism of the West. We see him afterward praying with all his soul that kind Heaven may visit him with death. Many a Shigemori has his heart torn by the between duty and affection.
Sanyo relates in touching language the heart struggle of Shigemori concerning his father's rebellious conduct "If I be loyal. Since Bushido. Ever as resolute as Widow Windham and her illustrious consort. These are words which do not impress us as any thing extraordinary.
Among others he makes them the laws. I am not entirely ignorant of Mr. Loyalty is an ethical outcome of this political theory. Spencer's view according to which political obedience Loyalty is accredited with only a tran- sitional function.
Readers of Crito will remember the argument with which Socrates represents the laws of the city as pleading with him on the subject of his escape. Sufficient unto the day is the virtue thereof. Suppose his induction is realized will loyalty and its concomitant instinct of reverence disappear forever? We transfer our allegiance from one master to another. Spencer pre- dicts. A few years ago a very stupid controversy. Little did we " serve they know that can.
His conscience he followed. In their zeal to uphold the claim of the throne to undivided loyalty. Thomas Mowbray was a veritable spokesman for us when he said: Alack the day when a state grows so powerful as to demand of its citizens the dictates of their conscience!
Bushido did not require us to make our conscience the slave of any lord or king. Such an one was despised as nei-shin. To dark dishonor's use. In cases of this kind. When a subject differed from liis master. Failing in this. Despite of death. My life thou shalt command.
The one my duty owes but my. Life being regarded as the means whereby to serve his master. Indispensable as they were to a man of culture.
I. Nitobe - Bushido - The Soul of Japan.pdf
Intellectual superiority was. The first point to observe in knightly pedagogics was to build up character. We have seen the important part aesthetic accomplishments played in his education.
A samurai was essentially a man of action. Yu t respectively Wisdom. Like an English poet the samurai believed " 'tis not the creed that saves the man. Science was without the pale of his activity. He took advantage of -it in so far as -it concerned his profession of arms.
From what has been said. Religion and theology were relegated to the priests. Jiu- jittsu be briefly defined as an application may of anatomical knowledge to the purpose of offense or defense.
It differs from other forms of attack in that it uses no weapon. Its object is not to but to incapacitate one for action kill. A subject of study which one would expect to find in military education and which is rather conspicuous by its absence in the Bushtdo course of instruction. Not only that. It differs from wrestling.
Its feat consists in clutching or striking such part of the enemy's body as will make him numb and incapable of resistance. Chivalry is uneconomical. It is to him veritably filthy lucre. Knowledge of numbers was indispensable in He disdains money itself. It was considered bad taste to speak of it. In many feudatories. Every thinking bushi knew well enough that money formed the sinews of war. Not so with the Precepts of Knighthood. It is true that thrift was enjoined by Bushido.
We read that in ancient Rome the farmers of revenue and other financial agents were gradually raised to the rank of knights. How closely this was connected with the luxury and avarice of the Romans may be imagined. Luxury was thought the greatest menace to manhood. These persisted in systematic- ally regarding finance as something low low Of the three services of studies that Bacon gives.
Bushido itself could long remain free from a thousand and one evils of which money is the root. Bushido had decided preference for the last. People whose minds were simply stored with information found no great admirers. Very few abstract subjects troubled the mind of the young. The mental discipline which would now- a-days be chiefly aided by the study of mathematics.
This is sufficient reason for the fact that our public men have long been free from corruption. Spiritual service. He was a father to the fatherless. It believed in a which can be rendered only without service money and without price.
A man to evoke such confidence and respect from the young. Thy father and thy mother so runs our maxim " are like heaven and earth. Usage sanctioned that pupils brought to their teachersmoney or goods at different seasons of the year. They were grave personifications of high spirits un- daunted by adversity.
Being immeasurable. Plere the non-arithmetical honor-instinct of Bushido taught a truer lesson than modern Political Economy. Yet we are really as susceptible to tender emotion as any race under the sky.
I am inclined to think that in one sense we have to feel more than others yes. I say apparent stoi- cism. The discipline of fortitude on the one hand. A father could embrace his son only at the expense of his dignity. I remember when. Imagine boys and girls too brought up not to resort to the shedding of a tear or the uttering of a groan for the relief of their feelings.
Itwas considered unmanly for a samurai to betray his emotions on his face. The most natural affections were kept under control. I know of a father who spent whole nights listening to the breathing of a sick child. On this occasion an American resident resorted to the place. In domestic life. Our history and everyday life are replete with examples of heroic matrons who can well bear com- parison with some of the most touching pages of Plutarch.
Among our peasantry an Ian To give in so many articulate words one's inmost thoughts and feelings notably the is taken religious among us as an unmistaka- ble sign that they are neither very profound It is truly jarring to Japanese ears to hear the most sacred words. It is putting a premium upon a breach of the third commandment to encourage speaking lightly of spiritual experience.
Disturb it not It is with speech. Maclaren would be sure to find many a Marget Howe. In rare instances is the tongue set freeby an irresistible spirit.
It is the same discipline of self-restraint which is accountable for the absence of more frequent revivals in the Christian churches of Japan. When a man or woman feels his or her soul stirred. At first you may think him hysterical.
Press him for explanation and you will get a few broken commonplaces " Human life has sorrow. Speech is very often with us. So the noble words of a noble Hohenzollern " " Lerne zu leiden ohne Klagen had found many responsive minds among us.
It is a counterpoise of sorrow or rage. I wonder. The suppression of feelings being thus steadily insisted upon. Has gone my hunter of the dragon-fly I" I refrain from quoting other examples. I think we possess a better reason than Dcmocritus him- Abderian tendency for laughter self for our.
I hope I have in a measure shown The next ques- tion is. It can force pliant This is plausible as far as it goes. It has also been suggested that our en- durance of pain and indifference to death are due to less sensitive nerves.
I believe it was our very excitability and sensitiveness which made it a necessity to recognize and enforce constant self-repression. It may be that we do not read Sartor Resartns as zealously as the Englishman. It may be our monarchical form of government does not excite us as much as the Republic does the Frenchman. Why are our nerves less tightly strung? It may be our climate is not so stimulating as the American. Discipline in self-control can easily go too far.
Be a virtue never so noble. We must recognize in each virtue its own positive -excellence and follow its positive ideal. It can beget bigotry. The acme of self-control is reached and best illustrated in the first of the two insti- tutions which we shall now bring to view. To begin with suicide. How absurd! Absurdly odd as it may sound at first to foreign ears.
In our minds this mode of death is associated with instances of noblest deeds and of most touching pathos. Whoever has read the swan- song which Addison makes Cato sing. So wonderful is the trans- forming power of virtue. The Semites habitually spoke of the liver and kidneys and surrounding fat as the seat of emotion and of life.
The French. The term hara was more comprehensive than the Greek phren or thwnos. When Moses wrote of Joseph's " bowels yearning upon his brother. Not for extraneous associations only does seppnku lose in our mind any taint of ab- surdity. Jeremiah and other inspired men of old spoke of the "sounding" or the " " troubling of bowels. See for yourself whether it is polluted or clean. This view of mental physiology once ad- mitted.
Des- cartes. Similarly entrallies stands in their language for affection Nor is such and compassion. Without asking a friar. Death's but a sure retreat from infamy. How many acqui- esced in the sentiment expressed by Garth. I dare say that many good Christians.
Petronius and a host of other ancient worthies.
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