THE PENGUIN HISTORY OF MODERN CHINA PDF
Register Free To Download Files | File Name: The Penguin History Of Modern China The Fall And Rise Of A Great Power To The. Present 2nd Edit PDF. In , China was the 'sick man of Asia'. Now it is set to become the most powerful nation on cittadelmonte.info Penguin History of Modern China. Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power (–). Jonathan Fenby. London: Allen Lane.
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The Search for Modern China Jonathan D. Spence PDF. Sea Power Admiral James Stavridis USN PDF The History and Geopolitics of the World's Oceans. The Penguin History of the World J M Roberts 6th edition. The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, - by Jonathan Fenby. Read online, or download in secure EPUB format. The Penguin history of modern China: the fall and rise of a great power, [Jonathan Fenby] Inhaltsverzeichnis download (pdf). Close. Add library to.
Fenby's account gives full range to an amazing cast of grotesques Highly readable. Fenby's biography is more than just a vivid portrait of a loathsome leader. It is also a modern tragedy on an enormous scale. A fascinating portrait. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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The rulers held powers of taxation. Since they could not do all this. Court censors were meant to keep emperors informed of matters affecting government and the people. Headmen kept a register of everybody in each group. Rather than acting as 'fathers' for their districts.
The Penguin History of Modern China by Jonathan Fenby (ebook)
Many were locals who used their knowledge to maximum personal advantage. They were appointed for a spell of only three years to any one district and so lacked local roots. These men had studied administration and have been rated by a historian of local government under the Qing as 'respected as men of integrity'. They took a cut of salaries that went through their hands and charged for work on legal cases.
When they started out. One law suit can bankrupt an entire family. Peasants in Henan province complained that they were 'more ferocious than demons. Another 20 per cent had bought their degrees and the rest been elevated by such channels as 'recommendation' or recognition of their 'meritorious record'.
The administrative code laid down from Beijing was rigid and did not take account of regional differences and requirements.
If he does approve. One reformer reckoned that they were the true holders of power in China. While they can be seen as a class. You need money to lodge a complaint and.
And every step along the way requires money. The fees they levied were. Their enforcers. They were meant to have absorbed the Chinese tradition by having passed the rigorous three-stage imperial examination rooted in Confucian classicism. When a gentryman invoked classical values. Their sons made up most of the candidates in the imperial examinations. Most were landowners. As the century drew on. Memorials to the throne denounced bad behaviour by officials. By the mid-century. Though meant to be impartial.
By offering material advancement to clever young people. Though China may have accounted for a third of the world's wealth. At the centre. They arbitrated land disputes. The system was beautifully designed to capture the best and brightest for the regime. Dissent was equated with disloyalty. Buying of land by merchants. Disorder spread in the countryside. The throne dispatched an energetic commissioner.
Taxes were still sufficient to cover outlays. After an affray at the mouth of the Pearl River involving British sailors. After initially agreeing and seeing their stocks of the drug thrown into the Pearl River. Zong Zizhen. Commissioner Lin wrote to Queen Victoria to ask why her government outlawed opium at home but encouraged its export to China.
Lin Zexu. But the traders took no notice and the government in London backed the commerce to compensate for the boom in imports of tea from China. His successor. The Han Chinese elite was. Social cohesion was breaking down and economic disparities rising. The island of Hong Kong was seized.
By the late s. Huge pillaging of the treasury by Qianlong's favourite came to light. An attempt to strengthen imperial finances by cutting official salaries aroused resentment among those on whom the dynasty depended. The First Opium War. One thing his court did do. Lord Palmerston. Seven years later. British citizens were granted immunity from Chinese law.
Ningpo now Ningbo and Shanghai. He told a mandarin that the foreigners were 'not worth attending to'. The result was 'an informal empire' of foreigners in a country that was too big to be colonized. The country's primary troubles stemmed from domestic sources. Surrounded by tributary states that paid allegiance to Beijing. After the British came the French.
