ESSENTIALS OF CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT PDF
Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. In this seventh edition of Essentials of Contemporary Management, the focus continues to be on providing the most up-to-date account of the changes taking. Why Study Management? 6. Essential Managerial Tasks 7. Flanning. 8. Manager as a Person: Joe. Coulombe Knows How to Make an Organization Work.
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PDF | On Jan 8, , Gareth R Jones and others published DOWNLOAD [PDF] Essentials of Contemporary Management by. Full file at cittadelmonte.info Edition-Jones-Test-Bank Chapter 02 Values, Attitudes, Emotions, and Culture. Pdf Essentials of Contemporary Management by Gareth R Jones, Jennifer M George Pdf Essentials of Contemporary Management PDF Pdf Essentials of.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Hjiqr9 7dr9ii. Full file at https: Personality traits are the enduring tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways. True False 2. The effectiveness of managers is determined by a complex interaction between the characteristics of managers and the nature of the job and organization in which they are working.
Psychologist David McClelland has extensively researched the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. Define these needs. What are the two types of personal values? Define job satisfaction and discuss why it is so important for managers to be satisfied with their jobs. Discuss organizational commitment and its relationship to organizational culture. Differentiate between moods and emotions. How do moods and emotions affect the organization?
Define the concept of emotional intelligence. How does having emotional intelligence help managers? What is organizational culture? Explain the attraction-selection-attrition ASA framework. How does it help explain the formation of organizational cultures? Differentiate between terminal and instrumental values. How do they contribute to the organizational culture? What is socialization? How does it help an organization? Explain what organizational rites are. What are the different types?
Give one example of each. Explain how culture influences the way managers perform their four main functions: TRUE All people, including managers, have certain enduring characteristics that influence how they think, feel, and behave both on and off the job.
These characteristics are personality traits: Analytic Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: Enduring Characteristics: TRUE No single trait is right or wrong for being an effective manager.
Rather, effectiveness is determined by a complex interaction between the characteristics of managers and the nature of the job and organization in which they are working. Moreover, personality traits that enhance managerial effectiveness in one situation may impair it in another. Personality Traits 3. FALSE Personality traits that enhance managerial effectiveness in one situation may impair it in another.
FALSE Managers who are low on extraversion may be highly effective and efficient, especially when their jobs do not require much social interaction.
Their quieter approach may enable them to accomplish quite a bit of work in limited time. Personality Traits 5. TRUE Negative affectivity is the tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, feel distressed, and be critical of oneself and others. Managers high on this trait may often feel angry and dissatisfied and complain about their own and others' lack of progress.
FALSE Managers who are low on agreeableness may be somewhat distrustful of others, unsympathetic, uncooperative, and even at times antagonistic. Personality Traits 7. TRUE Being high on agreeableness may be especially important for managers whose responsibilities require that they develop good, close relationships with others. Nevertheless, a low level of agreeableness may be an asset in managerial jobs that actually require that managers be antagonistic, such as drill sergeants and some other kinds of military managers.
TRUE Conscientiousness is the tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering. Managers who are high on the conscientiousness continuum are organized and self-disciplined; those who are low on this trait might sometimes appear to lack direction and self-discipline.
Personality Traits 9. TRUE Managers who are low on openness to experience may be less prone to take risks and more conservative in their planning and decision making. In certain organizations and positions, this tendency might be an asset.
FALSE People with an internal locus of control believe they themselves are responsible for their own fate; they see their own actions and behaviors as being major and decisive determinants of important outcomes. Managers need an internal locus of control because they are responsible for what happens in organizations; they need to believe they can and do make a difference.
Personality Traits FALSE Managers need an internal locus of control because they are responsible for what happens in organizations; they need to believe they can and do make a difference.
Moreover, managers are responsible for ensuring that organizations and their members behave in an ethical fashion, and for this as well they need an internal locus of control—they need to know and feel they can make a difference.
FALSE The need for achievement is the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence. FALSE Research suggests that high needs for achievement and for power are assets for first-line and middle managers and that a high need for power is especially important for upper-level managers.
A high need for affiliation may not always be desirable in managers because it might lead them to try too hard to be liked by others rather than doing all they can to ensure that performance is as high as it can and should be.
TRUE The two kinds of personal values are terminal and instrumental. A terminal value is a personal conviction about lifelong goals or objectives; an instrumental value is a personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving.
