H 264 PDF
Regarding these challenges, H/MPEG4. Advanced Video Coding (AVC) , as the latest entry of international video coding standards, has demonstrated. The latest video compression standard, H (also known as MPEG-4 Part Without compromising image quality, an H encoder can reduce the size of a . Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Richardson, Iain E. G.. The H advanced video compression standard / Iain E. Richardson. – 2nd ed.
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Mobility for H-Series multimedia systems and services ITU-T Recommendation H was approved by ITU-T Study Group 16 (). In force components. Number, Title, Status. H (04/17), Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services, In force. We give a tutorial on video coding principles and standards with emphasis on the latest technology called H or MPEG-4 part We describe a basic method called block-based hybrid coding employed by most video coding standards. This paper is suitable for those who are.
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Describes the type of Device Driver used. Details of the video network emulation setup and procedure used to obtain video sequences can be seen in . Table 1 shows the details of encoded parameters for video samples. In this method, two videos were shown to the observer, one the unimpaired reference video and the impaired test video. The reference video was made known to the observer and shown before the test video. The general arrangement of a test system for this method is shown in figure 1.
After viewing the both video sequence, the observer was asked to grade the test video compared to the reference. The grade scale used is given in table 2 and presentation of video sequence used in this experiment is shown in figure 2. Table 2.
Presentation sequence with duration used in experiment 3. Observer was seated directly in line with the center of the video display monitor at a specified distance, which was H where H is the height of the LCD screen. Details of LCD display device used during the experiment is provided in table 3. The sets of the video were evaluated in an experiment performed at the laboratory of Kathmandu University, Nepal. Observer taking part in the experiment were from the Department of Electrical and Electronics mostly students of undergraduates and faculty.
The subject pool consisted both male and female and each was tested for color blindness, this was performed using a Snellen chart , color blindness using Ishihara plates . Each observer was briefed about the test prior to the experiment with short training session of minutes.
This was done in order to stabilize the observers and data issued from this session was not included. Training session includes an explanation about what the observer are going to see, what they have to evaluate and how to evaluate the video with a different level of distortion. Distorted video sequences were shown in random order. Figure 3 shows the picture of laboratory setup for performing the subjective test experiment.
Table 3. Testbeds screen details Size Subjective test laboratory setup picture 3. Out of 34 observers one was found to be color blind and reading from him was not taken for the calculation. Data obtained from the observer was obtained was an integer value between 1 to 5 and need to be summarized using statistical techniques. If the value falls between 2 and 4 then the distribution is normal.
Scores provided by the observer was found to be close to the normal distribution. Secondly, the outlier detection was performed for each observer. If the score of observer deviates strongly from the average score for given presentation, then the observer was discarded. A maximum of 3 observers was discarded after performing this analysis.
Finally, after the filtration of raw data, mean opinion score MOS for each video sequence was evaluated, which is mathematically expressed in equation 1.
N Oij: For the normally distributed data with sample size N, MOSj and standard deviation Sj, CI is defined as , where is expressed in equation 2. Figure 4 shows the effect of packet drop over MOS for both high and low level of temporal variation in the video. The outcome shows that video with low temporal variation has better MOS over high temporal variation video. The plot also shows the CI result, as it can be seen from small confidence interval, the result obtained from different subjects are reliable and also variation between the score obtained from various subjects are very small.
Figure 4. Figure 5 and figure 6 demonstrate the result for both low and high motion video respectively. It shows that codec with high compression efficiency i.
The main reason behind this is due to the difference in a group of picture structure for a different encoded video sequence. Figure 5. MOS Vs. Packet drop for three different encoded video sequences High motion To analyze the effect of jitter on the video quality from a user perspective, few tests were made in which observer rated the video sequence with different level of jitter variation i.
The result shows that video with the high temporal aspect is more sensitive to increased jitter level compared to low temporal aspect video sequences. The experiment also shows that effect of jitter for video sequence encoded with different video codec when transmitted over the network.
Graphical representation plotted from the data obtained is shown in figure 8. The result shows that the video encoded with baseline profile of H. Result also shows that jitter has an almost negligible effect on all three encoded video sequences up to 10 ms of added jitter to the network after that H.
Also in presence of high jitter even other two encoded video sequences are affected equally. Figure 7. Effect of jitter over MOS for three different video codec 5. The results obtained is close to testing output obtained in our previous work using objective evaluation.
The obtained result shows that video encoded with H. However, in presence of network jitter, H. This clearly indicates that although newly developed codec H.
Klaue, B. Rathke and A. Ahmad, S. Wei, Y. Sun and Y. Zhang, "Video Transcoding: Rao, D. Kim and J. Hwang, Video coding standards: AVS China, H. Hingole, "H. A Primer on the H.
H : Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services
Tulu and S. Mandal and S. Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures," International Telecommunication Union , Geneva, Subjective video quality assessment methods for multimedia applications," International Telecommunication Union , Geneva, Guest, K. EI-Maleh and P.