Americans also arrived. A censor dismissed the British as 'an insignificant and detestable race' while another official put them 'in the class of dogs and horses'. Humiliating as the experience was. Since they had no aspirations to take the Mandate of Heaven.
The dynasty's mindset was rooted in the great arc of territory from its homeland in Manchuria through Mongolia to Tibet and Xinjiang. The Treaty of Nanjing of 1 8 4 2. A disproportionate role in China's troubles would subsequently be attributed to this intervention.
Foochow now Fuzhou. As well as being compensated for the narcotics destroyed by the commissioner and being allowed to continue the opium trade. They took charge of Canton and moved up to the Yangzi. A t sunset we rest. The sheer size and diversity of the country made it very difficult to administer. Though they would develop a racial consciousness in opposition to the Manchus. Mongols and Tibetans. The first was divided. W e till the fields and eat. A mandarin from Beijing or an old-school scholar from the ancient imperial capital of Xi'an had little in common with a merchant from Shanghai.
In cities. While people paid obeisance to the ruler. Feuds over land divided communities. The north had more migrant workers. Farm yields were higher in the south than the north. W h a t is the might of the emperor to us? Fragmentation was accentuated by mutually incomprehensible verbal linguistic groups. The conquests of their predecessors meant that they ruled a country made up of two very different sections. W e dig wells and drink. Each province. As lines in the Confucian Book of Odes put it: W e get up at sunrise.
Big Sword. Many provinces were cut off from one another by natural barriers. For foreign visitors. Most regions were self-sufficient. Each city had its own god. Northern China was subject to both droughts and floods. The disparities of the nation were accentuated by variations of climate and topography. Official restrictions on the movement of grain. Different ones were required for different transactions. Red Eyebrows. The value of coins varied from one province to another.
Peripheral communities existed in virtual isolation. Though Confucius. Urban streets were open sewers. Long Spear. The vagaries of the weather and demands of agriculture made irrigation a vital skill. In the north. China seemed an unchanging land. French Indochinese and Spanish dollars circulated. The malicious River Dragon of the Han River was said to conjure up adverse winds and plant rocks in the path of boats.
Red Beards. Sects outlasted all attempts at suppression. Yellow Turbans. Wuchang for government and the military. The Middle Yangzi was dominated by three cities making up the conurbation of Wuhan. At the southern end of the Grand Canal.
The second half of the eighteenth century had seen the flowering of a rich merchant elite. Pawnshops were common. The salt manufacturers of Zhidong in Sichuan pioneered highly capitalized and productive enterprises. They showed off their ease by breakfasting at two in the afternoon. The pursuit of material gain was seen as the enemy of morality and harmony. With coal mines located far from the main cities. Market towns formed a vital link between villages and the surrounding region.
Lack of elementary hygiene nurtured plagues and pestilences. Like education. That is not to say that China was entirely the static. Opium merchants thrived as the drug became an integral part of the economy. Machinery was rare. Hankou for commerce and Hanyang for industry.
At the junction of land and water routes. But commerce ranked at the bottom of the Confucian scale of values. Lying at the confluence of four big rivers. Agriculture dominated. Plots could be tiny. China was in what the historian Mark Elvin has termed a 'high-level equilibrium trap' which has also been described as 'involution'. T a x farming was inefficient. Infrastructure was decaying. Gentry refused to pay. Handicrafts continued to dominate manufacturing. Contractors made sure that the dykes along the Yellow River were badly maintained so that they would have regular work when the waters flooded over into the neighbouring countryside.
Most goods and crops were sold locally. The demand for silver to pay for imports raised the price of the metal. The system was not broken. T a x revolts flared up. With agriculture estimated to have accounted for almost 70 per cent of the gross national product. Dependent on traditional levies. Imperial highways formed an impressive network radiating out from Beijing.
The common copper cash currency depreciated. The defensive walls of towns were allowed to crumble as the money allocated to their repair went into the pockets of officials. All of which appeared to the Chinese and their rulers to be quite acceptable.