Values, Attitudes, and Moods and Emotions FALSE The terminal and instrumental values that are guiding principles in an individual's life are known as value systems. Figure 2. TRUE Levels of job satisfaction tend to increase as one moves up the hierarchy in an organization. TRUE Satisfied managers are more likely to go the extra mile for their organization or perform organizational citizenship behaviors OCBs —behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive advantage.
Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to perform these "above and beyond the call of duty" behaviors. FALSE A growing source of dissatisfaction for many lower- and middle-level managers, as well as for nonmanagerial employees, is the threat of unemployment and increased workloads from organizational downsizings and layoffs.
Organizations that try to improve their efficiency through restructuring and layoffs often eliminate a sizable number of first-line and middle management positions. This decision obviously hurts the managers who are laid off, and it also can reduce the job satisfaction levels of managers who remain.
TRUE Showing compassion and empathy for layoff victims, giving them as much advance notice as possible about the layoff, providing clear information about severance benefits, and helping layoff victims in their job search efforts are a few of the ways in which managers can humanely manage a layoff.
Essentials of Contemporary Management
TRUE Organizational commitment is likely to help managers perform some of their figurehead and spokesperson roles. It is much easier for a manager to persuade others both inside and outside the organization of the merits of what the organization has done and is seeking to accomplish if the manager truly believes in and is committed to the organization.
TRUE Differences in the levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among managers in different countries are likely because these managers have different kinds of opportunities and rewards and because they face different economic, political, and sociocultural forces in their organizations' general environments.
TRUE People who are high on extraversion are especially likely to experience positive moods; people who are high on negative affectivity are especially likely to experience negative moods. FALSE People's situations or circumstances also determine their moods; however, receiving a raise is likely to put most people in a good mood regardless of their personality traits. People who are high on negative affectivity are not always in a bad mood, and people who are low on extraversion still experience positive moods.
FALSE Emotions are more intense feelings than moods, are often directly linked to whatever caused the emotion, and are more short-lived.
However, once whatever has triggered the emotion has been dealt with, the feelings may linger in the form of a less intense mood. TRUE Research suggests that when people are in negative moods, they tend to be more detail- oriented and focused on the facts at hand.
Some studies suggest that critical thinking and devil's advocacy may be promoted by a negative mood, and sometimes especially accurate judgments may be made by managers in negative moods. FALSE Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage one's own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people.
Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence are more likely to understand how they are feeling and why, and they are more able to effectively manage their feelings. Emotional Intelligence TRUE Emotional intelligence helps managers perform their important roles such as their interpersonal roles. Understanding how your subordinates feel, why they feel that way, and how to manage these feelings is central to developing strong interpersonal bonds with them.
TRUE When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines and use them to achieve their goals, a strong organizational culture exists.
When organizational members are not strongly committed to a shared system of values, beliefs, and routines, organizational culture is weak. Organizational Culture TRUE Entrepreneurs who start their own companies are typically also the startups' top managers until the companies grow and become profitable.
Often referred to as the firms' founders, these managers literally create their organizations' cultures. The founders' personal characteristics play an important role in the creation of organizational culture.
TRUE The attraction-selection-attrition ASA framework, posits that when founders hire employees for their new ventures, they tend to be attracted to and choose employees whose personalities are similar to their own. These similar employees are more likely to stay with the organization. Although employees who are dissimilar in personality might be hired, they are more likely to leave the organization over time. FALSE Both terminal and instrumental values of managers play a role in determining organizational culture.
Managers who highly value freedom and equality, for example, might be likely to stress the importance of autonomy and empowerment in their organizations, as well as fair treatment for all. TRUE Shared terminal and instrumental values play a particularly important role in organizational culture. Terminal values signify what an organization and its employees are trying to accomplish, and instrumental values guide how the organization and its members achieve organizational goals.
Managers determine and shape organizational culture through the kinds of values and norms they promote in an organization. TRUE Organizational socialization is the process by which newcomers learn an organization's values and norms and acquire the work behaviors necessary to perform jobs effectively. Rites of integration, such as shared announcements of organizational successes, office parties, and company cookouts, build and reinforce common bonds among organizational members.
TRUE Rites of passage help in learning and internalizing norms and values. Rites of integration help in building common norms and values. Rites of enhancement help in motivating commitment to norms and values. Table 2. Stories whether fact or fiction about organizational heroes and villains and their actions provide important clues about values and norms.
