HUMAN BRAIN PDF
This lesson introduces you to the most marvelous and mysterious part of your anatomy — the human brain. Many people never totally discover or exert the full. Understanding the Human Brain—a Major Challenge in Biology. The second half of the twentieth century was an exceptionally fruitful peri- od in biological. call it The Human Brain Project (HBP). We summarise the goal of the project as follows. The Human Brain Project should lay the technical foundations for a new .
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The human brain. ▫ An extension of the spinal cord which Largest part of the brain. ▫ Cerebellum (Latin: "little brain"): Coordination and control of voluntary. activity of neurons in the higher centres of the brain. Human central nervous system showing the brain and spinal cord. PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software. Your Brain Evolved Over Time. Human Brain. •Logic and reasoning. Mammalian Brain. •More complex feelings and reactions. Lizard Brain. •Basic functions.
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Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Pdf human brain 1. Protective Structures 3. Meninges Cerebral Hemispheres Functions of the Cerebral Cortex The functions of the Cerebral Cortex are localized according to the four lobes. They are named for the overlying cranial bones. Functions of the Cerebral Cortex The Parietal Lobe occupies the superior part of each hemisphere and lies posterior to the central nucleus Functions of the Cerebral Cortex The Temporal Lobe lies inferior the lateral sulcus snd folds under the hemi- sphere on each side.
Functions of the Cerebral Cortex The Occipital Lobe lies posterior to the parietal lobe and extends over the cerebellum. Functions of the Cerebral Cortex The Insula lies deep within each hemisphere and cannot be seen from the surface.
Communication areas of the lobes Broca Area — Responsible for spoken and written communication. Functions- Controls: Pituitary Gland Functions Helps to regulate: The Hippocampus The Brain Stem The brainstem is located in the anterior region below the cerebrum The Brain Stem Connects the cerebrum and the diencephalon with the spinal cord. The brainstem includes: The Midbrain The midbrain consists of centers that are concerned with aspects of vision and hearing.
Neuroanatomists study the large-scale structure of the brain as well as the microscopic structure of neurons and their components, especially synapses. Among other tools, they employ a plethora of stains that reveal neural structure, chemistry, and connectivity.
In recent years, the development of immunostaining techniques has allowed investigation of neurons that express specific sets of genes. Also, functional neuroanatomy uses medical imaging techniques to correlate variations in human brain structure with differences in cognition or behavior. Neurophysiologists study the chemical, pharmacological, and electrical properties of the brain: Thousands of experimentally developed drugs affect the nervous system, some in highly specific ways.
Recordings of brain activity can be made using electrodes, either glued to the scalp as in EEG studies, or implanted inside the brains of animals for extracellular recordings, which can detect action potentials generated by individual neurons.
The same techniques have occasionally been used to study brain activity in human patients suffering from intractable epilepsy , in cases where there was a medical necessity to implant electrodes to localize the brain area responsible for epileptic seizures. Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges , surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid , and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood—brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage.
In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret.
In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior. Computational neuroscience encompasses two approaches: On one hand, it is possible to write a computer program to simulate the operation of a group of neurons by making use of systems of equations that describe their electrochemical activity; such simulations are known as biologically realistic neural networks.
On the other hand, it is possible to study algorithms for neural computation by simulating, or mathematically analyzing, the operations of simplified "units" that have some of the properties of neurons but abstract out much of their biological complexity.
The computational functions of the brain are studied both by computer scientists and neuroscientists. Computational neurogenetic modeling is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes.
Recent years have seen increasing applications of genetic and genomic techniques to the study of the brain  and a focus on the roles of neurotrophic factors and physical activity in neuroplasticity. It is now possible with relative ease to "knock out" or mutate a wide variety of genes, and then examine the effects on brain function. More sophisticated approaches are also being used: The oldest brain to have been discovered was in Armenia in the Areni-1 cave complex.
The brain, estimated to be over 5, years old, was found in the skull of a 12 to year-old girl. Although the brains were shriveled, they were well preserved due to the climate found inside the cave. Early philosophers were divided as to whether the seat of the soul lies in the brain or heart. Aristotle favored the heart, and thought that the function of the brain was merely to cool the blood.
Democritus, the inventor of the atomic theory of matter, argued for a three-part soul, with intellect in the head, emotion in the heart, and lust near the liver. Men ought to know that from nothing else but the brain come joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, griefs, despondency, and lamentations.