The diet was sparse and unvaried. Small farmers who could not make a living from their fields were forced to offer their services to landlords. Growing poppies became an increasingly attractive source of farm income as the domestic crop competed with the drugs imported by the British. The uncertainties of rural life made banditry an attractive proposition for young men who. The self-policing system in villages and towns was abused by headmen who used it to do down rivals.
Some gangs were linked to anti-Manchu societies which looked back to the last Han dynasty. The regime's Chinese 'Green Standard' troops frequently lived on plunder. Many of the descendants of the original soldiers who conquered China in had become parasitical. Imperial forces were backward. Hunan and Guizhou provinces in 1 8 5 0 demanded The price of metal meant that tools were mainly made of wood.
Some claimed to rob from the rich to help the poor. The result was a deterioration of law and order. Salt and meat were rare treats. The mass of peasants provided an endless flow of cheap labour. Most peasants lived on the edge of subsistence in homes of earth and mud. Generals pocketed the pay of their men. Though the emperor supposedly had a monopoly on maintaining armed forces. As a song put it after a string of calamities in eastern China: This year famine.
N e x t year flood. There were earthquakes.
Moneylenders showed no pity to debtors. Year after year the crops are a failure by what appears an act of G o d. Special prayers in the Forbidden City failed to produce an improvement. When the debt comes due. Or they ate ground-up stones. Famine swept through Guangxi in the south. In famine areas. The disasters fanned a string of large-scale uprisings.
Or they resorted to cannibalism. Deep in debt. The Yangzi and Yellow rivers both flooded. Then the farm animals are eaten. Lack of rain hit the grain crop. Their men were more motivated. Drawing membership from river pirates. Rebel generals often proved better than imperial commanders. Known as the Nien. Other Muslims revolted in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
(PDF Download) The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power 1850
The Daoguang emperor died in 1 8 5 0 and was succeeded by Xianfeng. Further west. Guangxi experienced fifty-four risings in a decade. In isolated Yunnan. Triad members of the century-old Heaven and Earth Society staged anti-dynastic risings. In both provinces. In the hard-hit central-eastern region. His crusade was rooted strongly in the tribulations of the peasants.
Those w h o are half-poor-half-rich can till their fields. Hong Xiuquan. Those with ambitions but no cash should go with us. As a Taiping song put it: Those with millions owe us their money. Land and treasure would be shared out. The Manchus wanted to 'reduce the number of us Chinese'. Broke or hungry. Heaven will keep you well.
It was not all plain sailing. Its leader. As a prefect in the wild Guizhou region lamented: He identified these devils as the Manchus.
He proclaimed himself the son of the Christian God after making a connection between a missionary tract and a delirious vision in which he ascended into the sky to meet a bearded.
As soon as he has gone.
The emperor wrote that his anger at the loss of the city was 'greater than I can bear'. Heading east. This had already begun with the formation of local forces to carry out police duties and ward off bandits.
Other armies ranged along the Yangzi. By the time it reached the great river. One got to within 1 0 0 miles of Beijing before being halted by bad winter weather and the mobilization of militia by the merchants of Tianjin. It captured the three Wuhan cities.
Salvation came from gentry leaders who saw the rebels as a visceral threat to their position. Ties between gentry chiefs in different provinces enabled them to put together large armies which drew on local roots.
Four lieutenants. But they abrogated taxation powers to pay for these outfits. Wuhan changed hands several times. Manchus there were systematically butchered. Their primary motivation was self-defence. Their armies rampaged through a dozen provinces. All were in their twenties or thirties. Since the central government could not cope. So as not to break the imperial monopoly on the right to raise armed forces. He wore a crown and a robe embroidered with a dragon. Eighty years on. It was time for action.
Zeng preferred literati scholars to military men. His approach rested on the idealized Chinese family. Zeng Guofan. The Taiping revolt. The army's local roots meant that it could draw on the clannish sentiments of the villagers and on rural Han groups which would not necessarily have rallied to the Manchu standard had the call come from Beijing. Chiang Kai-shek would seek to follow Zeng's example against the outlaws threatening his regime.