FALSE Top managers in an organization with an innovative culture are likely to encourage lower-level managers to participate in the planning process and develop a flexible approach to planning. They are likely to be willing to listen to new ideas and to take risks involving the development of new products. In contrast, top managers in an organization with conservative values are likely to emphasize formal top-down planning. TRUE In an innovative culture, managers are likely to lead by example, encouraging employees to take risks and experiment.
They are supportive regardless of whether employees succeed or fail. All people, including managers, have certain enduring characteristics that influence how they think, feel, and behave both on and off the job. Extraversion, negative affectivity, tension, perfectionism, and self-reliance An individual's personality is composed of five general traits or characteristics: Researchers often consider these the Big Five personality traits.
Extraversion is the tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and feel good about oneself and the rest of the world. Managers who are high on extraversion tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing, and friendly.
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Managers who are low on extraversion tend to be less inclined toward social interactions and to have a less positive outlook. Managers who are high on extraversion often called extraverts tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing, and friendly. Managers who are low on extraversion often called introverts tend to be less inclined toward social interactions and to have a less positive outlook. Apply Difficulty: Negative affectivity is the tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, feel distressed, and be critical of oneself and others.
Managers who are low on negative affectivity do not tend to experience many negative emotions and moods and are less pessimistic and critical of themselves and others. Agreeableness is the tendency to get along well with others.
Managers who are high on the agreeableness continuum are likable, tend to be affectionate, and care about other people. Managers who are low on agreeableness may be somewhat distrustful of others, unsympathetic, uncooperative, and even at times antagonistic. Extraversion Conscientiousness is the tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering.
Negative affectivity Openness to experience is the tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring, and take risks. Managers who are high on this trait continuum may be especially likely to take risks and be innovative in their planning and decision making.
Managers who are low on openness to experience may be less prone to take risks and more conservative in their planning and decision making. Openness to experience is the tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring, and take risks. Some managers with an internal locus of control see the success of a whole organization resting on their shoulders.
People with an internal locus of control believe they themselves are responsible for their own fate; they see their own actions and behaviors as being major and decisive determinants of important outcomes such as attaining levels of job performance, being promoted, or being turned down for a choice job assignment.
People with an external locus of control believe that outside forces are responsible for what happens to and around them; they do not think their own actions make much of a difference.
As such, they tend not to intervene to try to change a situation or solve a problem, leaving it to someone else. Hedonism Self-esteem is the degree to which individuals feel good about themselves and their capabilities. People with high self-esteem believe they are competent, deserving, and capable of handling most situations.
Self-esteem is the degree to which individuals feel good about themselves and their capabilities. The need for achievement is the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.
People with a high need for achievement often set clear goals for themselves and like to receive performance feedback. The need for power is the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others. Attitudes Values, attitudes, and moods and emotions capture how managers experience their jobs as individuals.
Values describe what managers are trying to achieve through work and how they think they should behave. Terminal values often lead to the formation of norms, which are unwritten, informal codes of conduct, such as behaving honestly or courteously, that prescribe how people should act in particular situations and are considered important by most members of a group or organization.
Self-disciplined A sense of self-respect is an example of a terminal value. Being self-reliant, self-sufficient, self- controlled, and self-disciplined are examples of instrumental values. Like everyone else, managers have attitudes about their jobs and organizations, and these attitudes affect how they approach their jobs. Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs.
Managers who have high levels of job satisfaction generally like their jobs, feel they are fairly treated, and believe their jobs have many desirable features or characteristics. Satisfied managers may be more likely to go the extra mile for their organization or perform organizational citizenship behaviors OCBs —behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive advantage.
Understand Difficulty: Organizational commitment is the collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole. Managers who are committed to their organizations believe in what their organizations are doing, are proud of what these organizations stand for, and feel a high degree of loyalty toward their organizations. Self-efficacy A mood is a feeling or state of mind. When people are in a positive mood, they feel excited, enthusiastic, active, or elated.
Emotions are more intense feelings than moods, are often directly linked to whatever caused the emotion, and are more short-lived. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage one's own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people.
Emotional intelligence can help managers perform their important roles such as their interpersonal roles figurehead, leader, and liaison.
Understanding how the subordinates feel, why they feel that way, and how to manage these feelings is central to developing strong interpersonal bonds with them. In essence, organizational culture reflects the distinctive ways in which organizational members perform their jobs and relate to others inside and outside the organization.
Organizational structure Organizational culture comprises the shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals.
Socialization The attraction-selection-attrition ASA framework posits that when founders hire employees for their new ventures, they tend to be attracted to and choose employees whose personalities are similar to their own. Attitudes Shared terminal and instrumental values play a particularly important role in organizational culture.