And by the same organ we become mad and delirious, and fears and terrors assail us, some by night, and some by day, and dreams and untimely wanderings, and cares that are not suitable, and ignorance of present circumstances, desuetude, and unskillfulness.
All these things we endure from the brain, when it is not healthy The Roman physician Galen also argued for the importance of the brain, and theorized in some depth about how it might work. Galen traced out the anatomical relationships among brain, nerves, and muscles, demonstrating that all muscles in the body are connected to the brain through a branching network of nerves. He postulated that nerves activate muscles mechanically by carrying a mysterious substance he called pneumata psychikon , usually translated as "animal spirits".
Descartes, like Galen, thought of the nervous system in hydraulic terms.
He believed that the highest cognitive functions are carried out by a non-physical res cogitans , but that the majority of behaviors of humans, and all behaviors of animals, could be explained mechanistically.
The first real progress toward a modern understanding of nervous function, though, came from the investigations of Luigi Galvani — , who discovered that a shock of static electricity applied to an exposed nerve of a dead frog could cause its leg to contract.
Since that time, each major advance in understanding has followed more or less directly from the development of a new technique of investigation. Until the early years of the 20th century, the most important advances were derived from new methods for staining cells.
Without such a stain, brain tissue under a microscope appears as an impenetrable tangle of protoplasmic fibers, in which it is impossible to determine any structure. In the first half of the 20th century, advances in electronics enabled investigation of the electrical properties of nerve cells, culminating in work by Alan Hodgkin , Andrew Huxley , and others on the biophysics of the action potential, and the work of Bernard Katz and others on the electrochemistry of the synapse.
Reflecting the new understanding, in Charles Sherrington visualized the workings of the brain waking from sleep:. The great topmost sheet of the mass, that where hardly a light had twinkled or moved, becomes now a sparkling field of rhythmic flashing points with trains of traveling sparks hurrying hither and thither. The brain is waking and with it the mind is returning.
It is as if the Milky Way entered upon some cosmic dance. Swiftly the head mass becomes an enchanted loom where millions of flashing shuttles weave a dissolving pattern, always a meaningful pattern though never an abiding one; a shifting harmony of subpatterns. The invention of electronic computers in the s, along with the development of mathematical information theory , led to a realization that brains can potentially be understood as information processing systems.
This concept formed the basis of the field of cybernetics , and eventually gave rise to the field now known as computational neuroscience. One of the most influential early contributions was a paper titled What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain: Theorists have worked to understand these response patterns by constructing mathematical models of neurons and neural networks , which can be simulated using computers.
The essential difficulty is that sophisticated computation by neural networks requires distributed processing in which hundreds or thousands of neurons work cooperatively—current methods of brain activity recording are only capable of isolating action potentials from a few dozen neurons at a time.
Furthermore, even single neurons appear to be complex and capable of performing computations. However, the Human Brain Project is trying to build a realistic, detailed computational model of the entire human brain.
The wisdom of this approach has been publicly contested, with high-profile scientists on both sides of the argument. In the second half of the 20th century, developments in chemistry, electron microscopy, genetics, computer science, functional brain imaging, and other fields progressively opened new windows into brain structure and function. In the United States, the s were officially designated as the " Decade of the Brain " to commemorate advances made in brain research, and to promote funding for such research.
In the 21st century, these trends have continued, and several new approaches have come into prominence, including multielectrode recording , which allows the activity of many brain cells to be recorded all at the same time;  genetic engineering , which allows molecular components of the brain to be altered experimentally;  genomics , which allows variations in brain structure to be correlated with variations in DNA properties  and neuroimaging. Animal brains are used as food in numerous cuisines.
Some archaeological evidence suggests that the mourning rituals of European Neanderthals also involved the consumption of the brain. The Fore people of Papua New Guinea are known to eat human brains. In funerary rituals, those close to the dead would eat the brain of the deceased to create a sense of immortality. A prion disease called kuru has been traced to this.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the brains of all types of animals, including humans. For information specific to the human brain, see Human brain. For other uses, see Brain disambiguation and Brains disambiguation. Not to be confused with Brane or Brian. A common chimpanzee brain. Main article: Evolution of the brain. See also: List of regions in the human brain. Human brain. Neural development.
History of neuroscience. Brain—computer interface Central nervous system disease List of neuroscience databases Neurological disorder Optogenetics Outline of neuroscience.
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HUMAN BRAIN FUNCTION
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