In recruiting subordinates. A memorial he wrote to the throne expressed his concern that officials were being appointed for their 'smart demeanour and smooth speech' instead of having their ability properly evaluated.
Zeng was not the best of field commanders. While the Taiping could stigmatize the dynasty as foreign devils. It was rooted in the villages to which peasants owed their main allegiance. The web of contacts between them created a seedbed for men who would run China below court level in the next decades.
The Penguin history of modern China : the fall and rise of a great power, 1850-2009
Zeng warned that. N o fewer than twenty-seven of Zeng's officers went on to become provincial governors. But all they had in common was their opposition to the Manchu rulers.
The mandarin in charge of suppressing a revolt in Canton boasted of having beheaded the symbolic number of Beijing accepted a dual system of government in the area. Their soldiers did not always live up to Zeng's Confucian ideals.
Taking their relative lengths into account. China's strife exacted a much higher death toll than the partly contemporaneous American Civil War. Allying terror and carefully plotted strategy.
Had the rebels formed an alliance. A British-led force moved in. For his part. At times. Zeng and his peers had to conduct an extremely long and bitter conflict. Discipline deteriorated. In effect. The consul in Canton called for help from the colony as British houses were burned and a price was put on the heads of foreigners.
Looting spread. Faced with imminent defeat. There were riots and looting. Xianfeng replied that their son would ascend the throne.
The British and French then joined forces to seek the full opening of China to their goods. Though only thirty. Then he died. The main force pressed on. It was wretchedly demoralising work for an army. As the emperor lay close to death. By August 1 8 6 1. Charles Gordon. Thirty foreign soldiers were captured. A Mongol general organized successful resistance.
The city was taken after an assault on its forts from the rear. He had only one son. A Manchu prince and a group of senior officials. The imperial army was in no mood to fight. The Westerners arrived outside Beijing and set fire to the imperial Summer Palace in reprisal for the ill-treatment of prisoners taken on the earlier advance.
Eighty thousand unpaid. After her death in 1 9 0 8. Taken to the capital. This marked the emergence of one of the most extraordinary figures in modern history. This meant abandoning a plan for her to marry Jung-lu. Her enemies alleged that the boy emperor was actually their son. At the end of the month. She was compared to the Tang dynasty ruler Wu. Born into a noble but undistinguished Manchu family in Anhui province in 1 8 3 5. T w o princes allied with him were allowed to hang themselves.
But it was still intent on eliminating any opposition and set an ambush for the two imperial women as they made their way back to the capital. Five others were disgraced. The Sushun group had a major problem. The concubine's former suitor and cousin. Gong's troops captured the censor and his colleagues as they travelled south with Xianfeng's body.
Cixi was said to have had a 'sweet feminine voice'. In keeping with the rules. The lurid portrait was based largely on rumour and the imaginative writings of an English forger and pornographer living in Beijing. Machiavellian court in the Forbidden City. Her clothes filled 3. Going to the extreme of the great-women-of-history approach. But it also owed much to the Chinese tradition of inventing scandal about dead rulers. The story spun by this homosexual native of Darlington was artfully pitched to fit Western preconceptions about the mysterious.
As the British head of the Customs. Edmund Backhouse. Though court regulations set a ceiling of a dozen on the number of maids anybody should have. John Bland. Her jewels were ornate and extremely valuable. Aware of the nature of a female regency. Like Wu and Lii. In the s. Was the prime loyalty to China.
Did China or the Manchus come first? What would happen if the two diverged. With the growth of commerce. After the battle. Shanghai was conveniently sited as a channel for Chinese products the world wanted.
Linked to the interior by the Yangzi and close to the Grand Canal. The city had grown hugely since being opened up as a trade port by the Treaty of Nanjing forced on the Qing by the British in 1 8 4 2. Western banks moved in. As her long rule drew on. The next flashpoint was Shanghai. Trade boomed. Imperial troops were a rabble who would have little chance against the To maintain that and to preserve the Qing from the dangers lapping around the throne.
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