Terminal values Shared terminal and instrumental values play a particularly important role in organizational culture. As a result of their socialization experiences, organizational members internalize an organization's values and norms and behave in accordance with them not only because they think they have to but because they think these values and norms describe the right and proper way to behave.
One of the ways in which managers can create or influence organizational culture is by developing organizational ceremonies and rites—formal events that recognize incidents of importance to the organization as a whole and to specific employees.
The most common rites that organizations use to transmit cultural norms and values to their members are rites of passage, of integration, and of enhancement.
These rites help the individuals to learn and internalize the norms and values of the organization. These rites help the organization to build common norms and values within their employees. Rites of enhancement, such as awards dinners, newspaper releases, and employee promotions, let organizations publicly recognize and reward employees' contributions and thus strengthen their commitment to organizational values.
By bonding members within the organization, rites of enhancement reinforce an organization's values and norms. Top managers in an organization with an innovative culture are likely to encourage lower-level managers to participate in the planning process and develop a flexible approach to planning. Suggestions from lower-level managers are likely to be subjected to a formal review process, which can significantly slow decision making.
Valuing creativity, managers in innovative cultures are likely to try to create an organic structure—one that is flat, with few levels in the hierarchy, and one in which authority is decentralized so employees are encouraged to work together to solve ongoing problems. A product team structure may be suitable for an organization with an innovative culture.
In contrast, managers in a conservative culture are likely to create a well-defined hierarchy of authority and establish clear reporting relationships so employees know exactly whom to report to and how to react to any problems that arise. In contrast, managers in a conservative culture are likely to use management by objectives and to constantly monitor subordinates' progress toward goals, overseeing their every move.
Managers who want to encourage risk taking, creativity, and innovation recognize that there are multiple potential paths to success and that failure must be accepted for creativity to thrive.
Thus they are less concerned about employees' performing their jobs in a specific, predetermined manner and in strict adherence to preset goals and more concerned about employees' being flexible and taking the initiative to come up with ideas for improving performance.
In contrast, managers in cultures that emphasize caution and maintenance of the status quo often set specific, difficult goals for employees, frequently monitor progress toward these goals, and develop a clear set of rules that employees are expected to adhere to. Personality traits refer to the enduring tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways.
Essentials of Contemporary Management Solutions Manual
The Big Five personality traits as identified by researchers are extraversion, negative affectivity, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Analytic Blooms: Managers who are high on extraversion extraverts tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing, and friendly. Managers who are low on extraversion introverts tend to be less inclined toward social interactions and to have a less positive outlook.
Being high on extraversion may be an asset for managers whose jobs entail especially high levels of social interaction. Managers who are low on extraversion may nevertheless be highly effective and efficient, especially when their jobs do not require much social interaction. The two kinds of personal values are terminal and instrumental. Terminal values often lead to the formation of norms. Upper managers, in general, tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than entry-level employees.
Managers' levels of job satisfaction can range from very low to very high. In general, it is desirable for managers to be satisfied with their jobs, for at least two reasons. First, satisfied managers may be more likely to go the extra mile for their organization or perform organizational citizenship behaviors—behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive advantage.
A second reason why it is desirable for managers to be satisfied with their jobs is that satisfied managers may be less likely to quit. Committed managers are more likely to go above and beyond the call of duty to help their company and are less likely to quit. Organizational commitment can be especially strong when employees and managers truly believe in organizational values; it also leads to a strong organizational culture. A mood is a feeling or state of mind.
Research has found that moods and emotions affect the behavior of managers and all members of an organization. For example, research suggests that the subordinates of managers who experience positive moods at work may perform at somewhat higher levels and be less likely to resign and leave the organization than the subordinates of managers who do not tend to be in a positive mood at work. Other research suggests that under certain conditions creativity might be enhanced by positive moods, whereas under other conditions negative moods might push people to work harder to come up with truly creative ideas.
Recognizing that both mood states have the potential to contribute to creativity in different ways, recent research suggests that employees may be especially likely to be creative to the extent that they experience both mood states at different times on the job and to the extent that the work environment is supportive of creativity. Research also suggests that moods and emotions may play an important role in ethical decision making. Positive emotions and moods signal that things are going well and thus can lead to more expansive, and even playful, thinking.
Negative emotions and moods signal that there are problems in need of attention and areas for improvement. So when people are in negative moods, they tend to be more detail-oriented and focused on the facts at hand.
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